Skip to main content

Full text of "The Bible of every land : a history of the Sacred Scriptures in every language and dialect into which translations have been made : illustrated with specimen portions in native characters .."

See other formats

€k liMr nf f dph) %ul 


Ctip liWr of f DPin %ml 







Series af ^Ipl^abets; 









My Lord, 

It is with peculiar pleasure I avail myself of the 
permission to dedicate the " Bible of Every Land" to your Grace. 

The high honour of having extensively promoted the general 
spread of the Sacred Scriptures belongs in an especial manner to your Grace, 
and renders the association of this Work with your Grace's name truly 

I rejoice in placing my humble effort in the same great cause 
mader your Grace's patronage. 

My gratitude for this distinguished favour, so kindly bestowed, will 
increase my endeavour to attain the highest possible degree of completeness 
and accuracy in the prosecution of the Work. 

I have the honour to subscribe myself,. 

My Lord, 

Your Grace's much obliged 

and very humble Servant, 


15, Paternoster Row, 1848. 

C U iN 'T E N T 8 

Prefatory Remarks .....■■■ ^^ 

A Classified List of the Languages into which the Scriptures have been translated . . xi 

An Alphabetical List of Typographical Specimens . . . ■ . xm 
The Plates of Engraved Specimens 

An Expository Description of all the Ethnographical Maps . . . • xvii 

The Comparative Series of Alphabets . . . • • • xxix 

Alphabetical Index to the Memoirs of the Versions . . . . Ixi 

MAP lUusuatiVf o) the UONOSTLLABIC Languai^es 
Memoirs of Class I. — The Chinese Languages . . . . • 1 

MAP sboniog tbs Extension of the SHBUITIC Langnages 
Memoirs of Class IL — The Shemitic Languages . . . .19 

MAP Ulnstrative of tUe MEDO-PEBSIAN Family. 
Memoirs of Class III. — Medo-Persian Family ..... 51 

UAP illostrative of tbe SANSGBIT Family. 

Memoirs of Class III. — Sanscrit FamOy . . . • . tl 

MAP of EDBOPE, showing the Distribution Of the CELTIC, TEUTONIC. GRECO LATIN. THRACO 
ILL7BIAN, and SCLAVONIC Families. 

Memoirs of Class III.— Celtic Family . . . ■ • 129 

Teutonic Family . . • ■ .14/ 

Greco-Latin Family . . . • • 189 


Memoirs of Class III.— Tliraco-Illyrian Family . 



Sclavomc Family ..-•-• 240 

MAi* ot ilie FlNNdTARTABIAN FiimUv ol Ijanifua^At^ 

Memoirs of Class IV. — Euskarian Family ...-•- 261 

Finnisli FamUy ....-- 264 

Tungusian Family ...--• 277 

Mongolian Family ...-•• 279 
Turkisli FamUy . - - - .282 

Caucasian Family . . . - - 293 

Samoiede Family ...... 295 

Eastern Asian and Corean Languages .... 296 

MAP lUustrative uf lb« FOLVNESIAN aad NE6RITIAN LauguuKee 

Memoirs of Class V. — Polynesian Languages ...... 299 

MAP sbowins tbe DistribntiOD ot the Native Languages of AFBICA 

Memoirs of Class VI. — African Languages ..... 326 

MAP of the Languages of NORTH and SOOTH AMERICA 

Memoirs of Class VII. — American Languages ... . . . . 359 

Memoirs of Class VIII.— Mixed or Patois Languages .... 394 

MAP f-jchihitins the ancient Diffnaion of the HEBREW Languages 

Supplementary Memoir of the wide Diffusion of the Hebrew Language . . . (1) 

Supplementary Information of the Versions generally .... (5) 
A Classified Table of the Lang\iages of the entire Earth, illustrating the necessity for continued 

exertion in the spread of the Scriptures ...... (10) 


It is remarkable that, among all the branches of history, religious, political, social, 
literary, and scientific, which have from time to time obtained such numerous and such 
able exponents, the history of the Oracles of God has hitherto, in the form at least of a 
complete and unbroken narrative, remained unwi'itten. The materials for such a work 
have, however, been accumulating from century to century ; fragmentary portions of this 
history enter into the composition of many profound and learned treatises, while facts 
and incidents connected with or illustrative of the subject have been supplied even to 
profusion by writers of almost every age, creed, and nation. To collect from all 
sources, ancient and modern, the multitudinous detads bearing on that history which 
above all others involves the temporal and eternal interests of mankind, and thus to 
produce a clear and condensed account of the means by which the Scriptures were 
transmitted from generation to generation, — of the circumstances under which they 
have been translated into the predominant languages of every land, — and of the 
agencies by which copies of the inspired writings in these divers languages have been 
multiplied and dispersed among the nations and tribes and kindreds of the earth, — is 
the object of the present work. 

The arrangement of the whole work is in strict conformity with the latest dis- 
coveries in ethnology ; for, although the one grand object of displaying the history of 
the Scriptures has never been departed from in these joages, the origin and condition 
of the nations to whom special versions have been vouchsafed, and the distinguishing 
characteristics of the languages into which have been transferred the words of Him 
who " spake as never man spake," have passed under careful review. 

The elements of these languages, the stock or stocks from which they sprang, and 
their affiliation with other languages, have been examined more or less in detail; and 
the singular precision with which all languages range themselves, according to the 
order of their mutual affinities, into classes, families, and subdivisions, is exhibited by 
means of our Tables of Classification, perhaps the first of the kind compiled in our 

The work has thus in some degree assumed the character of an ethnological manual, 
and as such it may possibly prove a stepping-stone to those who desire to pass from 


the study of two or three isolated languages to the enlarged consideration of lan- 
guage in general, and of the laws upon which all languages are constructed. Such 
investigations, if laboriously, patiently, and honestly conducted, can lead but to one 
result, the affinities by which families and even classes of languages are hnked 
together being so close and intimate, that the more deeply they are examined, the 
more profound becomes the conviction of the truth of the theory respecting the original 
unity of language. 

This volume is illustrated by specimen portions of all the extant and attainable 
versions of the Scriptures, printed in theii' own proper characters. 

The maps appertaining to the several sections of the work exhibit the geogra- 
phical location and extent of each language, and likewise show how far the divine 
light of the Holy Scriptures, in the vernacular languages of the natives, shmes over 
the world. 

It has been attempted, also, from the mass of missionary and epistolary evidence 
existing, to draw conclusions respecting the effects which may have followed the perusal 
of special versions of the Scriptures. All reasonings on this subject, however, even with 
the most ample opportunities of forming as far as possible a correct judgment, can at 
best be but approximations towards the truth. Known only to God is the number of 
His spiritual worshippers. The Word of God is still quick and powerful, in every 
tongue and among every nation, and it cannot return unto Him void: therefore let 
us " in the morning sow our seed, and in the evening withhold not our hand." The 
question which shall prosper, this or that, or whether thej^ shall both alike be good, is 
one of the secret things which belong unto the Lord most High. 

The Publishers would fain express their deep obligation, indi\idually, to the 
numerous friends who have taken part in the preparation of this laborious work, were 
such an enumeration suitable ; but they cannot refrain from recording the particular 
value of the aid afforded by the British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible 
Society, the Missionary Societies of this country and of America. They would also 
render a becoming tribute to the munificence of the Emperor of Austria, who has been 
pleased to supply, for the due completion of this work, the entire series of Native 
Alphabets with which it is enriched. 

London, 15, Paternoster Roto, 1851. 







Chinese Peguese, Talain, or Mon 

Burmese Karen 

Arakanese or Ruhheng Munipoora 

Siamese Khassee 

Laos or Law Tibetan 

Cambojan Lepcha. 




Hebrew ofthe Old Test. 


Hebrew of the New Test. 



Mogrebin or African 







Modem Syriac 





A. JIedo-Persian 






Pushtoo or Affghan 


Belochee or Bulochee 

Oojein or Oujjuyimee 

Ancient Armenian 


Modern Armenian 


Ararat- Armenian 







B. Sansceit Family. 






Hindustani or Urdu 

Tirhitiya or Mithili 



Bruj or Brij-bhasa 

Uriya or Orissa 

Canoj or Canyacubja 


Kousulu or Koshala 


Class hi. — Indo-Ettkopean — (continued). 

Moultan, Wuch, or Ooch 

Punjabee or Sikh 

Dogura or Jumboo 


Nepalese or Khaspoora 



Gurwhal or Schreenagur 




Rommany or Gipsy 

Tamul or Tamil 

Telinga or Teloogoo 

Kamata or Canarese 





C. Celtic Family. 





Breton or Armorican. 

D. Teutonic Family. 


Ancient Low Saxon 





Alemannic or Old High 


Norse or Icelandic 


E. Greco-Latin Family. 
Ancient Greek 
Modem Greek 
Daco-Romana or Wal- 

Provencal or Romaunt 
Romanese or Upper and 

Lower Enghadine 
Dialect of Toulouse. 

P. Thraco-Illyrian 


G. Sclavonic Family. 

Lettish or Livonian 
Wendish, Upper 
Wendish, Lower 
Wendish, Hungarian 

Croatian or Dalmatian- 




A. EnsKAKiAN Family. 

French Basque 
Spanish Basque or 

B. Finnish Family. 

Finnish Proper 


Quanian or Norwegian 


Dorpat Esthonian 
Eeval Esthonian 
Mordvinian or !Morduin 
Zirian or Sirenian 

Ostiacan or Ostjakian 
Wotagian or Wotjakian. 

C. TuNGusiAN Family. 

Tungusian Proper. 

D. jMongolian Family. 
Mongolian Proper 

E. Turkish Family. 

Karass or Turkish Tartar 
Orenburg!! Tartar 
Crimean Tartar 
Trans-Caucasian Tartar 

F. Caucasian Family. 

G. Samoiede Family. 

H. Dialects of the Is- 
lands ofEastern Asia, 
AND or Corea. 





Low Malay 













New Zealand or Maori 


New South Wales, 













Yarriba or Yoruba 







Ashantee or Odjii 
















Massachusett Indian 




Chippeway or Ojibway 












Dacota or Sioux 










Peruvian or Quichua 




Karif or Carib 




Maltese Negro Dialect of 

Judeo- Spanish Surinam 

Jewish-German Negro Dialect of 

Judeo-Polish Curacoa 

Creolese Indo-Portuguese. 






Accra . 


Chippeway . 


Fernandian . 


Greenlandish, 1799 






Finnish . 




Affghan . 


Cingalese plate vi 




Gujerattee plate v 






French . 




Cree . 


Le Frevre's Version 


riAKAEi plate rv 




Creolese . 


Olivetan's „ 


Harrotee . 






Geneva „ 




Ancient Greek 


Cutchee or Catchee . 


De Sacy's „ 


Hebrew . 


Anglo-Saxon . 


JJacO - ROMANA or 

Ostervald's „ 


New Test., Green 



Swiss „ 


field's Version 




AVallachian plate vi 229 

French Basque 


Society's „ 


Armenian : 

Dacota or Sioux 


Hindustani . 




Dajak . 




In the Devanigari 

Ararat . 




Galla . 


character . 






Georgian : plate vs. 


In Roman 



plate XI 


Dorpat Esthonian . 


Civil character 






Ecclesiastical „ 


Hungarian . 




Dutch . 


German : 

„ Wendish 


Basque French . 
„ Spanish 



Luther, Leipsic, 182 
Van Ess, Sulbach 





plate Ti 


Wiclif, 1380 
Tyndale, 1534 . 


Gosner, Munich, 


Indo-Portuguese . 
Irish : 




Coverdale, 1535 . 
Matthew, 1537 . 


1836 . 


In Irish character 





In Roman 



plate vm 


Cranmer, 1539 
Tavemer, 1549 


Munster, 1848 . 


Italian : 



plate vm 
plate I 


Geneva, 1557 
Bishops', 1568 . 


Gipsy . 
Gothic . 


Jlalermi's Version 
Diodati's „ 


Rheims, 1582 


Grebo . 


Martini's „ 




Douay, 1847 . 


Greek, Ancient : 


plate vni 
plate VI 


Authorised, 1611 . 
Blayney, 1769 . 


Textus Receptus . 
Griesbach, with va- 


Japanese plate x 
Javanese plate xi 




Esquimaux . 


rious readings . 


Jewish-German . 



plate V 


Esthonian, Dorpat . 

Reval . 
Ethiopic . 



Greek, Modern : 


Judaeo-PersiD . 


Catalan or 



Maximus Calliopoli- 

Judco-Spanish : 

Chaldee . 




tan's Version, 1638 201 

Old Testament, with 



Feejeean . 


Hilarion's „ 


Hebrew Original 




Judeo-Spanish (conf) : 
New Testament . 397 

-Kaeame-Taetae 290 
Karass : 
Seaman's Version, 

1666 . . 287 

Brmiton's Version, 
1813 . . 287 
Karelian plate vm 271 I 
Karen, Sgau plate xi 13 I 
„ Sho or Pwo 

plate XI 13 I 
KariforCarib 391 I 

Karnata plate n 
Katchi plate v 

Khaspoora . . ; 
Khassee plate j 
In Roman plate rn 
Kmikuna . . ] 

Kurdish plate iv 

Looehooan plate x 





plate IV 98 



Latin Versions of the 
Old Testament : 

Version . 
Vulgate Version 
Pagninus's „ 
Munster's „ 
Leo Juda's „ 
Castalio's „ 
Junius and Tremel- 

lius's „ 
Schmidt's „ 
Dathe's „ 
Latin Versions of the 
New Testament : 

Erasmus's Version 
Beza's ,, 

Castalio's „ 
Schmidt's „ 
Sebastian's „ 
Schott's „ 
Goeschen's „ 
Lettish or Llvonian 257 


plate XI 18 

I Malayalim 

I alphabets (xlix) 124 

Malayan : 
Eoman,Oxford, 1677 300 
„ Brower, 1668 301 
Arabic, Calcutta, 

1817 . . 299 
Arabic, Robinson's, 

1823 . . 305 
Roman, Serampore, 

1814 . . 303 
Arabic, Singapore, 
1831 . . 304 


alphabets (1) 128 
Maltese, 1829 . 394 
1847 . 395 

Mandingo . . 334 
Manks . . .142 
Mantchou plate ix 277 
Maratlii . . jo7 
Massachusett . . 366 
Mayan . . ggg 

Mexican . . _ 283 
Modern Greek . 200 
Mohawk 375 


alphabets (Iv) 279 
Mongrebin, or Airioan 

or Moorish Arabic 43 
Mordvinian plate x 274 
Mosquito . . 387 
Moultan or Wuch 

alphabets (xliv) 100 

plate IV 76 

ll AMACQHA . . 354 

Napalese or Khaspoora 103 
New Zealand . 318 

Norse . . _ 277 


Old Saxon . 




alphabets (xxxv) 51 
Persian . . .51 
Piedmontese . 234 

Polish . . . 246 
Portuguese : 

Almeida's Version 22; 
Pereera's „ 22J 

Boy's „ 22; 

Provencal or Romaunt 
Lyons MS. . . 23( 
Paris MS. [8086] 23C 
Paris MS. [6833] 230 
Dublin MS. . 231 
Grenoble MS. . 231 
Zurich MS. . 231 
Pushtoo . . 58 

-Kaeotonga . . 314 
Reval Esthonian . 273 
Romanese or Upper and 

Lower Enghadine 235 
Eommany . _ 222 
Russian plate yn 244 


Sanscrit . 


. 28 
. 260 
. 71 
Dr. Carey's Version 74 
Saxon, Old . . 152 
Sclavonian plate vn 240 
Sechuana . . 343 

Servian plate vu 250 

Siamese . . 20 

Sindhee alphabets (xliv) 99 
Sioux . . . 382 
Sirenian plate yni 274 
Sisuta or Sesuto . 350 
Spanish : 
Eeyna's Version . 220 
Scio's „ 220 

Amat's „ 220 

Spanish Basque . 263 



Surinam Negro- 
English . 
Susoo . 
Swedish . 
Syriac, Peshito . 
„ Philoxenian 
Syro-Chaldaic plate a 37 

J-AHITIAN . .312 

Tamul plate V 113 

Telinga plate iv 118 

Tibetan plate n 17 
Tigre • . . 47 

Tongan . . _ gjg 
Toulouse . . 238 


Tartar . . 292 
Tscheremissian;jtoex 274 
Tschuwascluan;)/a?eix 291 
Tiu-kish . . 282 
Turkish-Armenian . 286 
Turkish-Tartar : 

Seaman's Ver. 1666 287 

Brunton's „ I8I3 287 

Turko-Greek . 285 

Drdo . 



. 78 
plate TV 98 

. 365 

VV A1.LACBIAN plate VI 229 
Welsh ; 

Salisbury's Version, 

1567 . . 229 
Dr. W. Morgan's 

Version, 1588 . 129 
Bishop Parry's Ver- 
sion, 1620 . 129 
Wendish or Sorabic, 

Upper and Lower 255 
Wendish, Hungarian 257 



ZiEiAN plate vm 274 









1%^ \i\ 

It K) 

KJ o 

N3« Is? 7- 

p "^ "^ 




ti /w 



r 1^ 


^ ~- . 

P; Y) /W 

1^ ^ 32 

1? B {?,' 


00 -^ 

^ i? B 

i t^ ^ 

1^ DO 1^ 





/w re 

?3 KO 









00 " 

B P 

00 Y) 

w -^ 

[^ ^^ 

^ To 

■r -f , 

g^. P 

t7- R 

E ^ 

V P 
















■ o 





^ eg B^^^'^^^ ^ ^^ pec 

-o S3 ^ G^ L^ CO- ° ^ccF^crr 8 8 CP 

^ t^ 8 8 

f f ^^ 

8 S^"^ 

(B3 ^ § ^ 

^ h 8 8 

o. O p o 

8 ^ 

1^ f 

S"^°R 8 8 

~^ fv 0^ 

(Ti (a 

n < 

I ^ 


^ ^ t^ 

I — 

-<? ^ ^; 

C3^ C^ LJ 

'^ :j .b . 



[«_ M^ K 

U /LT c^ ^d 

f3 :^ ^ 
u -^ ^ 

^ ^ ^ 




Consisting of St. Matthew, chap. V. v. 1 to 12. 

' Haba u ioh ih ia ki paitbah, u la kiu sha u liim ; haba u la shong ruli, ki la wan ha 
u ki synran jong u : '^ ii la ang ruh ia la ka shintur, u la hikai ruh ia ki, u da ong, 

^ Suk ki ba duk ha ka mynsiim ; na ba jong ki long ka hima ka byneng. * Suk ki ba 
sngousi ; na ba yn pyntyngen ia ki. '' Suk ki ba jemniit ; na ba kin ioh ia ka kyndeu. 
" Suk ki ba tyngan bad ba sliang ia ka hok ; naba yn pyndap ia ki. ^ Suk ki ba isnei ; 
na ba yn isnei ia ki. " Suk ki bakiiid ha ca doniit ; na ba kin ioh ih ia U Blei. ' Suk 
ki ba pyniasuk ; na ba yn khot ia ki, ki kiln U Blei. '" Suk ki ba ioh pynshitom na ka 
bynta ka hok ; na ba jong ki long ki hima ka byneng. " Suk maphi, ha ba ki leh bein ia 
phi, ki pynshitom ruh, ki ong ki ktin bymman baroh ruh ia phi na ka bynta jong nga, ha 
ba ki shu lamlher : '^ Phin kymen, phin sngoubha eh ruh ; naba kumta ki la pynshitom 
ia ki Prophet ki ba la mynshiwa jong phi. 


The system of substituting Roman letters for the native characters of Indian alphabets in printed 
editions of the Scriptures and of other books, has of late years been extensively adopted in India ; 
and the advantages of this system, especially with reference to the Khassee (which in the former 
edition of the New Testament had been printed in Bengalee characters, see Specimen, Part I), 
cannot be better stated than in the words of an eminent Missionary, Dr. Duff, of Calcutta. In a 
letter addressed to Mr. Jones, the Missionary of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Society at Clierra, 
when the first books used in connection with the mission were about to be published, tlie doctor 
thus writes— 

" Thoroughly and absolutely do 1 approve of your determination to print your translated works 
in the Roman characters. It is a strange delusion of Satan that men should strive to uphold varieties 
of alphabetic characters anywhere, provided they could without violence be superseded by one, at 
once uniform and effective, seeing that sucli variety is a prodigious bar and impediment to the 
diffusion of sound knowledge, and especially Divine truth. But, In a case like yours, where the 
natives had really no written characters of their own at all, to dream of Introducing a clumsy, 
awkward, expensive, and Imperfect character like that of the Bengali, in preference to the clear, 
precise, and cheaper romanlsed alphabet, would seem to me to be voluntarily raising up new ramparts 
to guard against the invasion of Truth. No, our object ought ever to be to facilitate, and not to 
obstruct, the dissemination of true knowledge of every kind; and one of the ways of doing so is 
everywhere to encourage the introduction and the use of the Roman alphabet In place of the native 
alphabets, which are linked, and associated, and saturated with all that is idolatrous." 

1000 copies of the Gospel of St. Matthew have been carried through the press by the Calcutta 
Bible Society, and the book of Acts has been prepared.' 

' Rciiorts 1847, p- 90 ; isis, p. SI. 

2 o7 '^ o; 

^"^ CS'^ ft 

CJJ ;:r UJ O 

ci> o a s 

_ tf "^ ^ 

fSJ G ^ S 

qf or W C£ 

(i« ^ G) o 

=r ^ ^ ^ 

2 or Cf ^ 

^ c? ^ ^ 

c^ y '^ cr 

fSJ G^ CrS) (TV/ 

^ ^ ?^ 

^ C? Q' CP 

o ^ gr^ 

^ w GS^ 0^ 

^ f:?. c» ^ 

0" Gf V 



V S ^ ^ pw 

cs „ 9r c?^ CD 









CP CJ " 

r^ ^ '^ 

Co _ 

Zi ^ ^ 


CP C°l 0: 

C?» 09 ^^ 

^ » rr 

CS & ^ 

^ ?:J S. 


G^ C^ ^ 

- CO, -x c® - 

7^ cf' ^ ^ cr 

g 3' ^ g ^ o 

Cf ©/ (5 p^ O oj 

w CO ^ cp Cs 

^ C (-W ? (^ Cf 

& ^^ o s o 

O" fn CD ^ 

C?^^iZ? ^ C3) (g- & 

Ci) g* P 

c>A Or G^ G" or ^ 

Ci) Q- C5 C5 CO O 

o: CO O Cs '~ 

Cii Co 

Ce Cs 

<3 ^ 

C5 Cfe 

^ C? 07 


Co Ol O CD CO 



^ g fe 

^ fl3 


p-a V3 ^ 

03 ^ (J 
«B fO £) 

Vo Vt V3 


fe ii £ 





f ^ ^ ^- ^-3 '^ i;^ I ^ 





c <=! 

V K 


-i' '^ 3 ^ 


41 .> "^^ 


-«>> ^ > ^1 '" 

< : - 

a. i J- 
s 6 

'8 n« « Q Q ;i. o 

R R 8 8 8 
^8 8 p _^ 8 



^8 o 


CJ ' ^ r::*- r^ 

8 ^8 

8 ^8 N § 8 g 8 ^ 

g"°8o^^ 8 o| ^ ^ 

R^o3 S COQ 5 

?G»~ o 8 

■^ § § 

°8 R 8 

a 8 ' 

°8^0 a-°8^8 3 

S 8 s ^ 
5 °8^ ^■ 





















































































« p' f* y 

1? IS 

•1^ "E 
IT ^' 

r '^ 
V r 


in "■ 
;V K5 !E 

f 1^ 

K' ^' 





tr ^ 
r tr t^ 




V rr j(' IT 

g: > 5 ^t ^tf 

5 <T- •;} V '^ 

s S ^ ^ •? 

> 5 

(If ^ 

o5 ^? °?^ 

> ? * 

^ 7: ^ 

°? ^^ 

g) 3' iv 

CT^ rV T? 

>« ?* 


«. 3 
a- '8 

s t 

S :j 33 t fc 

fe 3 

«l « 

'^ a *' 

.1? «3 

3 " 

s S 

'S Ki Mj '■'61 tfi Ck 


(^ isk 

fc a 

3 ^ 

r, ^ 

; :? i sv ^ ^ "«^ 

Q 9 


J >6 


•fc t 
3 « 


k=3 ^ 


3- 3" 9 





fc t 

3 ^ 
% G 



S 3 

33 '^ * 

3 « 

•3 2 


3 ^ I 
'J ? «. 


tr ^ 

VX3 b- ^ 
<? '=Q «* 

>? I2 ^ 


'^ rn ^o ^ J 

(Day ® 



io V B 

'VO ^ G^ if) 
K-t? 15 O b fe fe ^ 

8 & fe 

Cd ^ 


c\ K) GO iV . _ 


» ?) 


D 8 CT'C C(Sffl*^t3D mrass 

•^OB to®*© i« '0«i) g tf) if) a 

®'^ So 5 
G S^ 8 

a 8OTC 
(D 10 ay c 

« « so 


2^ &^ 55 



w ? 

J X ie 
? < • 

-^ 3 'S 

T X 'S.'*' -3 

ii M 

13 .X -r ,^ 

< fi.^.E-§ 

t. "S '« 



— •ox 

-:'5 < 

• ? « s 

-O ^W "ID -d 

< I < r 

J i -! = " ^ 

?4: 5E' 

£■ < 

=! «, -o •« 

,•5 ■<•> ' 

■to e- "8 ^-s ,^ 

:i f- •o -o < ? 

•» (- 

;^ f- 

f -10 

c X -"e- 

ii X •» 

•D < 

X •■^■cS 



(- 3 

H J 


X >5 <? 

"? ns r< 

<e 3 

T-i CM fO 

O iJ A 


p ° 

S ^ 

S S S o o 4a e 
S O ;*; ta -5 OS S 


i! £ 

.^ o 

1 o to 

5 ^ 

O 2: 

a5 5^ o *• 

s" ir- £ 
c S c 

S Q 

„- = E 

CO t- 

t= 4avg 

a^ I >-. 


E H 

i- o ^ .2; 

2 Wo 

3; iJ 

E a 

E us -^ 


ri X 

S o 

s ii' S 

-t s 

■-§ i 

^ ^ « s 
5 o 

5 r= S S 


VO C 9" S o S 

CO 04 

« 13 C o 


« o "■ ■■ 

■^ Oh 

S e 

2 s S» s'' 

£S ;r — P^ 


E « 3 >a 

S 4a ^ 40 ni 

to «5 ^ m « 

u t^ O c^ o 

2 t- 

ir 2 

c« z 

tfi s 


^ o 
o fc- 

HP U3 

z _ 

• C3 CO 

" fc- 

fc- < < 

■*, JO ^ 

= tr H? 

ifl •; ifl I. lO 

" L: O - •" v> 

C« f = 

i" ^ w z -o 

LU -^ "5 :^ ,^ "0 ^P 

o 3 - 5^ -< 2 

o £ "5 



3 t- 

- !^ 

'= '-C 5 

^c_ CO . <■ t- 

CO '^ , — s; „ 

3 -i fe- o 3- « 

^-^^ 'ltd 

id „ 

o 3 S- 


Z T 3~z •" 

CS i 

t<i " 
•o z 

— £ 

0^-0 .,■; 

<'^ o>z^T 3~z :^< 2 o 3 

3 o :-. cc^i ir^s 3v- I g 

«^ ?! 3" 

2 Z 

£.i 3 

ri *0 

s vo 

s t 


2 « 


e 5 1 


0: S ''" 

^ « 



S pa 

« c ^ 

^ ^. 

g ,a 

4a 2 

3 J £ 

X o 2 


N to ID "5 

- ^ ^ O s r* •fo 
ia a ■- :« S < 

2 "^ 

K :: 

• ^ "^ s 

■!^ . » . 
■a 5 

4" 0^ jQ z 

oi i^ s ii 

-a T « s P 


5 c 

^a u 
S ra 

» -a 
O vo 

d 2 s" 
t vo 

s a 

g =a C 

s a 

r^ £ £ 
^ ^ ra 
o S S 


r s 


ft- . Vc 

^ ^ z ;t P- . — 0^ 

C o = 4= > Z .Z 

S c -g f g * z 

!o i- o o s 5 2 

5 C ft, ph " »S 

:= ^ ^ z z g^ 

^ S = « S 3 S 

o o >-. 

32 -: S ;o 5. 

=a 0; 

Oh ^ ;^. E 

►^£ J^ ^ 

— ,^3 <: w 



3 2 

To *-^ 


^ 5 f^ 


-i E- 
f? IS •-*. 

S =• s 

= =4 ^ 

~ 8- o 

S o ^ 


"^ ^ "^ 

t- ■ 'O . 

-a ^ 

=. r<j ^ M r, _ 


5 3- iJ ^ 

E- ^ 

o ^ 

f- ^ 

M = 
■-• S3 

P -« 

S .0 < 

^. ^ s 

E- !£ 

c<3 ca 

-fa ffl • 

"J E- 

S =a ^ 

« -M "^ 
O 5 

< . E- 





1 « 



3 f^ 


< s 



'"3 ":; 


- 3- 



ji 10 


L_ 0- 




<3 ^ 







X _. 

^ z 







ContiMng of STJOHN. Chmi I 



...» 0.. U^...,. ,„,„J 1 •.«l«,,.k.^.|»,o 

Comitling of ST JOHN.Chif. 1 » I to 6. 

I Ma.^aHb 6u.\.iA cyMHXb c^Man,, uia 

T<)i)a r)a,4,bn;i Goa.ux, cyMari, ma C)Oa- 

:» ;ja Topa. (liiiia ()<M;ja i VMWpb^^eHb 

.1 Topa 6^\hHH. Ilopb /^a oiviGa 5o.r.ia, 

Olinbipi, ^ta HHMHHb 0(».lMaHT>, MHHb 

4 r)().i:{a. Onb /KiiH'it, fio.iaa 6opHa:ib, 

f)()pna:ib ma Tx^i ;;a <'K)/^b VHuuMXMd. 

r>^a,!, mM)iiiK>MT> pa CMvi.mapamb, 

(> miomH)^!!, ,i,a ona xoii.iaMaHT>. B(».i.»a 

CHHb Toppa'Hb jiHbi loanHi. >im.ibi. 



Onf of V JOHN. Chtp 1 V.I 1 


oycv>. LrtrBvyi'^J. 

"/)*^J°*"* J 504 <y>ybr>fl(^ 9o04 4(^/i4 


Consisting of ST J OH N.Chap. 1. v. I to 6. 

ijT]-i»^3fiij » S*5 mtfiit]di Snli-v •^«J)(i*i; Tjiimi jji^^ 

Gi(ju;*fpiin/ij'i,' 'H^ui* jy*^ GujuiTpiiif/tji; ^^t ij^mj 
•»j Kt.'bi'jjto ^^'fjOT*^ o ??%' fx-timtpnt rat ufttitnltt; 

Engraved for'THE BIBLE OF EV 

el Bapster & Sons. Paiemoster Row. London. 

M C^) to 


" E 

w •« 

t^ re 

-O t^ 



re ST 



a ^ 

"? _ 

r /o s n ^ s R £ 

,2s ^- ^re a m 2 -S S 

k. i! cfl ;;: a - 

■— w ^ rr. ,— 

& ^ 2 

2 ^ re 
(-1 c_ 1-^ 

5 ^ 

5 . 're 

^a g 5 tfl 


re »,c rt E 

3 '^ =fl 


re '« 2 s: C 3 o 

:-5 O a! 

B E 3 

S re 

= f« 

5 £ £ K == 

C^ S^ re I 

S s c 

1) 53 -H «- 

>^ ^ r^ 5- 

^ "J3 a "" 

= P= J3 

S ^ 

J9 ^ 

.q re 

-0 3 hD 

^; o c '-^ m '^ B ^S 
"^'S E'E: «k re .^ . ^ 



rt re 
A fi K Qj 

CJ E " 

■0) .3 

;>-, B 

fi T 
~ i< 

oj -re j; 

re !-• CI 


B „- 


^ - 5 i ^ 

re o !>i * O 

re f7| 'b; '5 o 

— a; ^L, M- 

— re ^ rT 

. re 
re ^ 

E t 

S c 

J c 

Z/ Ij 

A ■ 

;>. B" 


J5 c^ aJ 

=5 B S 

o s 

re -Qj 



Oj E 

2 o 

re -« 

2- re -- 

o re 

a.' , 

B >- v '« 

^ re 




I-" fJ tC 

!=r a 

-85 B -a^ O 

B O 

-, "^ -=5 .i^ 

fO 1, 45 

O jT ^5 ^ ? ^ 

* .^ ^g «J = re 

a § ^ >-i E 

3 2 "O « 

CL B -o<o 

- - . « ^ =^ 

« -re -re 2:^-0^-01-0 45 



^_ ^ + »; 


^ .7 

i ? 



"- (• 

> /; 

^^•o o 


5 11; 'I y 

^ r - ^ 

J A P A N E 















— * 










































i» . 


























































?i % i-^W ^'^ 

)^§J 3 !R § ^ 


is I ^ £ I- ^ 5v j. 

^3 i= S-^ ♦ s 



i J i I 


|>| p. I 
s^ ^ ^ sift i^ ^'^^• 



^ I J ^g^?i 


^ Is 

? /ft 

'^i <^i 





ronaiitjnc of PSALM LXVII.v I to 4 

i t^TT ^>5t^ ^^ ^^rrrr?: ^iPkIk ^^ttt^, 

>a C^ f^, dcil^^picilc^ C«M^ ^5^\5n <»C^I<f>; 

5Ri^ c^Ttnj c^sirr^ >2t^\5n ^^^ i 

2 02 O 

^ ^ s. °<- 

£° i° c c 

r1 0_ fi, Q 


"03 O 



c — 

o -e 

S U3 c 

^ 0-^ 
C go e^ 

(ju ^ O 

-€ C C3 
C °° °° 

-o O '^ 

±. ^ o 
o2°i5 o 

' oJ Oo 

«2 1 5 

= c 

ooo c, 

c9 -e 

") oG 
O -" 

G °o 
o " 
C S 

y c 

r 5 .^ 


01© c 

c "y 
c£) q 
-cr> O 

cCoq 030CD c^CoO-e^ 


eJoOOepB ;:^ooOo^ 

C "OO 

Q ^3 '^ 

r^ ^ 

3^ 3 8 ^ ^ 1 -^ ^^ ^ q 3 oo q 

8 -^ 


oo.y^ 3 x/5 






30 ex)^^ 80CB0 

°"^C^J(B]?"8 0,8 & 


8 '-c ^ 

ey c 

?:>' C 3o 

8 ^ 

^^ eOp'p 00-^ O ex)q 
8"^::^^^ 8^r8 ^'% 

8 8 "? &C^^3 8 ^^ ■ 




The Monosyllabic languages are spoken exclusively in the south-eastern angle of the continent of Asia : their area is little inferior in 
point of extent to the whole of Europe. The various nations by whom these languages are employed all belong to one stock or famU)-, 
and are distinguished, in a more or less modified degi-ee, by the Mongolic type of physical conformation. The religion which has obtained 
the widest acceptance among this race is Buddhism, but other forms of belief are also received. The religion of Confucius, for instance, 
prevails to a considerable extent iu China ; and a rude species of idolatry, said in some instances to resemble that practised by the 
Esquimaux, is predominant among the wild, untutored tribes of the moimtatns, who still preserve their independence in the very midst 
of the civilised nations of this race. 

The Monosyllabic languages are referable, geographically and philologically, to three grand divisions, namely, the languages of 
China, the languages of the Indo-Chinese or Transgangetic peninsula, and the languages of Thibet and the Himalayas. 

CHINESE is the language of China, an extensive 
countrj", of which the entire surface forms a kind of 
natural declivity from the high stcppeland of Central 
Asia to the shores of the North Pacific. The moun- 
tain chains which traverse this region are not re- 
markable for extent or altitude, the chief physical 
characteristic being the broad water sheds, with their 
corresponding fertile, alluvial valleys, whereby this 
large portion of the earth's surface is rendered a 
peculiarly fit abode for an industrial, agriculttrral 
people. Various dialects (according to Lcyden, about 
sixteen in number) prevail in the different provinces 
of China, but they are merely local varieties of 
Chinese. Distinct languages are spoken among the 
mountain and forest districts by uncivilised tribes, 
who are supposed by some to have been the original 
possessors of the country. 


ANAMITE is predominant in a line of country border- 
ing on the Chinese Sea, and extends inland as far as 

the westernmost of those longitudinal ranges of 
mountains of which, with their corresponding valleys, 
this peninsula is composed. The Anamite language 
is spoken, with little variety of dialect, by the 
Tonquinese and Cochin Chinese, two nations who 
evidently at no very remote period formed one 
people. In moral and physicrd characteristics they 
closely resemble the Chinese, and they are said by 
some of the neighbouring tribes to have been 
originally a Chinese colony. 

CIAMPA, or TSHAMPA, is still spoken in the very 
south of Cochin China by a people who, before their 
annexation to the empire of Anam, formed a separate 
and independent nation. 

CAMBOJAN is the language of Cambodia, a country 
in the south of the peninsula, lying between two 
parallel ridges of moimtains, and divided into two 
nearly equal parts by the river May-kuang or Mekon. 
The Cambojans, who are akin to, if not identical 
with, the Khomen, are supposed to derive their origin 
from a warlike mountain race named Kho, the Gueos 
of early Portuguese historians. 

SIAMESE is more widely diffused than any other 
Indo-Chinese language ; its various dialects prevail 


over more than half the peninsula, and are spoken, 
with little interruption, in a northerly direction, 
from Cambodia on the south to the borders of 
Thibet on the north. This wide diffusion may in 
part be accounted for by the early conquest of As- 
sam by Siamese tribes. The dialect of the ancient 
Siamese or T'hay tongue, which is now convention- 
ally designated the Siamese, is spoken in Siam, an 
extensive kingdom south-west of Burmah. 

LAOS, or LAW, is a Siamese dialect pervading the 
very interior of the peninsula ; it is conterminous 
with Cambojan, Anamite, Siamese, Burmese, Chinese, 
and Shyan. The Laos people boast of an ancient 
civilisation ; and their country, noted for the vestiges 
it contains of the founders of Buddhism, is the famed 
resort of Buddhistic devotees. 

SHYAN is another Siamese dialect, and is spoken to 
the north of Burmah, between China and Munipoor. 

AHOM, an ancient Siamese dialect, is not marked on 
the Map, because extinct, or only preserved in the 
books of the Assamese priesthood. It is remarkable 
that not a single trace of Hindoo influence, either 
Buddhistic or Brahministic, can be found in Ahom 

KHAMTI, though the most northern of Siamese 
dialects, varies but little from the dialect of Bankok, 
the capital of Siam. It is spoken by a small moun- 
tainous tribe in the north-east corner of Assam, on 
the border of Thibet. 

SINGPHO is the language of the most powerful of the 
mountain tribes, and prevails in the north of the 
Burmese empire, almost on the confines of China. 
It is conterminous with Khamti and Shyan on the 
north and south, and with Chinese and Munipoora 
on the east and west. 

PEGUESE prevails in the Delta of the Irawady, to the 
south of the Burmese empire. 

BURMESE is the language of the dominant people of 
the empire of Burmah. Including its cognate dialect, 
the Arakanese, it extends from the Laos country to 
the Bay of Bengal, and from Munipoor to Pegu : it 
is also predominant throughout the maritime province 
of Tenasserim, in the south-west of the peninsula, 
which is now British territory. 

ARAKANESE, as we have before observed, is an elder 
dialect of Burmese : it prevails through a narrow 
strip of country along the Bay of Bengal, from 
Chittagong to Cape Ncgrais. 

SALONG, or SILONG, is the name of an assemblage 
of small islands in the Mergui archipelago, between 
the Andaman Isles and the south-west coast of the 
peninsula. Those islands are about one thousand in 
number : the predominant language is a peculiar one, 
and little is at present known concerning it ; yet it 
is generally referred to the Monosyllabic class. 

KAREN is spoken in three diversities of dialect, by 
uncivilised tribes irregularly distributed over the 

regions lying between the eleventh and twenty-third 
degrees of north latitude, but chiefly to be found 
among the jungles and mountains on the frontiers of 
Burmah, Siam, and Pegu. Some of these tribes are 
designated red Karens, from the light colour of their 
complexion, a circumstance supposed to result from 
the great elevation of their mountainous abodes. 

KHYEN, or KIAYN, perhaps more generally called 
Kolun, is spoken by some wild tribes dwelling in 
North Aracan, and on various mountain heights west 
of the Irawadj'. These tribes are of more importance 
in an ethnographical than in a political or historical 
point of view. According to their own tradition, 
they are the aborigines of Ava and Pegu. It was 
the opinion of Ritter, that the Khyen and Karen 
tribes are descended from the mountainous races of 
the chains of Yun-nan, dispersed, probably since 
the Mongolic conquest of China, in a southerly 

KOONKIE is a wild, unwritten dialect, said to resemble 
the Arakanese. It is spoken by the Kukis, a people 
who have been identified with the Nagas and Khoo- 
meas. They dwell to the north of Aracan, on the 
frontiers of Munipoor and Cachar. 

MUNIPOORA is predominant in Munipoor, a small 
kingdom forming part of the northern boundary of 

CACHARESE is spoken by a numerous tribe in a 
district of considerable extent, lying east of the 
Bengal district of Sylhet. This language is con- . 
terminous with Munipoora on the east, and Khassee 
on the west. 

KHASSEE is spoken on a range of hills forming part 
of the southern border of Lower Assam. The people 
to whom it is vemaciUar are called Cossyahs or 

*»* The interposition of Assamese (wliieh is a Sanscritio language 
nearly allied to Bengali) in the area otherwise exclusively occupied by 
Monosyllabic languages has given rise to much conjecture ; but it is now 
generally believed that the natives of Lower Assam originally employed 
a Slonosyllabic dialect, but were led by their contiguity to Hindustan, 
and, by political and other circumstances, to adopt a language of that 
country. Upper Assam is still peopled by various tribes speaking Mono- 
syllabic languages. 



LEPCHA is spoken by a tribe apparently of Tibetan 
origin, dwelling on the south side of the Himalayas, 
on and near the eastern frontier of Bootan. 

ABOR and MISHIMI are the languages of uncivilised 

tribes inhabiting an extensive range of hilly country 
on the borders of Bootan and Thibet, between the 
ninety-fourth and the ninety-seventh degrees of east 

TIBETAN is spoken by the widely-diffused race of 
Bhot, in Thibet, Bootan, Ladakh, and Bultistan or 


Little Thibet. Thi.s extensive range of country lies 
among the Himalayas, in the south-eastern angle of 
the plateau of Central Asia. The geographical 
position of the Bhotiya, and likewise some of their 
moral and ])hysical characteristics, would appear to 
connect them with tlic nomadic nations of that vast 
plateau, if their language, which approximates in 

many respects to that of China, did not indicate their 
relationship to the Chinese ; and this affinity, on the 
one side with the Chinese, and on the other with the 
Turkish, Mongolian, and Tungusian tribes of Central 
Asia, has caused this remarkable race to be regarded 
as the connecting link between these two great 
divisions of the human family. 


The Shemitic lan!?\iap;e9 are remarkably few in number, although (as is shown in the accompanying Map) they are spread over a vast 
portion of the world, cxtendine from Persia and the Persian Gulf on the east to the Atlantic'on the west, and from the Mediterranean 
on the north to an undefined distance into the interior of Africa on the south. There are, in fact, but three or, at most, four tUstinct 
Shemitic languages at present spoken : and although the history of this wonderful class of languages leads us far back into remote 
antiquity, yet a much gi-eater diversity of dialect does not appear at any time to have existed. It has been shown in a previous memoir 
that the Phoenician, once pre-eminently the language of civilisation, was substantially the same as the ancient Hebrew ; and this con- 
formity of language between two races of different origin (the Phoenicians being a Hamite, and the Hebrews a Shemitic people) is a 
phenomenon which yet remains to be explained. The Shemitic languages now disused as mediums of oral com m u ni cation, and which 
are therefore not represented on the Map, are the following :— 

Samaritan, originally identical with Hebrew. 

Ancient Syriac and Chaldee, which, however, have their representative in Modem Syriac. 

Pehlvi, the ancient tongue of Media, a compound probably of Chaldee and Syriac with Zend. 

Various Arabic dialects ; Himyaritic, the parent of Ekhkili. 

Gheez, or Ethiopic, now superseded by its modern dialects, Tigre and Amharic. 

In perfection of physical conformation, the Shemitic race is considered by eminent physiologists to equal, if not surpass, all other 
branches of the human family. Yet their characteristics are by no means invariable. The Syrians, who still preserve their lineage pure 
and unmingled among the mountains of Kurdistan, have a fair complexion, with gray eyes, red beard, and a robust fi-ame. The Bedouins, 
or Arabs of the Desert, are thin and muscular in form, with deep brown skin and large black eyes ; the Ai-abs in the low countries of 
the Nile bordering on Nubia are black, while other tribes of this people dwelling in colder or more elevated situations are said to be fair. 
The Arabs in the valley of Jordan are reported to have a dark skin, coarse hair, and flattened features, thereby approximating to the 
Negro type. The Jews differ from the nations among whom they are located by a peculiar cast of physiognomy : in Cochin they are 
black, in the south of Europe they are dark, while in the north of Europe, and occasionally in England, they are xanthous, with red or 
light hair. 

The Shemitic nations have been most peculiarly honoured in being chosen as the race of whom, according to the flesh, the Messiah 
was bom. To them also was given the knowledge of the one true God ; and to the Hebrews in particular was committed the sacred trust 
of the divine oracles. Monotheism, although defaced by human inventions, is the religion of this race : the recognition of a false prophet 
prevails among the Arabs ; yet, in common with the Jews, they acknowledge the existence of God. Two people of this race, the Syrians 
and Abyssinians, have embraced Christianity as their national religion. 

ARABIC, originally the language of a few wandering 
tribes in the desert of Arabia, is now one of the most 
widely-diffused of existing languages. It prevails in 
Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, Khuzistan, Eg)-pt, Nu- 
bia, and Barbary. It is extensively employed as the 
language of religion and commerce on the eastern 
and western coasts of Africa, and it is supposed to 
penetrate far into the interior of that great continent. 
As might be expected from its vast extension, this 
language branches out into dialects as many in 
number as the countries in which it is spoken. 

EKHKILI is a modern dialect of Himyaritic, the 
southern branch of the Arabic language. It is spo- 

ken by an uncivilised mountainous tribe of Hadra- 
mant, in the south-east of the Arabian peninsula. 
Ekhkili is of especial value in an ethnographical 
point of view, as it furnishes the link between the 
Shemitic languages of Asia and of Abyssinia. The 
ancient Himyarites are believed to have been Cushites, 
of the race of Ham. 
TIGRE, a dialect immediately derived from the ancient 
Ethiopic, is predominant in a small portion of the 
kino-dom of Abyssinia. The resemblance still to be 
traced between Tigre and EkhkUi has corroborated 
the hypothesis that Ethiopia was originally peopled 
by a colony of Himyarite Arabs. 


AMHARIC is a more corrupt dialect of Ethiopic than 
Tigre, having suffered greater changes from foreign 
admixture. Amharic is predominant throughout 
nearly all Abyssinia, but various other languages 
are likewise spoken in that kingdom. These lan- 
guages, partaking as they do of a Shemitic element 
and of the African character, form so many connect- 
ing links between Shemitic and African languages. 

MODERN SYRIAC, the only living representative of 
the ancient Chaldee and Syriac tongues, is preserved 
among mountain fastnesses between Mesopotamia, Ar- 
menia, and Persia. What relation this language may 
bear to the idiom of ancient Babylon and Nineveh is 
not yet precisely known ; but light is arising upon the 

ruins of these ancient cities, and the arrow-headed 
characters are in process of being deciphered. With 
the capture of Babylon, in the commencement of 
the sixth century before our era, the early political 
supremacy of the Shemitic race departed ; and the 
government of the world passed into the hands of 
the Japhetic nations, by whom it is still maintained. 
And thus the fertile plains of Western Asia, the 
proper home of the Shemitic race, is governed and 
chiefly inhabited by people of the Japhetic stock, in 
literal fulfilment of the prophecy, that " Japheth shall 
dwell in the tents of Shem." Other prophecies are 
in progress of fulfilment, by which more than their 
archaic glory will be restored to the sons of Shem. 


The Medo-Persian languages form a branch or family of that great class of languages which has been yariously denominated by ethnographers 
Indo-European, Japhetic, and Iranian or Arian. The first of these appellations indicates the geographical distribution of this class, one of its branches 
(the Sanscritic) being vernacular in India, while other of its branches, though connected in origin and in structure with Sanscrit, are prodominant 
in Europe. The term Japhetic is sometimes applied to the languages of this class, because the nations by whom they are spoken arc supposed to be 
descendants of Japheth ; and the designation Iranian, or Arian, refers to their connection \vith the land of Iran, or Persia, the ^Vriana of Greek 

The area of the Medo-Persian languages includes about one-tenth part of the entire sm-face of Asia: the countries now comprehended 
within this area are Persia, Khorassan, Turcomania, the greater part of Turkestan, Aifghanistan, Beloochisfan, and Luristan ; also 
Kurdistan, Ai-meuia, and a district among the Caucacus Mountains. The origin of the Medo-Persian nations has never been ascertained : 
they advanced at one step fi-om obscurity to empire. Theii- very existence was scarcely known beyond the elevated plateau which from 
time immemorial they appear to have occupied, until their future gi-eatness was depicted in the prophecies of Daniel and Ezekiel. 
Suddenly they emerged from their mountainous abodes, captured the " Great Babylon," and founded an empii-e which, in point of extent, 
exceeded even that of Rome itself. 

The physical conformation of the Medo-Persian nations, which is decidedly of the Eui'opean type, corroborates the testimony 
afforded by theb languages as to their affinity with the principal nations of Europe. A Shemitic language, the Pehlvi, is supposed to 
have been predominant at some very remote period in Persia, but it originated in the provinces bordering on Assyria ; and under what 
circumstances it became the general language of IMedia is stUl matter of conjectm'e. A yet more ancient language is the Persepolitau, a 
true Medo-Persian idiom, vestiges of which are preserved in aiTow-headed, or cuneiform characters, Hke those of Assyria, on the monu- 
mental inscriptions which have of late years been discovered among the ruins of ancient Persian cities. The Zend, another Medo- 
Persian language, now extinct, and therefore not represented on our Map, is preserved in the sacerdotal books of the Guebres and the 
Parsees. The earliest religion of the Medo-Persian race appears to have been that of fire-worship. They are now, with few exceptions, 
followers of Mahomet, the Armenians being the only nation of this stock by whom Christianity has been received. 

PERSIC, although marked in the Map as predominant 
in Persia and part of Turkestan, is only one of the 
many languages spoken in that wide territory. It is 
remarkable that all the countries properly belonging 
to the Medo-Persian race are likewise inhabited by 
tribes of foreign origin, who dwell side by side with 
the original inhabitants. Even the throne of the 
great Cyrus is occupied by a monarch of the Turkish 
race, and the whole country is overrun by nomadic 
nations of Turkish, Arabic, and Mongolian origin. 
Some of these wandering tribes, however, as the 
Hazarehs and Eymauks on the north of AfFghanistan, 
speak dialects of the Persic language. 

PUSHTOO is the language of Affghanistan, a moun- 
tainous tract of country lying between Persia and 
Hindustan. The Hindkees, an Indian people speak- 
ing a Sanscritic dialect, form part of the population. 

BELOCHEE is one of the languages of Beloochisfan, 
a country situated between Affghanistan and the 
Indian Ocean. Man)' Tajiks, or Persians, reside in 
Beloochistan, and hence Persic prevails in some of 
the districts, especially at Kelat. The Brahooes, and 
other nations speaking Sanscritic dialects, also occupy 
part of this country. 

KURDISH is the language of the Kurds, wild nomadic 


tribes, known in liistory as the Carduchi and the 
Parthians. They are chiefly located in Kurdistan, a 
mountainous tract of country between Armenia and 
Persia. They likewise form the bulk of the popu- 
lation of Luristan, in the east of Persia. 

OSSITINIAN is spoken by the Ossetcs, a Median 
colony, who, in concert with Caucasian tribes here- 
after to be mentioned, occupy the central portion of 
the chain of the Caucasus Mountains. 

ARMENIAN is spoken by about one-seventh part of 
the population of Armenia, a country chiefly com- 

posed of mountainous chains, of which Mount Ararat 
forms, as it were, the nucleus. The language of 
the Armenians, and their traditions respecting their 
mythical heroes and ancestors, which are almost 
identical with those of the Persians, prove them to 
be of the Persic stock ; and it has even been thought 
that they were once one people with the Persians. 
Like the Jews, however, whom they resemble in other 
respects, the Armenians are scattered as traders and 
merchants among all the nations of the world ; so that 
the language of Armenia, in one or other of its dialects, 
is heard in all the trading cities of the East. 


Lanouages more or less allied to the aneient Sanscrit prevail through the whole of Hindustan. These languages are resolvable into 
three distinct divisions. 

I.— The languages which appear to be derived immediately fi'om the Sanscrit, and which are spoken by the Hindoos, properly so 
called, in the northern provinces of the peninsula.— In this division, the three (dead or learned languages of Hindustan, Sanscrit, 
Pracrit, and Pali, are included. That the race to whom these Sanscritic idioms are vernacular is connected with the Medo-Persian 
nations is evident, from the close similarity between Zend, an aneient Median-Persian language, and the idiom of the Vedas, an archaic 
form of Sanscrit, refen-ed by some Sanscrit scholars to the fourteenth or fifteenth centm-y before oiu- era. Another proof of the original 
aillnity of the Medo-Persian and Brahminical people lies in the fact, that some of the arrow-headed inscriptions in the Persepolitan 
language have been deciphered chiefly, if not solely, by the aid of the Sanscrit language. It seems probable that the Hindoo race, at 
some remote epoch of history, separated from the Medo-Persian stock, and quitted the Iranian plateau for the plains of Hindustan. 
Their physical conformation appears to confirm this hj'pothesis, notwithstanding the slight variations from the original type which the 
peculiarities of the climate may have induced. With this race originated the two false religions which are now most widely disseminated 
through the Eastern world — Brahminism and Buddhism. 

II.— The languages of the Deecan, or southern parts of the peniusTda.— The race to whom these languages are vernacular appear to 
have preceded the Hindoos in the occupation of Hindustan. They were, perhaps, driven to the south by the Hindoo invaders, and 
were subsequently compelled to submit to the conquerors of the country, and to receive from them their laws, religion, and civilisation. 
It is well known that the Hindoos subdued the Deecan at a very early period, and the languages of that region stiU bear the impress of 
Hindoo influence. So many Sanscrit words have been engrafted on their vocabularies, that these languages till recently were considered 
to be merely Sanscritic dialects ; then" grammatical structm'e, however, still maintains the original non-Sanscritie character. The 
physical appearance of the nations of the Deecan approximates to the Mongolic, rather than to the Hindoo type; and their rehgion, 
tho\igh nominally Brahministic, retains traces of their ancient Pagan superstitions. 

III. — The languages of the wild, unconquered tribes of the mountains. — It is supposed that these tribes were among the original 
inhabitants of the country, and that they sought refuge in their present mountainous abodes with the view of preserving their independ- 
ence. In language and in physical appearance they present tolei-ably clear indications of theii- original community of origin with the 
eiviUsed nations of the Deecan. These tribes, though exceedingly interesting and important in an ethnogi'aphical point of view, are at 
present little known, and theii* languages are as yet unwritten. Some of their vocables {as those of the Kol, Bhumij, and RajmahaU of 
Orissa) have been examined, and several cui'ious instances of affinity have been detected between them and the MongoUan, and other 
languages of Central Asia. 


HINDU WEE, the most general language of the Hindoo 
race, prevails in the upper provinces of Hindustan, 
and is said to be understood even far beyond these 
limits. As is shown in the Map, this language 
branches out into a great variety of dialects, namely, 
the Canoj or Canyacubja, the Bruj or Brij-Bhasa, 

the Kousulu, Bhojepoora, and several others, all of 
which, however, are merely provincial varieties of 
the original Hinduwee. A distinct language, called 
Hindustani, prevails in the towns and \illages of the 
Hinduw^ee area, and is spoken by the Mahommedan 
section of the popidation throughout the whole of 
Hindustan. It is the result of the intcrniixture of 
Hinduwee with the Persian and Turkish languages 
spoken by the Mahommedan conquerors of India. 


BENGALEE may be said to be the predominant lan- 
guage of the province of Bengal, although Hindustani 
is spoken in the towns. Two languages, the Tirhi- 
tiya or Mithili, and the Maghudha, prevail in the 
eastern part of this province. The former nearly 
resembles the Bengalee, and the latter is a derivative 
of the ancient Pali. 

ASSAMESE, the language of Assam, is supposed to 
be merely a form of Bengalee, which has superseded 
the original monosyllabic language of the Assamese 

URIYA, a dialect very analogous to Bengalee, is spoken 
to the south of the province of Bengal, in Orissa. 

NEPALESE, or KHASPOORA, is the prevailing 
dialect of Nepaul, an independent state to the north 
of Bengal, occupying part of the southern declivity 
of the Himalayas. This dialect exliibits the phe- 
nomenon of a Hinduwee element engrafted on a 
language of monosyllabic structure. A colony of 
Hinduwees is said to have settled in Nepaul at an 
early period, and to have commingled with the native 
inhabitants. Their descendants are called Parabatiya, 
or Parabuttics ; and hence the Khaspoora, their 
vernacular dialect, is sometimes designated Parbutti, 
or Mountain Hindviwee. 

PALPA, KUMAON, and GURWHAL are border 
dialects, closely allied to Hinduwee, and prevailing 
to the north of the Hinduwee area. 

(JASHMERIAN is the most northerly of Sanscritic 
languages, with the exception of the Brahooe, in 
Beloochistan. Cashmere is a mountainous country 
north of the Punjab. 

DOGURA, or JUMBOO, is an uncultivated dialect 
spoken in the hilly country north of the Punjab, but 
rather resembling Cashmerian than Punjabee. 

PUNJABEE is the language of the Sikhs, the dominant 
people of the Punjab : it is said to be derived 
immediately from Pracrit, formerly the vernacular 
language of this region. 

GUJERATTEE are languages closely allied to 
Hinduwee, and are spoken on the western border 
of the area occupied by the Hinduwee dialects. 
Moultan is said to be the language to which Rom- 
many, the singular dialect of the Gipsies, most 
closely approximates. 

KUNKUNA, another language nearly resembling Hin- 
duwee, is spoken in the Concan, a strip of country 
bordering on the Indian Ocean. 

MAHRATTA may be ranked either with the languages 
of Northern India or of the Deccan, for it partakes 
of the character of both. The extensive region in 
which it is vernacular is bounded on the north by 
the Sautijoora Mountains, east by Gundwana, and 

west by the maritime district called the Concan. 
On the south it is conterminous with the Telinga 
and Canarese languages. 


TAMUL, or TAMIL, with its cognate dialects, the 
Malayalim and the Tulu, or Tuluvu, occupies the 
southern extremity of the peninsula, and a con- 
siderable portion of the Malabar coast. These lan- 
guages are sometimes designated the Dravirian, for 
Tamul was the language of the ancient kingdom of 

TELINGA, or TELOOGOO, a language radically con- 
nected with Tamul, is spoken through the greater 
portion of the Coromandel coast, and extends inland 
till it becomes conterminous with Mahratta and 

CANARESE occupies an extensive area in the eastern 
portion of the Deccan. It is conterminous with its 
cognate languages, the Tamil and Telinga on the 
east, and with the Tuluvu and Malayalim on the 
west and south, while on the north it extends as 
far as the Mahratta area. 

CINGALESE is spoken in the south of Ceylon, Tamul 
being the language of the northern district. Cinga- 
lese appears to be connected with the languages of 
the Deccan rather than with those of Upper India. 

MALDIVIAN is spoken in the Maldive Islands, east- 
ward of Ceylon, and is supposed to be a branch of 
Cingalese. The dialect of the Laccadive Islands is 
believed to be very similar to the Maldivian. 



GONDEE, or GOANDEE, is spoken by a barbarous 
race in the northern part of the Deccan. The pro- 
vince of Gondwana is of great extent, stretching from 
Orissa on the east to the Mahratta country on the 
west, and from Hindustan Proper on the north to 
the Telinga country on the south ; but the Gonds 
inhabit only the forest and mountain districts of this 
region, and the Mahratta language is predominant, 
especially in the western part, among the civilised 
classes of inhabitants. The Gonds have embraced 
Brahminism, but retain their peculiar Pagan rites. 
In language, customs, physical conformation, and 
mode of life, they resemble the Pulindas (a Sanscrit 
term equivalent to barbarian) of Orissa, the Bhils or 
Bheels of the Vindhya chain, and the various tribes 
of wild mountaineers scattered throughout the penin- 
sula, but principally found among the moimtain 
chains of the Deccan. 


The Asiatic branches (Sanscritic and Medo-Persian) of the Indo-European class of languaRes are exhibited in the two preceding Maps. 
The present Map comprehends all the languages of this widely-extended class which are spoken in Europe. These languages, while they 
all adhere in a greater or less degree to the Medo-l'ersian and Sanscritic type of grammatical structure, yet possess certain individual 
characteristics of their own. Hence it is that they diverge into distinctive groups or families, without however losing the evidences of 
their original connection with each other, and with a long-lost and now imknown common parent stem. The families of this class, by 
whom Europe is to a great extent divided, are the Celtic, Teutonic, Greco-Latin, Thraco-Illyrian, and Sclavonic. The phenomenon of 
the intersection of the area apparently belonging to this class, by languages of the Basque and Finnish families, will hereafter be 

CELTIC. — The Celts were the first people of this class 
by whom Western Europe was colonised. At the 
time of the Romans, we find them the occupants of 
Gaul, of the British Isles, of part of Spain and 
Germany, and of North Italy. Pannonia, Thrace, 
and even Asia Minor were at one period occupied by 
them ; and the Cimbri of Denmark are supposed to 
have been a Celtic tribe. The time of the first 
immigration into Europe is wholly imknown. After 
reaching the extreme verge of Western Europe, they 
appear in some instances to have partly retraced 
their steps to the eastward ; at least, the Celts of 
Germany and Italy were considered emigrants from 
Gaul. The Celts were compelled by the Romans 
to recede from every country in which they had 
established themselves, and afterwards they were 
more effectually subjugated by the Teutonic tribes. 
In the vast majority of instances, they became amal- 
gamated in language and manners with their con- 
querors ; and not a single trace of their religion 
(Druidism and Bardism) is now to be foimd, except 
in the ruins of their sacred places, as at Stonehenge. 
On the continent of Europe, where their language 
was once predominant, it has now altogether dis- 
appeared, except on a small strip of the coast of 
Brittany. In the British Isle, however, the Celtic 
language is still preserved. The following are the 
cognate dialects into which it is now developed : — 
I. — The Welsh or Cymric branch, spoken in 

Wales, in part of Brittany, and formerly in 

II. — The Gaelic branch, spoken in the Highlands 

of Scotland, in Ireland, and in the Isle of 


TEUTONIC — After the Celts, and the Greco-Latins 
hereafter to be mentioned, the next great tide of 
population which rolled from Asia into Europe was 
the Teutonic. The Teutonic tribes, as their language 
indicates, were in a special manner connected with 
the Medo-Persian race, but the circumstances under 
which they separated from the parent stock are 
involved in impenetrable obscurity. When they first 

appeared upon the page of history, they were mere 
barbarians, destitute of the arts of social life ; yet, 
even then, the inherent energy of this race w^as 
apparent : the Celtic nations were rapidly displaced by 
them, and in the fourth century they achieved no 
less a conquest than that of the Roman empire. 
Under the name of Franks, Burgundians, Alemans. 
and Visigoths in Gaul, of Heruli, Goths, and Longo- 
bards in Italy, and of Suevi, Vandals, and Ostrogoths 
in Spain, they rendered themselves conspicuous in 
the history of the middle ages ; and, unlike their 
predecessors, the Celts, they have to the present day 
retained their principal territorial possessions in 
Europe. In Spain, France, and Italy, indeed, they 
became mingled with other races, and merely con- 
tributed their quota to the formation of the languages 
of those countries; but Germany, England, Denmark, 
and the Scandinavian peninsula still form the strong- 
hold of the Teutonic race. A great change, however, 
at least in Germany, has taken place since the com- 
mencement of the historic era in the physical con- 
formation of this people. The early Germans, as 
described by Roman writers, were a fair, xanthous 
race, with blue eyes, and light or yellow hair. Tliese 
characteristics are still preserved in the Scandinavian 
peninsula ; but in Germany itself, the dark or melanic 
variety of complexion has now become almost imi- 
versal. This remarkable change has been attributed 
to the alteration produced in the climate of Germany 
by the uprooting of its vast forests. 

The languages now spoken by the Teutonic race 
are referable to two primary divisions : — 

I. — The Teutonic or Germanic, properly so called, 
comprising the German, Flemish, Dutch, and 
II. — The Scandinavian, including Icelandic, Swe- 
dish, Danish, and Faroese. For a detailed 
account of each of these languages, as like- 
wise of the now extinct Teutonic languages, 
Gothic, Alemannic, Old Saxon, and Anglo- 
Saxon, the reader may consult pp. 147-188 
of this work. 


GRECO-LATIN.— The Greco-Latins appear to have 
preceded the Teutonic tribes in the colonisation of 
Europe, at least, of the southern parts. The Pe- 
lasgic or Hellenic Greeks were probably the first 
inhabitants of Greece, especially of the inland parts. 
The Lydian and other languages of Lesser Asia, and 
perhaps the ancient languages of Macedonia and 
Thrace, were allied to this stock. Italy appears to 
have been peopled by several different nations ; and 
the origin of some of these nations has given rise to 
much conjecture. The origin of the Etruscan race, 
for instance, is a question of much interest, still 
awaiting its solution. The old Italic languages, 
comprehending the Latin, Umbrian, Oscan, Siculian, 
and some others, were in course of time absorbed in 
one language, which, under the name of Latin, 
became eventually the predominant language of the 
Roman empire. The wide diffusion of the Greek 
language at the commencement of our era, and of the 
Latin during the middle ages, has been already 
mentioned. On the destruction of the Roman empire 
by the Teutonic tribes, Latin still continued the 
language of the learned : but the vernacular of the 
populace, which probably had previously abounded 
in provincialisms, became mixed with the dialects of 
the Teutonic invaders ; and thus a new language 
was produced, which, from the predominance of the 
Roman element, was designated the Romaunt or 
Romance. Up to the twelfth century this language, 
in its several dialectic varieties, was the prevailing 
vernacular language of Europe. In Spain it was 
called Catalan ; in South France it was known as 
the Languedoc, Proven93l or Romanese ; and in 
Italy it went by the general name of Romance. 
Each of the dialects of this widely-diffused language 
was subsequently subjected to further changes, by 
the commingling of other elements induced by 
political vicissitudes. Thiis gradually arose the 
Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and the Daco- 
Romana or Wallachian languages. It will be seen, 
however, in our Map, that the language of the 
Troubadours has not wholly disappeared, dialects of 
this language still forming the vernacular of the 
Vaudois, Piedmontese, and Enghadine nations. For 
particular details concerning each of the nations and 
languages belonging to this important family, the 
reader is referred to pp. 189-236. 

THRACO-ILLYRIAN. — A people known in history as 
the Illyrians, and with whom the Thracians are con- 
sidered by some historians to have been connected, were 

probably the first inhabitants of the eastern shore of 
the Adriatic. They arc supposed to have been of 
kindred origin with the Pelasgi of Greece ; and their 
language, though a distinct and peculiar idiom of the 
Indo-European stem, bears some affinity to Greek. 
This language is still spoken by the Albanians or 
Arnauts, the supposed descendants of the Illyrians, 
in the ancient Epirus, on the eastern coast of the 
Adriatic Sea. A particular account of this language 
and people is given in pp. 239, 240. 

SCLAVONIC— The origin of the Sclavonic tribes, 
and the date of their first appearance in Europe, are 
involved in much uncertainty. They are generally 
supposed to be descended from the Sarmatae, who 
in the time of the Romans occupied a region of 
Northern Europe, east of the Vistula, then known 
by the name of Sarmatia. Some writers are of 
opinion that the Sarmatae derived their descent from 
a Scythian tribe ; but in the present state of know- 
ledge this is a problem which must still remain 
unsolved. The ^vl■iters from whom we obtain the 
earliest accounts of the Sclavonic nations, describe 
them as differing both from the Scythian and from. 
the Teutonic tribes. The Sclavoni appear to have 
had more elevated conceptions of religion than their 
Asiatic neighbours ; for although they worshipped a 
multitude of deities, they recognised the existence of 
one Supreme Being. On the other hand, unlike the 
Germans, they were possessed of the most vicious 
characteristics of Orientalists — polygamy, tyranny, 
and servility. Their physical conformation and their 
language, however, connect them with the Indo- 
European stock. They now occupy a considerable 
section of Europe, extcndmg from the north-eastern 
extremity into the very centre of that continent. In 
some of the countries of Central Europe, particularly 
in Bohemia, nations of this race live intermingled 
with Teutonic nations, yet retaining their peculieir 
language and customs. The ancient language of 
Prussia was a Sclavonic tongue, but it is now com- 
pletely extinct, having been superseded by the Ger- 
man. The Old Prussian language, so far at least as 
can be judged from its scanty store of literature, was 
closely connected with the Lettish and Lithuanian 
languages, while in many important respects it 
differed from other Sclavonic tongues. By some 
writers, these three cognate languages are referred 
to a distinct and separate branch of the Indo-Euro- 
pean stem. For further details concerning the Scla- 
vonic tongues, see pp. 240-258. 


Among the latest results of ethnological investiBations is the disoovery that oulj' three distinct classes of languages prevail throughout 
the two continents of Europe and Asia. Two of these classes, the Shemitic and the Indo-European, have already passed under review. All 
the languages of Europe and of Asia which are not cither Shemitic or Indo-European, belong to a third and equally important class, 
with which it is thought that even the Seriform or Monosyllabic languages will eventually be proved to be connected. This class, by 
some authors designated the Tm-anian, and by others the Finno-Tartarian stem, is spread over the whole of Northern and Central Asia, 
and extends into Northern, Central, and even Western Europe. It includes the Finnish and Samoiede languages in the north ; the 
Georgian and other languages of the Caucasus region; the Turkish, Mongolian, and Tungusian families of Central Asia; the Japanese, 
Loochooan, and Corean in Western Asia ; and the Euskarian or Basque in Western Europe. It is supposed that Europe was first 
colonised by nations belonging to this race, and that their descendants, after having been settled in the more fertile regions of that 
continent, were driven to the extreme north and west, where we at present find them, by the successive tides of invaders, Celtic, 
Pelasgic, Teutonic, and Sclavonic, who subsequently passed from Asia into Europe. ' 

FINNISH. — The Finnish languages prevail through a 
large portion of the Russian empire, occupying the 
northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula, and 
extending from Lapland and the Baltic, beyond the 
Urals, as far as the Yenisei. The origin of the 
various tribes and nations by whom these languages 
are spoken is unknown, but they appear to have been 
established from time immemorial in their present 
abodes ; and they are early spoken of in history 
under the several appellations of Tschudi, Ougrcs 
or Ugri, and Jotuns. The Hungarians, who furnish 
the only instance upon record of a Finnish people 
taking a conspicuous place among civilised nations, 
are located far from tlieir brethren, in the very heart 
of Europe. This isolation from the rest of their race 
is the result of the inroads of some Turkish hordes 
upon their original country to the south of the 
Uralian Mountains. About the ninth century, the 
Magyars or Hungarians were driven westward by 
these Turkish invaders. In their turn they dis- 
possessed the Slovaks, a Sclavonian race, of the fertile 
plains of Hungary, and. they have ever since con- 
tinued the dominant nation in that country. 

SAMOIEDE is the language of an abject, degraded 
race, dwelling among the tundras or marshy swamps 
of North Siberia, along the inhospitable shores of 
the Icy Ocean. The other nations inhabiting the 
dreary regions of North Asia to the westward of the 
Samoiedcs are, as will be seen on the Map, the 
lukagires, the Tchukchis, the Koriaks, the Kam- 
chatkadales, and the Ainos of the Kuriles, Jesso, and 
Sagalicn Isle. Those nations all speak languages 
belonging to the class now under consideration. 

OEORGIAN. — The Georgian is the predominant lan- 
guage between Armenia and the Caucasus : the 
following languages, closely connected in vocabulary 
and structure with the Georgian, are likewise spoken 
south of the Caucasus : Mingrelian, Immirctian, 
Suanic, and Lazian. These languages, together with 
the Abassiau, Circassian, Inguschi, and some others 

spoken in the heights and vaUeys of the Caucasus, 
were, till very recently, regarded as completely dis- 
tinct from each other. Recent researches, however, 
have brought to light many links of mutual affinity ; 
and it has even been proved that, in all these lan- 
guages, there are points of analogy connecting them 
with the Samoiede and Finnish languages on the one 
hand, and with the Chinese and Monosyllabic tongues 
on the other. 

TURKISH. — The Turkish nations occupy the western 
portion of that vast region, formerly known by the 
name of Great Tartary, which lies directly north of 
the civilised nations of antiquity, the empires of 
Ass)-ria, Persia, India, and China. In the eastern 
parts of their wide area, the Turkish tribes still 
wander about, as of old, with their flocks and herds ; 
but in the empire which they have established in 
Europe and in Asia Minor, the Turks, though stUl 
Mahommedan, are a civilised and polished people. 

MONGOLIAN.— The Mongolian area lies between the 
Altai Mountains on the north and China and Tibet 
on the south, while on the east it is conterminous 
with the Mantchou, and on the west with the Turkish 
area. Some of the most fierce and warlike hordes 
by which the world has been desolated have issued 
from this region ; yet the Mongols still continue a 
nation of shepherds. 

TUNGUSIAN.— The Tungusian and Mantchou lan- 
guages are spoken by two closely-allied nations to 
the north and east of Mongolia. The Tungusians 
retain their nomadic, pastoral habits ; but the Mant- 
chous, who are the present lords of China, have 
adopted the Chinese system of civilisation and re- 

EUSKARIAN. — The Euskarian or Basque area, lying 
along the shore of the Bay of Biscay, between France 
and Spain, is exhibited in Map V. The Euskarians 
are now generally believed to have been the first 
inhabitants of the Spanish peninsula. 


This Map requires little or no explanation, only two varieties of language being spoten through the large portion of the earth's surface 
which it represents. These two varieties are the Polj'uesiau and the Negi'itian. The former is spoken in a gi'eat variety of dialects in 
the islands of the Indian and Pacific Ocean ; and the Malayan peninsiUa is the only continental region in which it has ever been known 
to predominate. The Negi'itian may be called with equal propriety a strictly insular language : one of its dialects prevails, indeed, in 
the centre of the Malayan peninsula, but, with this exception, it is spoken only in certain islands of the Indian and Pacific. It is chiefly 
predominant in the isles of New Guinea, Flores, Timor, Louisiade, New Britain, New Ireland, New Caledonia, and New Hebrides (as 
indicated on the Map by the red tint) ; but some of its dialects are likewise spoken in the interior of islands where the Polynesian or 
Malayan variety of language is otherwise predominant. The Polynesian islanders approximate, in then- physical conformation, to the 
Mongohan variety of mankind ; whereas, those to whom the Negi'itian languages are vernacular resemble in some respects the negro race. 
By some recent wi'iters, however, a community of origin is assigned to all the natives of those widely-distributed islands ; and the 
difference in their personal appearance is attributed to the influences of civilisation, and of various incidental circumstances. 


The peculiarities and affinities of the African languages having been fully discussed in the subjoined memoirs, the Map before us needs 
little explanation. Foui' varieties of language have been shown to prevail in Africa : — 

I. — The Coptic, a language derived fi'om the Ancient Egyptian, forming a link between the otherwise disconnected Shemitie and 
Japhetic classes. 

II. — The Berber, which, as well as the Amharic, Galla, and other Abyssinian languages, is clearly connected with the Shemitie class. 

III. — The Nigi'o-Hamitic languages, so called by Dr. Ki'apf, because spoken by the descendants of Ham along the banks of the Niger 
and its tributary streams in Western Africa. These languages are spoken by the Negro race, properly so called. 

IV. — The Nilo-Hamitic languages, so named by the same eminent philologist, because he supposed that the original home of the race 
by whom they are spoken was neai' the som'ces of the White Nile. These languages, in their various dialects, prevail throughout the 
whole of Africa south of the equator. For a particular description of the languages composing this division, see pp. 347 - 358. 


NOTWITHSTAKDING the persevering researches, the zeal, and the learning which have of late years been brought to bear upon the lan- 
guages and antiquities of America, the gi'eat question respecting the origin of the first inhabitants of that vast continent still remains as 
far from solution as ever. Physiology affords no aid in determining this question ; for in the reddish coloui' of theii' complexion, in the 
deeply -marked outline of their featm'es, and in other physical peculiarities, the American Indians differ more or less from all other classes 
of men. That the natives both of North and South America are, however, descended from one and the same branch of the human 
family, has been infeiTcd from the obvious coincidences in the grammatical structure of theii' languages. But with this similarity in 
structure, great variety exists between the respective roots or vocables of these languages ; and these glossarial differences have led to 
the division of the American languages into numerous groups or famiUes, of which the following are the pruicipal :— 

ESQUIMAUX is spoken along the entire northern 
coast of North America by a people who, in physical 
conformation, appear to be intermediate between the 
natives of North Asia and the hunter tribes of 
America. For a description of this nation, and of 
the Greenlanders who are of cognate origin, and who 
employ a dialect of the same language, see pp. 359- 

ATHAPASCAN, or CHEPEWYAN, is a language 
spoken in several different dialects by numerous 

tribes who occupy a broad belt of country, stretching 
from east to west, south of the Esquimaux area. 
ALGONQUIN is the collective name of numerous 
distinct American nations, who, at the first period of 
European colonisation, occupied (together with the 
Iroquois) the greater part of Canada, and all the 
northern and middle portion of the territory of the 
United States. The northern branch of this race 
borders on the Athapascan area, and reaches from 
Hudson's Bay to the Rocky Mountains : it includes 


the Knistincaux or Crees, the Algonquins Proper, 
the Chippcwas or Ojibways, the Ottawas, the Potta- 
wattomies, the Missinsig or Mississagis, and the 
Montagnais. The north-eastern branch comprehends 
the Abenaquis, the Micraacs, and some smaller tribes. 
The Algonquin idioms s])oken along the Atlantic, 
and generally designated the New England or 
Virginian tongues, were the Massachusett, Narra- 
gansett, Mohegan, Susquehannok, and Delaware. 
The tribes to whom these languages were vernacular 
have long been driven by European settlers from 
their original territories, and some of them are 
extinct. Delaware is, however, spoken by a still 
powerful nation. It may here be observed, that in 
this Map the oriyinal as well as the present distribution 
of the several languages is indicated. The Western 
Algonquin branch includes the Illinois, Shawanoe, 
Black-feet Indian, Shyenne, and some other tribes. 
The Bethucks, who were the aboriginal inhabitants 
of Newfoundland, and who are probably now ex- 
tinct, have lately been proved to have been an 
Algonquin nation, and to have employed a dialect of 
that language. 

IROQUOIS is the name of a race dwelling among and 
encompassed by Algonquin tribes. The Iroquois 
country, it will be seen on the Map, lies in the midst 
of the Algonquin area, and is divided into two parts. 
The Northern Iroquois division lies in the region 
near Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Erie, and comprises 
the Five Nations, namely, the Mohawks, Oneidas, 
Onondagocs, Senecas, and Cayugas. The Hurons 
or Wyandots also belong to this division. The 
Southern Iroquois division occupies the country now 
called North Carolina, and comprised the Tuscaroras 
and several inferior tribes, as the Tuteloes, Notto- 
ways, and Meherrins. The Iroquois, though occupy- 
ing a territory inferior in extent to that of the 
Algonquins, have enacted a more conspicuous part 
in history ; and at the time of the discovery of 
America, they were found greatly to surpass the 
Algonquins in military courage, civilisation, and 
intelligence. No remarkable difference in physical 
conformation apjjears, however, to exist between 
these two races. 

SIOUX, or DACOTA, is the third great division of the 
American Indians, and comprises the tribes in- 
habiting the prairie country of the interior, from the 
Mississippi to the foot of the Rocky Mountains. 
The principal nations belonging to this division are 
the Dacotas, the Winebagoes, the Assiniboin, the 
Osagcs, the lowas, and the Upsaroka or Crow Indians. 
Tiie Sioux tribes are more barbarous, and preserve 
the primitive habits of their race more perfectly than 
the eastern tribes. 

FLORIDIAN, or APPALACHIAN, is a name which 
has been applied by some philologists to the lan- 
guages originally belonging to the Southern United 
States. Some of these languages are now extinct, 
and their relations to each other are in some instances 
difficult to be discovered. The languages included 
in this group are Natchez (now all but extinct), 

Muskogee or Creek, Lower Creek or Seminole, 
Chocktaw, Cherokee, and Catawba. The Cherokee 
nation is now increasing rather than decreasing in 
numbers, and is api)arcntly progressing towards a 
higher stage of civilisation than has yet been attained 
by any other native tribe of America. 

PANIS-ARRAPAHOES is a designation which has 
been employed by recent writers to comprehend a 
vast number of hitherto unclassified languages, pre- 
dominating westward of the United States, in Oregon, 
and in California. The term itself is compounded of 
Pa\vnee and Arrapahoe, the two principal languages 
of this division. These languages have as yet been 
little studied, and, with the exception of the Pawnees, 
the barbarous tribes to whom they are vernacular 
are comparatively little known. 


MEXICAN was the language of the semi-ci\-ilised 
tribes of Mexico, at the time of the Spanish conquest 
of the country. This language was, and is still, 
spoken by the Aztec race in the dioceses of Mexico. 
Mechoacan, New Galicia, New Biscay, Oaxaca, and 
Guatemala. The other principal languages now 
spoken in the ancient empire of Mexico, and in 
Central America, are the following: — 

Otomi, spoken to the north of the Mexican area. 

Terasco, in the diocese of Mechoacan. 

Mayan, in Yucatan, Tabasco, and Merlda. 

Misteeo, in Oaxaca. 

Totonac, in Pucbla de los Angeles. 

Huasteca, in Huastecapan, a part of Mexico. 

Zapoteca, Mixe, and six other languages in Oaxaca. 

Mame, Quiche, and six other languages in Gua- 

PLra, and seven others (almost unknown to Euro- 
peans), in New Mexico. 
The numerous other languages of central America are 
little known, and still unclassified. 


Less is kno^TO respecting the ethnology of South 
America than perhaps of any other region in the 
world. The Catholic missionaries have furnished us 
with grammars, dictionaries, vocabularies, catechisms, 
and works of devotion in many of these languages ; 
but it yet remains to examine in detail the structure 
of this multitude of dialects, and to classify them 
according to their several affinities. As a provisional 
method of classification, some recent writers have 
proposed to include the almost innumerable tongues 
and dialects of South America under three grand 
divisions : — 

I. — The Andian, or Ando-Pcruvian languages, spoken 
by all the nations dwelling on or near the great 
mountain chain in the west of South America. In- 
cluded in this division are, therefore, the following 
languages : Peruvian or Quichua, and Aimara, spo- 
ken in the ancient empire of the Incas in the north : 


and in. the south, the Araucanian or Moluche lan- 
guages of the Southern or Chilian Andes : closely 
allied to this branch are the languages (as Tehuel) 
spoken by the Patagonians. 
II. — The languages of Eastern South America, of which 
the principal branches arc the Guarani and Tupi, of 
Paraguay and the Brazils, and the languages of the 
Caribbean group, so called because spoken on or 
near the shores of the Caribbean Sea : this group 
includes the Karif and Arawaek, of which an account 
is given in pp. 391, 392. 

III. — The languages of Central South America, spoken 
by tribes who inhabit the interior forests and llanos 
or plains between the regions of the Cordillera and 
of the Parana. Little has been yet effected in ex- 
amining the structure of these languages, or the 
peculiarities of the nations to whom they are ver- 
nacular. The only languages of South America, in 
which versions of the Scriptures have been given or 
attempted, are the Peru\'ian or Quichtia, Aimara, 
Guarani, Brazilian or Tupi, Karif, and Aiawack ; and 
of these a description will be found in pp. 388-393. 



After Specimen portions of the different Versions of the Scriptures had been procured 
and prepared for this Work, it appeared desirable, in order to funiish every available 
aid towards the examination and comparison of these Specimens, to provide if possible 
a series of Native Alphabets. But here a serious difficulty presented itself. Many of 
the characters in which the Specimens are given are little known even to the learned in 
Europe, and some of them have never before perhaps appeared in print in this country. 
There is therefore no work to which the student can refer, if he wishes to ascertain the 
relative value of the widely-differing Alphabets in which these Specimens are printed. 

Every effort was made to procure a complete series ; but as it was found that 
vei'y many Alphabets could not be obtamed, the design of supplying the comparative 
Tables was about to be relinquished. 

It being however well known to philologists that in the Imperial Prmtmg-office at 
Vienna there exists an unrivalled collection of foreign types, formed by the skill and 
untiring diligence of the Imperial Commissioner, M. Alois Auer, the Publishers ventured 
to represent to the Imperial Government the difficulty experienced in enriching the 
Bible of Every Land with the necessary Alphabets, and sohcited permission to 
purchase from the Imperial Printing-office the Alphabets not procurable in England. 

This appeal was immediately responded to ; and with great liberality. His Majesty 
the Emperor at once directed a complete series of the Alphabets of all the types used 

throughout the work, together -with the powers of each letter, to be prepared and 
forwarded free of cost for the use of the present work. 

The Alphabets, therefore, which the Pubhshers have the satisfaction to include in 
their work, are printed from types cast and prepared in the Imperial Printing-office at 
Vienna, and presented by the Emperor of Austria as a contribution to the completion 
of the Bible of Every Land. 



Ahom .... 



Anglo Saxon 

Arabic . 

Hindustani Signs 

Persian „ 

— — Pushtoo „ 

Malayan „ 

Moorish „ 






Old . 






























. xxxvi 

Hindustani-A-abic . 

XXX vii 

Irish .... 


Japanese : 

Chinese Signs 

Ixi, Ixii 

Firokana . 

. Iviii— Ixii 





Arabic Signs . 



. xlvui 

Mahratta . 




Arabic Letters 



. xlix 

Maldivian . 


Persian Signs 


Arabic „ 






Mongolian . 


Moorish- Arabic Letters 

. xxxvii 




Old English .... lii 

Orissa .... Tliii 

Pali xlii 

Peguese .... xixv 

Persic sssix 

Persian-Arabic . . xxxvii 

Maldivian . . 1 

Pushtoo-A'abic . . . xxxvii 

Babbinical Hebrew . . xxxvi 

Russian .... Uii 

Samaritan .... xxxvi 

Sanscrit .... xli 

Sclavonic .... liv 

SeiTian liii 

Siamese .... xxxiv 

Sindhee xliv 

Syriac .... xxxvi 

— Estrangelo . . xxxvi 

Tamul .... xlvi 

TeUnga xlvii 

Tibetan .... xxxv 

Uriya vHii 

Wallachiau .... liii 

Wuch .... xUt 
















1. Represents the ordinary acute (') accent. 
■2. Represents the ordinary grave (') accent. 

3. and 9. Represent the ordinary circumflex (') accent, 

used to lengthen the sound. 

4. Represents the cedilla 9. 

r Over t, d, 7i, z signifies the cerebral sound of those letters. 

1 Over h marks a simple aspiration. 
I). Distinguishes guttural sounds. 
7. Marks a lengthening of the guttural sound. 









Over m is guttural, 
ver n is cerebral. 
9. and 3. See 3. 

10. The French sound of/ 

1 1 . Adds an r sound to /. 

12. Slarks the French u sound. 

13. Marks a combined long and short ( 

14. The ordinary short vowel sign ("). 
17. Distinguishes palatal n. 


















3. and 9. Represent the ordinary circumflex (') accent. 

4. Represents the cedilla 9. j 
.5. Over t, d, n represent the cerebral sounds of those letters.] 

r Over r a guttural sound. 
' I Over I an additional r sound. 

5. Over /; denotes a simple aspirate. 

r Over m is guttural. 
' 1 Over n is palatal. 
9. See 3. 

10. French pronunciation of _/. 

11. Over I denotes the additional sound of r. 

12. Marks the French u sound. 

Genebai. Rule. — The vowels are to be pronounced as in Italian or German. 

c throughout the alphabets is to be pronounced as cA in chaff, 

ch is to be pronounced gutturally, as in LocA Lomond. 

sch like English sh. 

j like English y. 

For a full explanation of the Chinese Figures, see Endlicher's Chinese Grammar. 




I, 1 

ne 3, 


i, ie. 


i, ci 



,. 11, 






„ 0, 





.. 1. 





„ 21, 





„ 29, 






., 20. 



column 1, line II 


., 17, 

, dh. 


„ 0, 
,. 6, 

, dhr. 

.. 2, 

„ 22, 

. ba. 

Aftee the printing of these Alphabets, it was found desirable to re-arrange, in some 
measure, the system of notation adopted for the explanation of the sounds of the 
various letters. It is hoped that the inconvenience arising from the change of some 
of the figures used as references to the Explanatory Tables of sounds will be very slight ; 
and that, although it is impossible to convey a precisely accurate representation of the 
intonations of foreign speech, enough has been done to render these Alphabets intelligible 
and useful. 

Class I.] 
















jT 33 

^ 35 

^ 30 

:;^ 3v 

JC 33 

^ 39 

*^ 40 

^ 41 

yj> 42 

^ 44 

f^ 45 


r^ 53 



. 61 



5f 68 
if ^' 

5E " 

fl ^* 

^ ^^ 

it «^ 

^ 82 


^ 68 

J J 












aE J 








f J 



3^ 203 
fit 204 
il, 205 

5X 207 

M, 208 

^. 209 

^ 210 



Class II.] 








1 spirit 
" I lenis 


_^ |- spiiit 
1 lenis 


r spiiit 
1- I lenis 

nl rtf i LT 

2 b, bli 


3 b, bh 


-^ '^ ^ g 

, n n n n b 

a g, gh 


"f g, gli 


' d 

-^ .1 

T d, (Ih 



ou h 


n b 


^ d, dh 


0- w, n 

Q G w, a 

1 V7, U 


n h 


1- ds 

-»»■ ch 

f ds 


i w, n 


wii J* u ch, bb 

V . 

n ch 



wjy ^ -i I 

■k. .k. .^ J 

^ ds 

^ _^ ^ 1 

a t 


> J, i 


^ ch 


^ ;=. a k, ch 


V :^ :=. 1 

D 1 k.cb 

3 1 

^ t 

±n m n, 




13. ^ m 

fli J, 1 

J. 3 y 

^ 1 

Q m 

P D 




. w 1ft JO s 


J I "^ 

^ i 

.^ p. ph 



X 1 


V i>. i. n 


vS. a s p, f 


y Sh 

^ m 


^ ts, z 

EL n O !< 

Q f| p, ph 

P q 

:i ■> 


^.a a .o k 


S ^ ts 

i r 

^ s 



I L 3. 1* «,* 




A A, v-A. sch 

A V V ' '^ 

JP sch 



V gi' 

3 P, Ph 


i. i. th 

Efgatatcs, cU. 


. 1 aleph 
N [ lamed 


■fll ts 


"^ ^ ^ li 

[is. . 

'g k 


y •'^ -^ gg 

\> I. 

FoJdeI anti oHjc 

r Sfgns. 

n p J spirit 

!^ " 

-. •■ : I -: 

■.t •■• 

"* sch 

IJoiDd Signs. 

rcVk tha 

-c 11 1- 1 1 

'■ ' 

r » « T 

Q O * 

N •! i. 

:x > •• •• ' 

a ' » ■• 


A t,th 

— - '■ ' 

*♦* • 

Class II.] 








Mcdiiil Initial 

4^ bcb 


^ mb 

'-' <— .^ ; ' ' p 

1 I L 

1 1 a,e,l,o,u 


<? sclidsch 

■is mcb 

^^ t~ '^T "^scb 

^-< <-* 

1. J. . J b 

Ccc bm 

■s^ schh 

^ mdscb 

J j French \\ g 

*m^ •-«« 

■villi ; I 

. , 

5C^ schch 

««,r nm 

vl> Wk 

w' ' J 3, tlj 

^ bj 




*- =- "^ Jscb 

*^ tdsch 

X kjdsch 


s~ ptscb 

^ ,.Hi 

<: I'tsth 


*- c-^ I 

si tch 

«i adsch 

< ■"' 

^ stscb 

s; ttscb 

1 1 

5- o-:;^ ,h 

c^r tin 

^ nmh 

€P sstsch 


o.f pm 

^ i 

J> Jt 


* - 

' . ^scbtscb 

> stscb 

v^tr th 


si nmch 

•L ktscb 

<r\ <r \ 1 

j Jk 


^ tj 

*** sdsch 

-t bh 

« ^ mtsch 

si.jL Itscb 

i kjtscb 

^ -> 

jy '' 

«^ sh 

^ ssh 

■^ bdscb 

s^ bcb 

•ri£ ninstcb 

•S^ sC ntscb 


^ sr 

<? ssch 
ii kh 

«ts£ jb 
^ jdscb 

s^si jtsch 

^ htsch 


L> U- 

— - -^ •< -sch 

TT Sh 

«2. kch 



'^ ^ *^ O S3 

-.a ^ ^o t, (lb 

^ ah 

i icii 

C I' ^2 (> Lb 


)^ la 

u u , 

^ hdsch 

ii Idscli 

'i'% lam.eUf 


la ii 

!i> L» i 

^ hhdsch 

( mm 

t t ^ ^ n,u« 

= ^ a,o,'u 

^ i_? a. 9 P 

e 1^ s ; 

PotocI Signs 

' o > - 

5 * i 



J J 

il 9 *i 

. ^ A V 

1 r 1 

r r I 

i) JL C r ag 

9 S 7 

6 5 T 

3 2 1 

,^ X ds 
J= J- — -^ 





^ ^ f *' 

1 1 . 

J n, D 

0= J- -^ -^ 1 

. \ db 

^ o 

< 1 1 J :i 

f:- itt 

1^ ' 

*^ gh 

^ ^ ^ ^ :i, 

J J 

3 J w, u 1 

i'i ■^'^ 

' !i rt' 

43 (lb 


^ ^ «^ ^ U) 

4 A 

V 4 *> "• t 

• 4; ft 

i_> r- 

4* bh 

3 f _9 


il-t- J J, 1 


«5 th 


«I tb 

X X 

XXX vi 


Class II.] 




U ha 

U- uu 

y. Ui 

V ha 

y he 

M he 

\r ho 

A la 

<V In 

(\ " 

A la 

i\ le 

A° lo 
rh ha 

rtv hu 

^, bl 
^h ha 
rh. he 
rh he 

r^ ho 

CP ma 
(Ji* mu 
(7^ mi 
0^ ma 
cKjj me 
^^ me 
<P mo 





Tl ka 





Th ku 










Yl ka 


^ ke 





^ ku 



•9i ke 


*f* ko 



^ ko 

^ ra 

n ba 



* Tl cha 

A. ra 




* T> chn 

^ ri 





Ai la 

n ha 




^T^ Cha 

Zd fe 

a he 



* T\. Che 

C re 

HI he 



» Tfl Che 

G ro 

n ho 



*'7l cho 

fl sa 




® wa 

tV su 

^ tUu 



(D. wu 

l\ si 

"t thi 



^ wi 

fl sa 




tp wa 

1^ se 

•"t the 



^ we 

h se 

"t* the 



or we 

1*' so 

•f* thii 



/D wo 

* fl scha 

* 'T' tja 




* rb schu 

* "fi tju 



0- " 

* Fi. schi 

* ^ tji 



^ ' 

* Pi scha 

* ^ tja 



Oj a 

* rt sclie 

* ^ tje 



Ol e 

" fl sche 

* T" tje 



6 ^ 

* f" scho 

* ^ tgo 



H za 
rP zu 

H. zi 

H za 

H> ze 

H. ze 

H zo 

IT ja 
'H* ju 


'H' ja 
rt je 
iH" je 

P ja 

B ju 

K ji 

^ ja 

& je 

^ je 

P- jo 

J? da 

^ flu 

J^ cU 

J? ell 

.^ de 

J?* de 

* J? dja 
i^ dju 

* J? dji 
S, dja 

*K djI 

* J? dge 
*;? dgo 

7 ga 

7- gu 

? gi 

P ga 

1 ge 

9 ge 

7 go 

m ta 


(i\ ta 


*? te 

fn to 

*TTr tscha 

* TFT" tschu 

* TH tschi 

* VTJ tscha 

* TTt tsche 
**5* tsche 

f\ pa 

rv pn 

A. PJ 

O pa 

ft. pe 

k pe 

/^ po 

f\ tza 

R< tzo 

R. tzl 

i\ tza 

<b tza 

fV tza 

O tzo 

D za 

0* zu 

^ zi 

9 za 

9, ze 

6 ze 

$P zo 

^ fa 

£ fu 

^ fi 

4 f^ 

4: fe 

X^ tscho /^ fo 

T pa 

J pa 

T pe 

T pe 

T po 

1^ k-ua 

1»^ kTli 

$ kna 
$ kue 
^ kue 

'Jo chua 
■fi chuj 

5 ''-ua 
J 3 

^ chue 

"J^ chue 

Yt" kTia 
Mi kua 
Xk kue 
tl". kue 

7° gna 

^ gua 
% gue 
7^ gue 

<^ new form for re, * to divide the words from each other. ;; to divide the sentences, T nsed only in the Bihle. 

' These characters are peculiar to the Amharic. 

Class III.] 





{i i 1 a, e, i, 0, 1 


^ y^ ^,^. ^ J, 



r< stsch 

y* II 

r sbnj 




C sh' 

=J IJ 

^ bkk 

^v V •* ** i * 1 '^ F- 

J _>;• ;:;■:.■ ,^ t 



y^^ 81- 

ULl/ la 
Ll Ima 
ii to 

/r j^ 

- ->--^'=--^-" 



_^^^ sohr 

y^ thr 

A ^ ^ 2. '^'^'' 



> dbr 

J ih 

^ ? f ^ tscb 



^ tr 

(J ly 

^ ap 

e ^ ^ 5 "■ 



Ji- sr 

Lt ma 

yfi 'm 

e ^ ' 2, cb 



J» sb 

> ms 

£■ sm 

A A 

> gbj 

^ > d 



f ab 

^ nd 

A > 8 



J' 'as 

/»>V >ili 

>/ gbr 

j-y J r 

^ ghjr 

V y s 



^ hr 

>■ nm 

1? sbma 



> gbr 

J "iJ 

.^ Pkk 
, fllb 

/4fc J 

^-^ "^ cT ^ 



^ cbr 
5 ndscb 

-f htd 
i 1^ 

(/ ^ ^ ^ ,s 

>/ fr 

^ ha 

(/ i» ^ ^ cU, 



^ fm 

-f had 

^ ndb 

ij k ti' y I 



(J fy 

-i hsd 

/r air 

a. a y^ y 3 



/ fa 

_>* .hi, 

^- nmr 



^ km j 

_>^ -hp 

^ iitd 

O ^ gii 

f f 


J kj 

A jd 

y. •*' 

- ^ »« '» w> * 



fe^fe^ ka 

- Jb 

4 i^J 

; « 'j ■ > 



/ kk 

4 bib 

^: bj 

U ' C? ^•'i 



^ <rr /T ^ ^,, 

L/ C^ kl 

4 P"3 

ti..^ nj 





-t mk 
> km 


(J kj 

/^y, jr. li 

y/y^ smr 

^ sdb 

^ -m 
^ cbdscb 
^ h'dscb 

t/ ^^' '^*' C/ n 



y^y*' tmr 

^ stscbh 

' ^ w, n 



J lb 

> ghb 

i k- 

--' Vv i->- a» h, t 



V Id 

^ chdscb 

> gw 

-^- '^■■- -^ '■* 



J ip 

"* cbr 

X P''"' 




Class III.] 






5 tlm 




3 eta 


k ' 



^ tu 

;: " 




^ cll.a 





^ tn. 

r ''' 




tJT "1 

FT ta 
gf tba 

^ da 



5r "■» 

^ tva 

=H nta 






U\ .1 




^ ntiya 
^ ntva 
^ nua 
^ ni-a 



^ dha 


1.:,;, .. 



? '^ 




q- na 





^ "g^ 

c p 




qi I'lu 

^ ba 










^ dgya 
■r dgra 
? dgha 
?■ dghra 

p pt 

•gr pna 

CT pla 
CJ Pva 

^ pvya 




?f bha 
Tt Ilia 




^ dda 
7" ddi-a 
^ ddva 




q" ya 








^ - 






^ Iddha 

qr p"^ 





ctT >^ 





5" ddlina 

Tljij piiya 





^ va 

3JT J 








^ dua 

^ dbra 

JT blira 












^ sha 





T' dbha 





^ sa 





^ dbhya 

^ mna 









■ ^ dbhra 

g- mia 





^ ba 





^ dma 

^ mia 





3b '''^ 





251 dya 

^ mva 








?: '^^ 

c y 



ifiprts an 

Ij joints. 





^ diya 

r - 





1 ! 

to c 

7 8 

8 M 




5 dva 

T ^ 



4 5 

? o 

9 IJ 







Sr ''vya 

^ dvia 
^ dh 

^ ru 

1 -^ 











g dlina 

F ' 







y dhra 

^ Ina 










^ dhva 

gT Ua 




UIASS 111. J 







N » 

m k3 

% da 

•51 ^^ 


!■ ta 


> ma 

Ml a 

a 9 ga 

O O dlia 

nl ga 




til gba 

^ na 

nP gi 

Jl ^ 

■i mu 

B Q3 

If pa 

Slfl gba 

•Te '^ 

M mba 


H ca 

IS plia 


■^ tva 

Sti nibu 


CO cba 

O ba 



6 6 ja 

TJ tva 

Uil ya 


fl bba 



fil jba 

If ma 

U cca 

^ ddba 

"tJ \7a 


^ na 

Iff ya 

01 ccba 

(9 dva 

J ru 

n *e 

is ta 
■1 Urn 

^ ra 


^ nu 

S .1 


& da 

mil 1 

■la 1 


^fil ijha 

^n '^ta 

■ si 

U dha 


<U QC3 

^^ ndba 


Qj« 5 


llfl na 

O O 73 

S i 

2, n&a 

Ml ssa 

• m 

3 ttba 

g bba 

A» division 

fli ta 

U »a 

: h 

O tllB 

in ba 

SD mia 

9* bba 



Class III.] 















pb, bb 




Wff1 .. 






kh, gh 



811 I a 


3TT . 



•5 n i 



» i' 

'^cz f 

©^ " 







•57 1 











* m 

cb, j 

t, d 


S ai 








^'^^c^ ■ 






■^ ka 
Jll kill 



tb, db 



13G G-l au 



5t ga 



■s* m 



^ glii 1 







i r 






% ka 



f c... 




P ') 



^ Jha 



ft| kba 

-a ga 

(9 gba 







«> kta 





y TTl 


gJo na 



^ kra 



S ca 



^ ksha 
^t gna 







S cba 



^ jna 
^. nc.i 
>R nja 







Si ja 
^ jha 




<S. t 








\3 na 



'i^ Ua 


TV dda 



tjji dm 









W dhva 



& kra 



T -na 
^ utu 







€ ksba 



^ ntha 






^ ndlia 



/ Y^ 




S cbi 



31 mna 



<i$ ^a 



q' nva 
^ pta 







^ tbi , 




Class III.] 




n) a 

O 1 

@ u 
























•i ta 
"^ tba 

\ <la 

h dba 

'^ na 

i pa 

^ pha 

^ ba 

^ ma 

^ ya 

"S ra 

'^ la 


V. va 

% sa 

S ha 

^ tra 





ft •«. 











in jha 
T» na 















































T£ pra 













^ / vowel 
S 1 omitted 








2A J 






ya ki 

-3x1 jhi 




511 -1 



^ ku 

■^ jhu 



2n.i J " 

4' i 



%^ ki 

od khi 

~^ jhu 
^ ti 





« a 



^ khu 

^ tu 



^ ^ 

? " 



*^ khu 

^ tu 



% TO 

^ r 



on gi 

61 thi 



%. ™ 

an ■ 



^ m. 

^ thu 



C'tl ii 




id gM 

^ thu 



^1. la 





% ghu 

^ du 



^ H 



^ gbu 
^ c< 

5^ du 

(gl dhi 




■ aa 



^ CU 

^3 dim 



:^ -i 





7^ CU 
«^ Chi 

11(1 ni 



^ su 

Ol kha 



^ chu 

U|) nu 



;?a ^'' 

31 ga 



^ ch^ 

lik ^^ 



&> on 

^ gha 



rd ti 



«Jt^ cu 

^ ca 




3 tu 



^ "' 

^ cha 
ft ja 


9^ j" 

2(1 thi 



J* bu 

-^ bu 







T A M U L. 





■0[ a 



tSroooi' Mi 







■^ a 











® ' 








i-^i i 









fnr * 





^ u 








11, u 

.SfUVT " 









ffr e, e 











© " 











<st; 0,0 











<sz;C3vr ='" 









5i) ka, ga 










1^ na 

J ca,ja, 
rr. I sha 
















© na 






1 ta, da 











0001" ''^^ 











g^ ta, da 











rc na 
l_j pa, ba 









LD "^'^ 












LLI ya 











IT 1" 











00 'a 












gp sba 










OVT "" 











AT) Ilia 








Class III.] 




TE L 1 N C A. 




5 va 

-Q ci 




t? a 



^ " 

XM en 







oo^ sha 






^ > 




^ sa 

OOT" jha 





45 u 



^ ha 

QCljr* jhi 





4« >' 




r ^^ 

OSXT* jhu 






ee rha 

ar Sa 



-iAi>r» 1 



i pause 

22J« nn 





X - 



■S^ ka 

OC^ D" 






tt&T> 1 



^ tu 

"& te 





oJ e 



S^ ku 

^ dn 





»!J e 

2sO (la 




§^ ko. 




SD ai 

© ti 






(^ ksha 

^ u 







r^ ge 

So tu 





2a ^'^ 



^ te 



O D5 



"/^ gau 

Sb ttn 





: h 



OCiy gha 

(§; tra 





^ ..a 



cJS da 





^ kha 



a di 





K ga 



ni'lT' ghu 


ZSS dn 







C05 *=* 



2^ Aa 

"S de 





2i 33 



SjU nu 

5^ do 










tp I 



^ I 


d- a 


^ s 


'Uii ' 

UiS' r 


T 1 


^ r 


O e 


(O e 























<Ja5 ba 

&e ra 






























(^ dri 

qS"* na 

^ m 

-| ne 

?^ nna 











53^ va 

O^ sha 



r sign of 
I duplication 


Class III.] 




(S«a a 




(S^-D a 


ta, da 



s ti 





^^ 1 






® U- 





OtDO-1 I 




«"n tta 
«@ ttu 




^ u 





«52> tma 





£"3 u 


ta, da 



<© tra 





83 ; 





<Si u-u 





^ V 





(C^ tsa 





ffYO 1 





§ du 





«YD, ',« 





S dr 





«€) e 


pa, ba 



«^ ddha 





■^ e 





S) dya 





G'^ ai 





nt n 










03 nu 










fS) nJ 





QHD au 

° m 






OTO nta 
^ ntu 




"^ ka, ga 
6i-l kha 





CS) ntra 
03 nda 

CfliZ) -, 

. yma 


^ ga 





OTVjO ndha 

^ ^ 


'^ gha 





cro nna 

^ - 



03 na 





oa nma 





L sha 
^ cha 
ES ja 

rari jha 






OOJ n7a 
Q-J pu 
•^ pu 
n-A pta 









2d ppa 










S 3 3 4 




(2d pra 





6 T 8 9 



enj bu 






Class III.] 






©Hj JForm. 

litfo jFoTin. 








<i2:) h 


tjfDO ' 







7/ '" 

r "^ 




o> •> 

r " 

(Til 1 







O r 

5^ ' 

Clijr "^ 







2. ' 

n i 1) 
> • 

Cd Ji7 1 







vS> k 

y ' 

£3 ©1 







C53 w 

y) ^ 

g w 

d ® 1 z ''■ 







^jj ra 

®a ®§ 1 " 







^. f 

^ ' 

® ® 1 D n 







^.L^ <= 
3 ' 

© ® 1 i J 







COj 1 

9 ' 

?fti t> ae 







S ' 

3 ^ 

qW ^e 







V^ n 

OC m 
2a ka 







^ ^ 

^ a 


S) kha 








^ 1 

CO 5a 








Jfl) J.t 

33 "M 



x?. ' 





© ua 










(^ cha 







^ . i 

^ .h 1 

t > 

d ja 







■ ?. " j 

J^ ' 











Fofael Points. 


Class III.] 






fia. I. 

^ a 

Aa . 



-<V <v "] 

u ^ 

B b 

Bb b 


A a 

2( 21 J 

Qfinitn m 

r g 

C C c 



5 b ' 

l<inn , 

!L <i 

Db d 





C c 

U 1 

e e c 



6 e e 

I r 

rn J 

5 S f . 

h h 

()) th 

(35 g 
bh !■ 
Ii i 






55 u 

Zz , 

11 i 

R k 

LI 1 




hb " 

U u „ 

A 1 

00 in in 



1i j; i 

Vr V 

H m 

N n " 



N n 



N n 

Ho. 2. 

C, : 

Pp V 



a a 

N n 11 

n u 

Rp . 



6 b 1) 


s r s 



C c c 


n 1 

Tc t 



t) D ,i 

Rp r 


Qu u 



e e c 

s r s 

S s 

V P V 



?F f 

Vz t 

T t 




S5 :■ 

U u u 

y v,y 

Yy ^■ 



n h h 


W w 


1 1 1 

" nn 

1^ r 

Zz z 



CI 1 

IP n- 


• (111, th 



mm m 


ft " 



Class III.] 









A a a 

^ a 


a ar 

Ip ba 

Ip quod 

9t a 
6 c 

P b 

5i8 b 

3h ^ 

5 an, am 

l|j he 

tp lie 

Ty g 

tt « 

6 ao 

i^ bo 

ffl quoque 

® b 
e e 
S f 

A8 d 

Bitl a 

fe ba 

fi h, etc 

q ♦ quam 

© g 

^e " 

fe »'^ 7 in. im 1 

® 9 

g ») 

zc z 

iff ^ 

Jjt bet 

2 ' 
ft re 

St I 

0^ tb 

©5 s 

Uf re 

8 I 


I L 1 


m nim 

iDl m 

tl n 

ft <^' 

5 nd 

n 1 

tt rum 

91 n 


P P 

A A 1 

JKk ' 

^ con 

IT '' 

iD q 

11 r 

Jf ^ m 

/IHm " 

^ Che 

n J 

5 "^^ 


sR r 

® fS 

3; t 

U u 

t t 

m n 

N V n 


iRna " 

t^ cho 

^ pre 

f Be 

s » 

Utt p 

00 « 

0J CO 

ta da 

P pri 
pi pa 

t ter 
t ta 

2B to 

^ 3 

Pp r 

iDq ^ 

tp de 

F '"^ 

tl^ tb 

3 J 

© ii 

Tt t 

JRr r ^ 

^ ^ den 

ff ''^ 

^ the 


t u 

ru u 

^Caf ^ 

^ J dem 

tjK ppe 

y uer 


<? pb 

It ' 

to ''" 

^ pro 

U im 


Xx ch 

^UU u 

p est, en 

g per 

U uer 


■!F^ PS 

HJu ^ 

p re, er 


tt la 


/2 CO 

OS ta w 

fi fi 

^ prop 

fi ub 




?l - 

ffl ffl 


9 3 us 





r y 

§ gi 

fl Qna 

ra '^ 



V V V V 

§ gi-a 

q qui 





Class III.] 



A L B A N 1 A If . 






Ho. 2. 









A a a 



A a 





• e 





B6 b 







A l 






B B W,T 




W, V 









Fr g,h 







t V 





Aa d 









• u 

E e ye,e 




ye, e 

hi hi 













jK a; Bb (z) 




8b (z) 









33 s 

Ge 1 



6 a 

ti, t. 







Hh i 













Mh j 












li i 







la (a) 

0,' et 


Kk k 
















J. ji 1 


y, w 

A .A, 










Mm m 

ab Jb 




^ jb 








Hh n 






















19 «, 









Iln P 







"C s 






Pp . 







'V9t ^ 





Cc s 












Tt t 







C|C 0^ 






yy u 





A jfi 




d cS 






o * f 













Xx ch 








Class IV.] 






6 a 

3 ^ 


G ^« 

Kt; a. 

?E t 

8 . 

27> 1 

^ ^ 

^ ds 

^3 b 

0» UJJ u 

3 ^ 

9 -. 

? wi 

V - 


4 d wi (u, ou) 

^ a 

G " 

•g Ph 


^y d 

Tip p" 

a ^ 

\2, > 

, f- dsch 


Ttl e 

^ »|l k 

3 " 

g 3 (soft) 


S^ gh 

1j kh 

IJi 7p w,v 

fl Tl gh 

' ■) h (mute) 

^ s. 

"0 ^ 

,3 kkh 

"b Tj z (soft) 

H^ 1 

CO «i 

r^ ^ 


^ dsh 

p h h (mute) 

O Q sch 

O ' 

L ^ 

lil tsch 

1 h (mute) 

-11 ' 

I» h tsch 
Gi (I ts 



(JO am 

ijb es 

fllj is 

b^ sa 

h\ k 

^ ^ ds 

l5^ ar 

etl^- ewn 

rftj "^11 

Ub ss 


K m ths 

OLr as 

no ekh 

J - 

"1 .e 

5t 3 m 

^H '''> 

U ak 

(? agh 

^ wa 
^ was 

^0 ueb 
^ kn 

^ Phe 
0J5 Phw 

Kfi n 

Vit» '^'^'^ 

(^ akh 
ro ad 

^ we 

:|1j ks 

# kwa 

^O 1 

Qj ui 

"* ?f| (French) 
, Ti TO h (mute) 

-^^ ed 

9] k'lo, vlo 

# - 

\} TJ P 

£^ fo 

"IJO eg 

1^ e. 
•p en 

■^ wgb 
QO wkh 
(JIU ths 

rajb 13 

y- mo 
^ Bha 

^ qd 

olr iwa 

^ qwn 

M "0 (French 

) S g tsch 
4> ^ ph 

4 «? 

CnD thkh 

d>- ro 

^- scho 

th B 


Class IV.] 



Class IV.] 





(r\ - 

a " 



^' ~ 

^ ' 








■6* ■ ga j 






X ■ 




i ! 




^ 1 









1 J 

ru j 



h ^ 





c^ ■ 


^ ' 













• ta 

. na 


. fa 






■ tsu 



- da 












3 - 

^ l-wa 

1 ^ 

■ rs 




■ ri 


1 I 

■ re 

■ dzu 





. ka 









\ ^ 


















ty > mu 


j 'f' 



■ mc 










■ ku 


\ ^ 

• fi 







1 t 







■ .-u 





•ma ^. 

' t 




• go 


* " 

1 ^ 

■ wi 


^ J 



■ si 




- no 

^ 1 


- ke ^ 

> te 

■k. ^' ^ 

■ mo 

f ■ 





► zi 



6^ J 

4 J 

^ ^ 



t , 


n 1 

-s> - 

%- 1 

% ~ 





ghc "^ 


^ ' 






If' J 

^ - 

.M 4 






A. 1 

> J 




1^ ' 

A 1 

^" Uu ' ^ 



/C J 

l^ J 

45 J ^ _ 

^ - 


^ J . ff J 

O point 


Class IV.] 




ifc J 

Q^ bosi 

(C^ dosi 

I^ risi 

Hj rusi 

Ia» rabes 

2/ wowc 

*/ wosi 









"O, tsudzu 










• kusi 










• goto 

4 ( 

BonWi'ng Signs. 
< <^ <^ <» 




^^ J 


Class IV.] 




Cljincsc Signs 

•^ ima 

;& 1 

f isi 

A^ iuii 

^ roku 

]] . 

(^ ' fan 


y)^ fasti 

ip fatsiz 


^ fei 





^ tsl 










% <lan, 

^ tatsi 

^ so 



5 ] 
^ i 

c5 nari 

4^ muro 

Itl ut., 

_h. "ye 





ClA33 IV.] 






ffiljincsc Sips. 


% I 

^ I 

S I 


'J> J 

^ ■ koiio 





4 1 

- te 

^ ta 
^ ten 
^ aki 


^ 1 

"^ saka 


;^ ti 

■ kitbi 

in I 

1^ I 

Vl I niid- 



Q 1 

^ J 

"I* niosi 

^ mote 

± mokix 

I. ic-n 
^ J 




Class V.] 

'A 'a 
A a 
I i 

U -u 
B b 
T t 
Tz tz 
DJ <« 

HI 111 

Ch d. 

D d 
Dz dz 
R r 
Z z 
S s f 


Tf ts tf u^ 
Dl dl c> 







I Til th 

' Tl fl 




Gh gh 

Ng rg- 

P f 


Kh Idi 

K k 

G g 

L 1 

M m 


(J W 1 

a w J 

H h 









b, V 










i, e 






















I Pp ' 

Cc s 

Tt t,d 

4> ^ 111 

■A/ ?C ch, sc 
^l'^ PS 

G) 0) 
Qq r 
Kx g 

bja hh 
(j 6" sk, sc 
Q)«) sch I 

tf ti , 



Mn ,n : 


06 i 

P 0) er 


CO i 


B 1,, V 

r s 

A r 

e e 

t. z 

H i, c 

O th 

I i 

K k 

A I 

U m 

M n 


n 1), b 

P r 

C £ 

T t, d 

T i.y 

<1) Pli 

A" ch, so 

•I- p. 


s g 

cr s 

;a scii 

Z h 

fj hk 

+ ti 

Class V.] 


[Polynesian or Malayan. 


6 ^-ik .) nsr, 



inn Q. i iwt 


Jin ha 

d "y^" 

onji - 

^ >;' 



d" aa 

HSL, ta 



p re 

2: J. 

C^ nu 

C' — 



<> ca 

9S13 tu 


a ua 

<=> Jti « 



-a. sa 

dJ y- 

A ca 

C!& cu 

C^ e (10) 


0^ su 

C3 (^ 

'y ru 


d1 ^a 



«J> pa 

O 11—2 , 




o ™ 

dl ^" 

(^ en 

-1. n 




• ra 

(KL, la 

U ma 


i '' 




OOJ lu 

O 1 




a J 

lUin lia 



1 '■ 

-J1 pa 

onn ga 


(K1 aa 

(Kl, ka 

CO da 




(UIJ gu 

QOI ca 



IK^ ku 

Q 1 , 


ca to 



m ra 

^ da 

Q J 

Q) 1 

(Kn ka 



/^ (lU 

<Si ja 

«} J 


10 da 



Vo rti'^ 

(Sd ju 

CO ta 


Capital ilctters. 


nnnn lu 



(Km ~ 

(U) i_. OS , 

onn c 

(KV ka 



(t^ ta ■ 


I sa 



onn "3. 

31 ^ ^ <i (lOJi (a 


(Uk J 



1 2 

3 4 5 6 7 8 





Ajenaqui . . .374 
Accra .... 342 
Adiyah or Femandian . 346 
Afigban or Pushtoo . 58 
Aii'ican or Moorish Arabic, 

or Mongrebin . . 43 
Aimara .... 389 
Albanian . . . 239 
Alemannic or Old High 

German . . .171 
Aleutian or Aliout-Liseyeff 297 
Amharic .... 48 
Anamite ... 12 
Ancient Armenian . 61 

Greek . . 189 

Anglo Saxon . . .153 
Arabic .... 39 

Moorish or Afi-ican, 

or Mongrebin . . 43 

Arakanese or Rukheng . 6 
Ararat, Armenian . 65 

Arawack . . .392 
Armenian, Ancient . 61 

Arai'at . . 65 

Modem . 66 

Armorican or Breton . 145 
Ashantee or Odjii . . 343 

Assamese . . . .97 
Australian, New S. Wales 324 

Aztec or Mexican . . 383 

JJASHMtTRIC ... 330 

Basque, French . . 2G1 

Spanish or Escuara 263 

Bassa . . . .340 

Batta .... 310 

Belochee or Bulochee . 60 

Bengalee .... 92 

Dialects . . 96 

Berber .... 331 

Bhojepoora ... 88 

Bikoueera ... 91 

Bima .... 



Brazilian and Guarani 

Breton or Armorican 

Bruj or Brij-bhasa 

Bugheloundee . 

Bugis and Macassar 

Bulgarian . 

BuUom . 

Bulochee or Belochee 




Buttaneer or Virat . 

Oappke or KafUr. 



Canai-ese or Karnata 

Canoj or Canyacubja 

Carib or Karif . 



Cashmerian . 

Catalan or Catalonian 

Catchee or Cutchee 

Central India Dialects 

Chaldee . 

Cherokee . 

Chinese . 

Chippeway or 


Cingalese . 





Croatian or Dalmatian 

Curacao Negro Dialect 
Cutchee or Catchee 




Daco-Eomau A or Wal- 

German, Old High, or Ale- 

lachian . 


manic .... 


Dacota or Sioux 




Dajak .... 


Gheez or Ethiopic . 


Dabnatian-Servian or 

Gipsy or Rommany 


Croatian . 


Gothic .... 


Danish .... 


Grebo .... 




Greek, Ancient . 


Dialect, Negro, of Curacao 




Negro, of Surinam 


Greenlandish . 


Dialects, Bengalee . 


Guarani and BrazOian . 


Cognate, Siamese 


Gujerattee .... 




Gurwhal or Schreenagur 


India, Central 


Dogura or Jumboo . 




Dorpat Esthonian 


Haussa .... 


DuaUa or Dewalla . 


Hawaiian .... 


Dutch .... 


Hebrew— Old Testament 


New Testament 


ENGHADDfE, Upper and 

Memoir descrip- 

Lower, or Romanese . 


tive of . Supplement (1) 

English .... 


Hindustani or Urdu 


Escuara or Spanish Basque 








Esthonian, Dorpat 


Hungarian or Magyar 


Eeval . 




Ethiopic or Gheez 






-LcELANBiC or Norse . 


Faroese .... 


India, Central, Dialects of 


Feejeean .... 


Indian, New England . 


Fernandian or Adiyah . 




Finnish .... 


Iowa .... 


Flemish .... 




French .... 


Isubu .... 




Italian .... 


Formosan .... 






Japanese .... 










German .... 





JudfEO-Persic ... 57 

Judeo-Polish . . 400 

Judeo-Spanish . . . 396 

Jumboo or Dogura . 102 

Juyapoora ... 91 

JVaffir or Caffre . 351 
Karaite-Tartar . . .290 
Karass or Tm-kish- Tartar 287 
Kai-elian . . . 271 

Karen, Karayu, or Karieng 13 
KariforCarib . . 391 
Karnata or Canarese . 120 
Khaspoora or Nepalese 103 
Khassee .... 15 
Kikamba . . . .358 
Kinika .... 358 
Kisuaheli .... 357 
Kousulu or Koshala . 88 
Kumaon . . . .104 
Kunkuna . . . 110 
Kurdish .... 68 

JjAos or Law 

Lappouese . 



Lettish or Livonian 



Low Malay 

JVlacassae and Bugis 

Magadha or Magudha 

Magyar or Hungarian 

Mahi-atta or Marathi 


Malay, Low 







Maori or New Zealand 

Marathi or Mahratta 


Marwar . 

Massachusett . 

Mayan .... 


Mexican or Aztec 


Micmac .... 


Misteeo . . . . 


Mithili or Tirhitiya 


Modem Armenian . 




Syriao . 


Mohawk .... 


Mohegan . . . . 


Mon, Talain, or Peguese 


Mongolian Proper 


Mongi-ebin, or African or 

Moorish Arabic . 


Mordyinian or Morduin 




Moultan, Wuch, or Ooch 






Namacqua ... 354 

Nepalese or Khaspoora . 103 

Negro Dialect of Cui'acoa 404 

Dialect of Sui-inam 403 

New England Indian . 365 

New S. Wales Australian 324 

New Zealand or Maori . 318 

Norse or Icelandic . 177 
Norwegian Laplandish 

or Quanian . . 268 

Odjii or Ashantee 

Ojibway or Chippeway 

Old Saxon . 


Oodeypoora . 

Oojein or OujjuyTinee 

Orenburgb-Tartar . 

Orissa or Uriya 


Ostiacan or Ostjakian 



Oujjuyunee or Oojein 

JTAII .... 

Palpa .... 


Peguese, Talain, or Mon 

Persic .... 


Peruvian or Quichua . 388 

Piedmontese . . . 234 

Polish .... 246 

Portuguese ... 223 

Pottawattomie . . 373 

Provencal or Komaunt . 230 

Punjabee or Sikh . . 100 

Pushtoo or Affghan . . 58 

(juANiAU or Norwegian 

Laplandish . . 268 

Quichua or Peruvian . 388 

XVAEOTONGA . . .314 

Eeval Esthonian . . 273 

Romaunt or Provencal . 230 
Romanese or Upper and 

Lower Enghadiue . 235 

Rommany or Gipsy . . Ill 

Eukheng or Ai-akanese 6 

Russian .... 244 

OAHEMC .... 


Samoan .... 


Samoiede .... 

Sanscrit .... 

Saxon, Anglo . 

Old . . . 

Schreenagur or Gm-whal 

Sclavonic . 



Servian . 

Sesuto or Sisuta 





Cognate Dialects 

Sikh or Punjabee . 
Sioux or Decota 
Sindhee .... 
Sh'enian or Ziriaa . 
Sisuta or Sesuto . 
Slovakian .... 


Basque or Escuara 263 

Surinam, Negro Dialect of 403 

Susoo 336 

Swedish .... 185 

Syriac .... 33 

■ in Hebrew characters 36 

Modem . . 37 

Syro-Chaldaio ... 37 

Jahitiau ... 312 

Talain, Hon, or Peguese 9 

Tamul or Tamil . . 113 

TeUnga or Teloogoo . 118 
Terasco . . . .385 

Tibetan .... 17 

Tigr^ 47 

Timmanee . . . 340 
Tirhitiya or Mithili . 96 
Tongan .... 316 
Toulouse . . . .238 
Trans-Caucasian Tartar 292 
Tscheremissian . . . 274 
Tsehuwaschian . . 291 
TuluorTuIuvu . . 123 
Tungusian Proper . 278 
Tm-co-Greek and Turkish- 
Armenian . . . 285 
Tui-kish .... 282 
Tartar or Karass 287 

U PPEE and Lower Engha- 

dine or Romanese . 235 
Tipper and Lower Wendish 255 

Urdu or Hindustani . 78 

Uriya or Orissa . . 98 

Vaudois .... 232 

Virat or Buttaneer . 91 

Virginian . . . 365 


Romana . . . 229 

Welsh .... 129 

Wendish, Hungarian . 257 

Upper and Lower 255 

Wogulian ... 275 

Wotagian or Wotjakian . 276 

Wuch, Ooch, or Moultan 100 

Y AEEiBA or Yoruba 


Zirian or Sii'enian . 












T HE LOU 1) 

' S P 11 A Y E 11 


From Adelung's Mithridates, revised by Dr. Pfizmaier. 

1,^1^ "i""K 

It -" 

-fe -■ 

B j" 

fX "s° 

^ tshy 

It "1 

;^ rs. 

P5 y- 

P^ hien 

•t -■'- 

/n -" 

^ teng 

/7^ tschh,g 

^ n.i„g 

^ tien 

r\ - 

-]- y 

"B. f" 

1^ Unng 

W vang 

ifj liing 

M >^^» 

^ tschc 

P^ y.^i 

fJC ngo 




■8^ sliing 

a "K" 

:t^ ku„ 

'ft cay 

^ ... 

4^ kin 



■^ teng 

77 -' 

:^- tchc 

a - 

Q je 

j(ri ju 

m kue 


jj;j^ kieu 

^ yeu 

"fjl tchay 

m yu 


PI -' 

a "S" 

a ■- 

^ P" 


a "- 

;^ ticn 

t^ ke 


;7^ yu 


a -go 

a "- 


Pi "1 

Jli yuen 

. TI 




From Adelung's Mithridate 

s, revised by Dr. Pfizmaier. 

[^ tchbi 

.^ P" 

^ ngf, 

^ yc-n 

i% so 


^ muig 

^ Ngb 

^ yac, 

C^ jm 

r ^^ 

J^ y«" 


^ khi 

^ tang 

^ tschi 

'E ^"^ 



Y^ thsing 

\^ thsing 

=^ ngo 

i. wci 

^ kiun 

S ' 

1^ poi 

^-^ sche 

^ kittn 

^ kiC. 

^ kiun 

^ tsclii 

<^ «■ 

]^ mi 

^•j kia 

^^ sclie 



^i}3 schin 

^ tsai 

^: Ijoe 

A^ Jin 

cfe mcia 


^ ting 

^ kiun 

^ tsing 


J^ yea 

)3^ ug. 

yg^ tsi'ug 

<}4 '"" 

j^^ tsching 

"^ thien 

i^ thsing 

i^ kiOn 

^ tschi 

^ ng^ 

"^ tllien 

^1 .ing 

■^ tschc 

<;4 ™^' 

III sm 

ll^ ku,-, 

[^ schi 

fe^ ,hi 

^ tang 

^ ki.n 





IN 21 VOLUMES, IN 1823. 





































. z 














^ Tfco 

























































































































. ^ 







Geographical Extent, and Stati.stics. — The Chinese empire, inchiding within its area about 
a third of the Asiatic continent, occupies little less than one-tenth part of the whole habitable globe. 
Cliina proper, in which alone the Chinese language is vernacular, comprises eighteen provinces, each 
of which is equal in extent and population to some European kingdoms ; it forms about a fourtli part 
of the entire region generally regarded as tributary to the Chinese emperor, and contains an area of 
1,348,870 square miles. According to the last census, taken in 1825, China proper, exclusive of the 
colonies, has a population of 352,866,012; but this estimate is considered by recent authorities rather 
to under-rate the number of inhabitants. It is generally admitted that there are about 288 inhabitants 
to every square mile in China, which is somewhat more crowded than in England.' Hence thousands 

> Martin, Vol. I. p. 447. Abdcel's China Introd. p. 19. 


annually migrate from China to the shores of the Indian Archipelago ; and Mr. Crawfurd, the late 
resident at Singapore, estimated the number of Chinese dispersed throughout the Philippines, Borneo, 
Java, Singapore, Malacca, Penang, Siam, Tonquin, and adjacent districts, at 734,700. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The language used by this vast population exliibits 
certain affinities with some of the idioms of Central Asia, yet is distinguished by some remarkable 
characteristics jDcculiar to itself. 

The first grand peculiarity is the remarkable fact, that in the written language of China the words 
or characters are not, as with ourselves, representatives of spoken sounds, but symbols of abstract ideas. 
It contains no alphabetical letters in our sense of the term ; and every written character is an entire 
word, with a uniform meaning in all parts of the empire, independent of its conventional sound in the 
various local dialects. Tliis constitutes a great difficulty in the acquisition of the language ; not, 
however, to the extent that has been generally supposed. It is true that in the standard national 
Lexicon, published by command of the emperor Kang-he in the seventeenth century of the Christian 
era, there are found as many as 30,000 distinct characters. Most of these, however, are either obsolete, 
or of very rare occurrence; so that in the penal code of China, translated by Sir George Staunton, and 
in the Chinese Version of the New Testament, the result of a careful collation has proved that there 
are only about 3000 characters in very general use. The Chinese characters have been sometimes 
compared to the hieroglyphics of Egypt. The resemblance, however, must not be extended too far, 
as Chinese writing was never confined to a priestly caste, and is moreover a more artificial and inge- 
nious system of ideographic combinations. There are 214 original characters or roots, into some of 
which every one of these 30,000 characters may be resolved by the process of dissection or analysis, 
and which form the foundation of the meaning as well as the basis of the lexicographic arrangement of 
each compound character. 

The written symbols of the Chinese may be divided into four kinds. The Jirst class comprehends 
those which appear to have been originally mere rude pictorial representations of visible objects, 
although in process of time the original resemblance has been almost lost; as e.g. the symbols for a 
field W , a man A , a horse ^^ , a sheep ^. . 

The second class consists of symbols of complex ideas, which were formed by an ingenious com- 
bination of those more elementary symbols which they already possessed ; as e. g. the character yj^|] le, 
is made up of two elementary characters, that for grain on the left, and that for a knife or sickle on 
the right. The entire symbol thus compounded has the general meaning of gaiii or profit ; an idea 
taken from reajnng the fruit of the soil. 

A third class comprises those symbols which we may suppose would be required by their national 
progress in civilisation, and the necessity for an incrAise of terms for expressing their continually 
enlarging number of ideas. These may be termed phonetic characters (inasmuch as a portion of the 
character affords a heljj or guide to its spoken sound), in which there is a slight analogy to our 
alphabetic system of compounding words. The existence of this class of symbols proves that the 
present elaborate and extensive system of Chinese written words is the result of gradual additions 
and successive invention. There are about 1500 primitive characters in very common use, which 
we may imagine to have been the whole stock of symbols at a very early period of history, and 
which had not only a definite idea, but also a definite sound attached to each. As every character in 
Chinese is pronounced in speaking as a monosyllable, it would come to pass that their ideas, and the 
written characters by which they expressed those ideas, would increase far beyond what they would be 
able to pronounce by separate sounds amid the monosyllabic poverty of their spoken language. Many 
ideas would all be expressed in speaking by one and the same monosyllabic sound. Instead of 
selecting an entirely new character, they would take some well-known character in general use, having 
the same sound; and by merely adding one of the 214 roots or simple elements to influence the 
meaning, they would form a new combination, the whole being in effect a new written symbol, of 
which one part influences the sound, and the other the sense. 

Thus, to take the example of ^|] le, profit, which was employed for illustrating the principle of 
the second class of symbols; we may suppose this to have become one of the 1500 primitive characters, 
having its definite sense and established pronunciation. There is another le in the spoken language. 

Mono-Syllabic Languages.] CHINESE. 3 

meaning a pear-tree. They simply took the character ^|] profit, having tlic sound of le, and adding 
tlie radical character ~ir viuh, wood, they formed a new combination, 2]^ fe, a /Jear-^ree, of which 
the upper part gives the sound, and the lower the sense. So again on the same principle, by combining 
tlie same primitive ^|J le, with the radical, having the sense of disease, a new character is virtually 
formed |jjjj pronounced h, but having the sense of dysentery. So again for writing the word le 
having the sense of hatred, they combine the same primitive ^|] with the radical bearing the meaning 
of Arar^, the whole forming a new symbol ^JJ k, hatred, of which the upper part gives the sound, and 
the lower influences the sense. And on the same principle, there are in all ten phonetic derivatives 
from the same primitive ^|J le, all having the same sound of le, but having diifercnt meanings 
according to the radical character with which le is combined. 

The fourth class comprises those symbols which may be considered of arbitrary formation, and 
are found, in no inconsiderable number, vminfluenccd by any principle of classification in their origin. 

We now proceed to notice some of the peculiarities of the spoken language. The absence of an 
alphabet has deprived the Chinese of an important means of preserving a uniformity of spoken 
language through every part of the empire. A native of China would be altogether unintelligible, 
speaking his local patois at a distance of 200 miles from his home ; and yet, like the Arabic figures of 
arithmetic in western countries, the written chara(;ter is everywhere the same throughout the whole of 
China, though in reading and speaking the local pronvmciation becomes in fact a separate language. 
Thus the symbols for twenty-two, though written the same, are spoken by a native of Peking 
urh-shih-urh, by a native of Kingpo gae-a-pne, by a native of Canton e-shap-e ; in the same way as 22 
would convey the same idea but have a difierent sound in each language of Europe. The dialect of 
the capital, commonly called the mandarin or court dialect, is used as the medium of intercourse 
between the government ofiicers and the literati in all parts of the country, to obviate the inconve- 
nience of the local dialects. 

The great difiiculty of the spoken language consists in the fact already adverted to, the mono- 
syllabic nature of Chinese words. Two great difiicultles are connected with this, viz. the system of 
tones, and the redundancy of the colloquial style. There are loss than 400 monosyllabic sounds of 
which the Chinese organs of speech are susceptible; and these have to be divided among 30,000 
written characters. By means of intonations of voice each monosyllable is capable of considerable 
variations which respectively influence the meaning. But with all these contrivances of varied tone, a 
large number of ideas will be expressed by the same sound and the same tone. No difficulty is pro- 
duced thereby in the written language, as each word is a different character, having a different visible 
form ; but great perplexity is Irequeutly caused in speaking, and hence a redundant style is employed 
in conversation, which is altogether unnecessary, and is considered very inelegant in a written com- 
position. A well known Protestant Missionary, now labouring in China, has been known to make a 
challenge that he could write a moral treatise in Chinese, of which each character would have only the 
sound of e, or //(, or yih. The impossibility of understanding the meaning of such a composition when 
read aloud to a person who has not the writing itself before him, will be apparent to every one, unless, 
in reading it aloud, an additional number of sounds are employed for each character to prevent con- 
fusion. Hence has arisen the practice of employing two or more monosyllabic sounds in speaking, 
where one would have been sufficient in writing. 

Thus the spoken language becomes in one sense no longer monosyllabic. This addition is made 
either by reduplication of the sound, by using two synonymous words, or by forming some other 
conventional compound. Thus, for instance, the character for father and that for axe are both pro- 
nounced /oo. In speaking they employ _/bo-/»'?'w (a father-relative), viwA. foo-toic (an axe-head).^ 

Wlien it is borne in mind that the Chinese aim at great brevity and conciseness in their written 
compositions, and that breach of the rules of literary taste is a great oflfence in the estimate of Chinese 
scholars, it will easily be seen that it requires no common skill and industry in a foreign student to 
place the Holy Scriptiues before the minds of this civilised but benighted people in a style at 
once adapted to the taste of the educated, and suited to the imderstanding of all classes of the native 

Chinese Versions of Sacred Scripture. — It has been related, though upon disputed 
authority, that in the Chinese province of Shense, in 1625, a curious monument was discovered, bearing 


inscriptions relative to a translation of the Sacred Scriptures into Chinese, supposed to have been 
executed at a very remote period. It would appear that in a.d. 637, Olopen, a Cliiistian missionary, 
arrived in China, and succeeded in obtaining an interview with the Emperor : the result, it is said, 
was highly favourable, for the Emperor commanded Fam-hiven-lim, the prime minister, one of the 
most learned of Chinese scholars, to translate the sacred books brought by Olopen.' But if this edict 
was ever issued or execu.ted, it is certain that not one of the copies of the version thus produced is now 
in existence. A few portions of the Sacred Scriptures appear to have been translated at various times 
by the Romish missionaries in China, but no successful efforts were made by them towards the production 
of an entire version. In 1806 a translation was commenced in Bengal under the superintendence of 
the Rev. David Brown, Provost of the College of Fort William ; he employed for this purpose 
Joannes Lassar, who was an Armenian Christian but a native of China ; and in 1807 a copy of Matthew 
in Chinese, translated and beautifully written by Lassar, was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury for 
the Lambeth Library.^ In 1808 the Rev. D. Brown transmitted to the Secretary of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society the first sheet of this translation that had passed through the Chinese press.* 
It had been printed from wooden blocks, cut by the chintz pattern makers; but early in 1811 metal 
types were used in printing the Scriptures at Serampore, and this mode of printing Chinese is now 
generally adopted by our missionaries, in preference to the native method of printing from wooden 
blocks. The preparation of the version, from about the year 1808, was taken up by the Serampore 
missionaries: Dr. Marshman and his son, in conjunction with Lassar, completed and printed it at 
Serampore in 1822,'' under the Hberal patronage of the British and Foreign Bible • Society. Each 
sheet of this version was subjected, by the indefatigable translators, to an almost incredible number of 
revisions, and the whole was dihgently conferred with Griesbach's text. Another version was made by 
Dr. Morrison, who about the year 1807 was sent to China by the London Missionary Society. Prior 
to his departure from England he had obtained some knowledge of the language, and in aid of his 
important imdcvtaking he took with him the copy of a Chinese MS. belonging to the British Museum, 
and admirably executed by some unknown hand ; it was apparently a translation from the Vulgate, and 
from the beauty of the style was judged to be the production of a native. It was written by order of 
Mr. Hodgson, in 1737-8; he presented it, in 1739, to Sir Hans Sloane, through whom it came into 
the possession of the British Museum. It contained a condensed harmony of the Gospels, and Hkewise 
the Acts, and all the Epistles of St. Paul, with the exception of that to the Hebrews, of which the first 
chapter only had been translated, when death, or some other cause, arrested the hand of the translator. 
Dr. Morrison says, concerning this MS., that in translating the JSTew Testament, he at the commence- 
ment derived gi-eat assistance from the Epistles, but that afterwards they caused him much labour in 
verifying, and in effecting such alterations as his judgment suggested. In the translation of the Old 
Testament, Dr. Morrison made considerable use of Bishop Newcome's version of the twelve nainor 
prophets, and of Lowth's Isaiah ; he also referred continually to the original Scriptures, the Septuagint, 
Vulgate and French Versions: he never appears, however, to make any remarkable departure from 
the sense of the authorised English version. Dr. Morrison after labouring alone for some years in China 
was provided with a valuable coadjutor in Dr. Milne, who was sent to aid in the work of translation 
by the London Missionary Society. The historical books of the Old Testament, and the book of Job, 
were translated by Dr. Milne, and he died while employed in their revisal. The entii-e version was 
completed in 1823.' 

At the anniversary of the Bible Society in 1824, Dr. Morrison presented the sacred volume at the 
meeting, and Mr. Butterworth related the following incident : — " It is now many years ago, that in visiting 
the Ubrary of the British Museum, I frequently saw a young man who appeared to be deeply occupied 
in his studies; the book he was reading was in a language and character totally unknown to me. I 
asked the young man what it was, he replied modestly, the Chinese, and said, I am trying to understand 
it, but it is attended with singular difficulty ; if the language be capable of being surmounted by human 
zeal and perseverance, I mean to make the experiment. Little did I think," continued Mr. Butter- 
worth, " that I then beheld the germ, as it were, of that great undertaking, the translation of the sacred 
Scriptures into the Chinese language." The production of this most important version, and of the 
numerous successive editions through which it has passed, is mainly if not entirely due, under Pro- 
vidence, to the generous aid of the British and Foreign Bible Society, who, from first to last, advanced 
more than ten thousand pounds in furtherance of the translation and circulation of the Chinese 

1 Townley's Illustrations, Vol. I. p. 240. But see Beansobre Hlstoire 3 Miss. Reg. for 1841, p. 135. 

du ManicMe, ch. u. 4 Eighth Mem. of Translations of the Seramp. Missionaries, p. 24. 

2 Owen's Hist. Vol. II. p. 467. » Home's Introduction to the Holy Scriptures, Vol. V. p. 135. 

Mono-Syi,la7)ic Languages.] CHINESE. 5 

Scriptures. About the year 1836, a revised edition of the New Testament was produced by the joint 
labours of Messrs. Medliurst, (lutzlaff, Bridgman, and J. K. Morrison. But this work, altliough in 
idiomatic correctness a great improvement on preceding versions, lias been considered by some as 
loose and paraphrastic. Leang Afa said that it was a collection of phrases from different classic 
authors, thrown together to express the moaning of the Sacred Scriptures. 

In comparing the version of Dr. Marshman with that of Drs. Morrison and Milne it is difficult to 
determine which possesses the highest value. Dr. Morrison, says Remusat, is less literal, but more 
Chinese ; and in the construction of his phrases he docs not so habitually conform to the Greek or 
English idiom. Dr. Marshman adheres scrupulously to the very letter of the text, but there is a groat 
degree of constraint, and a foreign air in his style. There are excellences in both which could scarcely 
have been cxpoi;ted in first translations; and the possession of two independent versions of the Scriptures 
in so widely dilfused a language as the Chinese is a matter of deep thankfulness, as upon their basis a 
more accurate and idiomatic translation will some day be elaborated. Messrs. IMedhurst and Gutzlaff 
have been long intent upon this work; but notwithstanding their strenuous and laborious efforts, a 
standard version of the Chinese Scriptures, acceptable to all sects and parties, is still a desideratum, 
and, in concert with the other Protestant missionaries in China, they are now engaged in revising 
and retranslating the sacred volume.' 

To forward the multiplication of copies of the Chinese Scriptures, the British and Foreign Bible 
Society in 184:7, granted £1000 towards a cylinder Printing Press, and an additional quantity of 
Chinese type, and also towards defraying the expense of sending assistance from this counti-y for print- 
ing the Scriptures in China. The printer who has gone out is a man peculiarly qualified for this 
particular service. About four years ago, employed as he was in useful secular pursuits, he com- 
menced the study of the Chinese characters; and with scarcely more than two hours a day, without 
the help of a teacher, and with a very limited number of books, he has acquired the power of 
reading Chinese. 

Increased Openings for the Diffusion of the Holy Scriptures. — The recent war 
between Britain and China was terminated by the treaty of Nanking, in August, 1842; by the terms 
of which most important facilities have been gained for the work of Christian missionaiies. Missionary 
labourers are now enabled to reside in five important and populous cities, spread over 1000 miles of 
coast, to which natives from the remotest provinces of the empire continually resort. At each of these 
cities, except the city of Canton, to which foreign intercourse was formerly limited, and where a strong 
anti-European feeling has been excited by the insolent intolerance of the old system, the missionaries 
make visits for twenty or thirty miles into the surrounding country, and experience a friendly recep- 
tion from all classes of the native population. Further insight into the customs and character of the 
people by recent missionary travellers^ has proved that there is very little religious bigotry amongst 
the Chinese ; that there is nothing like the system of Hindoo caste known in their civil institutions ; 
and that their idolatrous priests do not (like the Hindoo Brahmins) exercise any influence on society, 
or possess any respect in the minds of the people. The state religion of Confucius is more a system of 
political ethics than of religious morals. The religion of the people is generally the more modem 
religion of Buddliism. In other words, a speculative atheism appears to be the belief of the sage, the 
statesman, and the scholar: idolatry, stripped indeed of Hindoo obscenity and blood, is the system 
received by the uneducated classes. 

Irreligious apathy, with godless indifierence to every thing concerning a future life, appears to be 
the main characteristic of this people, and the principal obstacle to the success of Christian missions. 
Education is, however, greatly encouraged and patronised by the government, as the usual road to the 
lionours and emoluments of the state. Books are everywhere in great requisition. The Holy Scrip- 
tures are in aU parts received with avidity; and a desire of knowledge, and a spirit of curiosity and 
inquiry are extensively prevalent amongst the people. Except the worship of the spirits of ancestors, 
there is no form of superstition universally and strongly enthroned in the affections of learned and 
unlearned. The imperial government are evincing a more Uberal policy towards foreign nations, 
and a more tolerant disposition towards their Christian subjects and Missionary teachers. An edict 
of universal religious toleration made its appearance in the beginning of 184a, to mitigate the rigorous 
severity of former penal laws, and to beckon onward the Christian church to a more vigorous assault 
on the powers of pagan darkness in China. 

' See Forty-third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, - See an Exploratory Visit to the Consular Cities of China, by the 

p. cix, and Forty-fourth Report of ditto, p. ci. Rev. George Smith, M.A. 


About fifty Protestant missionaries are now engaged in preaching or in distributing the Chinese 
Scriptures in the five cities of Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo, and Shanghai, and in the British 
settlement of Hong Kong. The greater part of the missionaries, however, have not as yet attained an 
extensive acquaintance with the language. The senior missionaries, who are able to pieach fluently 
and intelligibly, easily attract numerous assemblies of attentive hearers, and in a few cases conversions 
liave followed. The converts are generally from the lower classes at the present time, but a few cases 
have occurred in which native scholars have been admitted to Chi'istian baptism. 

Present appearances lead us to the belief that with the increase of laboui'ers, the increased difiiision 
of the Holy Scriptures, and more earnest prayer for the effiision of the Holy Spirit on the work, we 
shaU speedily see Christian churches raised in China, and the gospel producing its blessed results 
among this benighted though highly civilised race of mankind. The names of Lcang Afa, and of 
other Chinese converts, are first-fruits (it is to be hoped) of an impending harvest of more extensive 
missionary success in the empire of China. 



(For Specimen of the Burmese Version, by Dr. Judson, see Plate I.) 

Extent and Statistics. — The Burman Empire lies south of Assam, from which it is 
separated by the little kingdom of Munipoor, and extends over more than one-fourth of the 
Eastern Peninsula of India. Although the boundaries are not very clearly defined, it is generally 
supposed to comprise an extent of territory about equal to double the area of the British Isles. 
According to Crawfurd, the total amount of population in Burmah and Ava amounts to about 
4,000,000, but this number appears to comprise no fewer than eighteen different tribes and nations. 
The Burmans constitute the bulk of the population in the British provinces of Martaban, Ye, Tavoy, 
and Mergui or Tenasserim, which include an area of 32,800 square miles, and a population of 
112,405 persons. Throughout these provinces Biu'mese is the language of the coui't, of official pro- 
ceedings, and of general conversation. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The tyrannical nature of the government, and the 
degraded, servile character of the people, are legible in the structure of the Burmese language. 
Although this language, like the Chinese, is totally destitute of inflection, yet, by means of suffixes 
and affixes, not only are the relations of case, of mood, tense, etc., determined, but even the rank both 
of the speaker and of the auditor is indicated. A distinct set of words is used in reference to the 
common acts of life, when performed by the great or by priests. Thus the term expressive of eating, 
when the action is performed by ordinary individuals, is tsah ; but if a priest is said to be eating, the 
term is pong-bay. Again, the word in common parlance for boiled rice is ta-men ; but a priest's boiled 
rice must be distinguished as soone} These distinctions add precision to the language, but greatly 
augment the difficulties of its acquirement. It has been conjectured that the Burmese language was 
originally merely a dialect of the Chinese,^ and that it was moulded into its present form by admixture 
with the Pali, which, with the worsliip of Boodh, was introduced into the Indo-Chinese countries from 
Hindoostan, by the circuitous route of Ceylon. The Chinese origin of many of the Burmese words is 
still apparent; and of the four peculiar tones pertaining to the Chinese, two are in use among the 
Burmans. Nearly all the abstract and metaphysical terms of the Burmese language are, however, 
derived immediately from the Pali, and in Dr. Judson's Dictionary, it is said, the number of Pali 
words amounts nearly to four thousand. All pure Burmese words are monosyllabic, and even the 
polysyllabic terms engrafted on the language from the Pali, are, in general, subjected to certain ortho- 
graphical changes, and pronounced as if each syllabic were a distinct word; this circumstance, together 

• Cliiiiese Repository, Vol. II. p. 304. - Felix Carey's Burmaii Grammar, Preface p. 7. 

Mono-Stlladic Languages.] BURMESE. 7 

with the frequent recurrence of guttural, sibilant, and nasal sounds, renders the language monotonous and 
unmusical to the ear of a stranger.' Words closely allied in signification (as an adjective and the noun 
it qualifies) are, however, united in writing so as to form one word, and sometimes six or eight words 
are thus strung together, forming words of such formidable length as to remind us of the polysynthctic 
dialects of America. As many words have two, three, or even ten significations witli^the same ortho- 
graphy, this manner of connecting words is of important service in removing ambiguity.- Numerals 
are generally combined with a word descriptive of the form, or some other quahty of the noun to 
wliich they belong, and in that state they are joined to the noun, and constitute one word.^ In this 
j)eculiarity the Burmese language resembles the Siamese." The Burmans, like the Germans, delight 
in long and highly involved periods: in a simiile phrase the agent is generally put first, then the 
object, and lastly the verb ; and as compared with tlie Enghsh idiom, the words of a Burmese com- 
position may be said to stand directly in an inverted order. " The character of the language," says 
Dr. Ley den, "has a very considerable ell'ect on the style of the compositions which it contains. Re- 
petitions of the same turn and expression are rather affected than shunned, and a kind of native 
strength and simplicity of phrase, with short sentences full of meaning, are the greatest beauties of 
which the language admits."' Although the Burmese language can boast of numerous literary pro- 
ductions, it was comparatively little known to Europeans until the establishment of the Baptist ]\Iission 
at Rangoon. 

Alphabetical System. — The Burmese Alphabet is derived from the Sanscrit, through the 
Pali, the Sacred language of the empire. It consists of ten vowels and tliirty-two consonants. In 
point of form, it surpasses all the alphabets of Western Asia in simplicity, and most nearly resembles 
the alphabets of Canara, Tellnga, and Ceylon. Although the sounds in some cases are different, the 
same system of classification prevails as in the alphabets of Hindoostan. The first twenty-five con- 
sonants are distributed into five classes, viz., the gutturals, the palatals, the cerebrals, the dentals, and 
the labials. The first letter of each class is a simple articulation, smooth and soft, the second is the 
aspirate of the first; the third letter has a corresponding rough and hard sound, and the fourth, 
according to the Sanscrit system, is the aspirate of the third, but the Burmese do not distinguish it in 
sound from the third : the fifth letter is the corresponding nasal. The cerebrals in Burmese are pro- 
nounced like the dentals. Of the consonants, not included in the above classes, five are called liquids, 
one is termed an aspirate, and another though pronounced th, is properly a sibilant.^ Vowels, 
when they enter into combination with consonants, are represented by certain abbreviated forms, called 
sj/mhols^ placed before or after, above or below, the consonant. Four of the consonants also combine 
under symbolic forms with other consonants, and thus the compound consonants are formed. These 
various combinations, with their respective sounds, require to be carefully committed to memory, 
which adds considerably to the difficulty of learning to read the language. The accents offer a still 
further impediment, as words which are the same in orthography, vary greatly in signification accord- 
ing to the accent they receive. The light accent is denoted by the sign (°) placed under the letter; 
the heavy accent by {%) placed after the letter. Two small parallel lines ( || ) are used to separate 
sentences, and sometimes the clauses of sentences. 

Versions of the Scriptures. — Three MS. translations of small portions of Scripture were 
made by Roman Catholic missionaries jorior to the estabhshment of a Protestant mission in this empire, 
but the first attempt to procure a complete version in this language was made by the Baptist mission- 
aries of Serampore. About the year 1807 Felix Carey, the son of Dr. Carey, settled in Burmah as a 
missionary ; he applied very diligently to the study of the language, and in conjunction with 
Mr. Chater, who resided for a short time in the country, he produced a translation of two or three 
Gospels. In this work great aid was derived from a book of Scripture extracts, afterwards printed at 
Serampore, containing accounts of the Creation, the Fall, the liistory of Oiu- Lord, and the ^ main 
doctrines of Christianity ; the MS. was written in Burmese by an Italian missionary then residing at 
Ava ; he had studied Burmese and held daily intercourse with the natives for twenty-five years, and 
yet ho declared that he still continued to find something new and complicated in the language.' In 
1815, 2000 copies of the Gospel of St. Matthew, by ilessrs. Chater and Carey, were printed at 

1 Crawfurd's Embassy to the Court of Ava, Vol. II. 5 Asiatic Researches, Vol. X. p. 233. 

2 Chinese Repository for 18;u. « Judson's Gram. Notices, 6. See also Latter's Burmese Gram, 
s Judson's Gram. Notices of the Burmese, p. 31. " Periodical Account of Baptists, IV. p. 32. 

* * See Low's Siamese Grammar, p. 21. 


Seramporc; but tliis is a very imperfect translation, and is said to be quite unintelligible to the Bur- 
mans.' Mr. Carey had studied medicine in Calcutta, and he introduced vaccination in Burmah; 
this led to an interruption of his labours as a translator, for in 1813 he received a summons to the 
court of Ava, to vaccinate the royal family. Not having sufficient virus in his possession, he was 
sent with almog, regal honours to Bengal to procure a further supply. On his return in 1814, 
when proceeding from Rangoon with his family to Ava, the royal residence, he was shipwrecked, and 
his wife and children aU perished. Yet shortly after, leaving his missionary work, he accepted the 
office of Ambassador from the Court of Ava to the Bengal government. The translation upon which 
he was engaged was transferred to the Kev. Dr. Adoniram Judson, who had a short time previously 
arrived in Burmah under the auspices of the American Baptist Board. Dr. Judson recommenced the 
version, and in 1816 was joined by Mr. Hough, with whose aid, and the present of a press and types 
from Serampore, the Gospel of Matthew was printed at Rangoon in 1817, as introductory to the 
entire New Testament. In 1821, Dr. Judson gives the folio vnng account of his progress in the trans- 
lation, which he appears to have made immediately from the Sacred original. " I have engaged 
Moving Sheva Gnong (a convert) to assist me in revising the Acts, but he is so particular and thorough 
that we get on very slowly, not more than ten verses a day, though he is with me from nine in the 
morning till sunset."^ During the Burmese war in 1825, Mr. Hough repaired to Serampore with 
various books of Scripture revised and prepared for the press ; and under his superintendence 21,500 
copies of different portions of the New Testament were there printed. Never, in modern times, 
have Christian missionaries been subjected to such bitter suiferings and privations as those which 
have been endured for the sake of the Gospel of Christ in Ava. The bonds, and imprisonments, and 
sufferings of Mr. Hough and Mr. Wade at Rangoon, and of Dr. Judson and Dr. Price at Ava, at the 
close of the Burmese war, are fresh in the recoUecttion of Christians. These events greatly retarded 
the work of translation. More than once the mission was entirely suspended ; but eventually all turned 
out for the furtherance of the Gospel, inasmuch as many territories by tliis war were placed under 
British protection. The first complete version of the Burmese New Testament was issvied from the 
press in December, 1832.^ The edition consisted of 3000 copies, and was printed under the patron- 
age of the American and Foreign Bible Society. In 1834, Dr. Judson completed the translation of 
the Old Testament, which has since been published by him in handsome quarto. On this subject he 
has the following touching entry in his journal: " Jan. 31, 1834. — Thanks be to God ! I can now say 
' I have attained.' I have knelt down before Him, with the last leaf in my hand ; and imploring His 
forgiveness for all my sins that have polluted my labours in this department, and His aid in future 
efforts to remove the errors and imperfections, which necessarily cleave to the work, I have com- 
mended it to His mercy and grace : I have dedicated it to His glory. May He make His own inspired 
word, now complete in the Burman tongue, the grand instrument of filling all Burmah with songs of 
praises to our great God and Saviour, Jesus Christ." 

Results of the Distribution of this Version. — The fruits of the Rangoon translation 
were not first manifested in Burmah itself, nor even among the Burmans ; the Gospel, it has been 
well remarked, is like a spring of water ; if it cannot find a passage in one direction, it forces its way 
in another.** At the very time that no perceptible effect seemed to result from the reading of the 
Burmese Scriptures in the special country for which the translation was made, this version was especially 
blessed in a tract of country bordering upon Chittagong, inhabited by the Mughs, a people of Aracan, 
who at the close of the last century had from poHtical causes migrated from their own country, and 
placed themselves under British protection. Their language, which is sometimes called the Rukheng, 
varies only from Burmese in pronunciation, and a few provincial forms; and is in fact merely the oldest 
dialect of the Burmese language.'' In 1815 De Bruyn, a devoted Missionary, commenced the distribution 
of portions of the sacred volume among them ; and shortly after his death it was foimd that there were 
no less than ninety baptized Mughs united in Church fellowship. For three years they had no minister 
or missionary resident among them ; yet during all this period, the perusal of the Scriptures being 
duly persevered in, they were enabled to maintain the worship of God, and to edify one another ; and 
those brethren from distant stations who occasionally visited them, bore testimony of their faith and 
good works. ^ The American Baptists have since written portions of the New Testament in the 
Arakanese, or proper dialect of this interesting people ; ' but the Burmese Scriptures are likewise fully 

1 Baptist Magazine, Vol. X. p. 57. . ' Chinese Repository, Vol. \l. p. 505. 

2 Missionary Register for 1832, p. ^2. ^ Annual Report of Baptists for 1819, p. 19. 

3 Chinese Repository, Vol. II. p. 440. ' Home's Introd. Vol. V. p. 135. 
* Periodical Accounts of Baptists, VI. p. 112. 

Mono-Syllabic Languages.] BURMESE. 9 

intelligible, and much prized among them. Wc have an accoimt of the first convert in Burmah from 
the pen of Mrs. Judson. She says, — " A few days ago I was reading with liim (the Crst Bunnan 
convert) Christ's sermon on the Mount. He was deeply impressed. ' These words,' said he, ' take 
hold on my very heart, they make mc tremble. Here God commands us to do every thing that is 
good in secret, not to be seen of men. How unlike our religion is this ! WTien Buimans make 
offerings at the Pagodas they make a great noise with di'unis and musical instruments, that others may 
see how good they are ; but this religion makes the mind fear God ; it makes it of its own accord 
fear sin.' " ' Although Burmah at one time presented to Dr. Judson and the first Missionaiies a 
continued scene of discouragement, yet it afterwards became an example of the ease with which God 
can arrest the attention of a whole people to the Scriptures. Writing in 18.31, Dr. Judson said, that 
one of the most remarkable features of the Mission was the surprising spirit of inquiry then spreading 
everywhere, through the whole length and breadth of the land : he stated that during a great 
national festival held that year, no less than six thousand applicants came to the Mission-house. 
" Sir," said they, " we hear that there is an eternal hell. We are afiaid of it. Give us a writing that 
will tell us how to escape it." Others came firom the frontier of Cassay, a hundred miles north of 
Ava. — " Sir 1 we have seen a writing which tells about an eternal God. Are you the man who gives 
away such writings ? If so, pray give us one, for we want to Icnow the truth before we die." Others 
came from the interior of the country, where the name of Jesus is a little known. — " Are you Jesus 
Christ's man ? Give us a writing that tells about Jesus Christ." '^ Dr. Judson's subsequent account 
of the character of the Burmans is equally hopeful. They are, he says, a careful, deliberative people, 
who turn a tiling many times over before they take it. They are not disposed to give much credit to 
the words of a Missionary, but when a tract is put into their hands, they wrap it up carefully, deposit 
it in a fold of the waistcloth or turban, carry it home to their village, and, when a leisiu'e evening 
occurs, the family lamp is produced, the man, his wife and relations gather round, and the contents 
of the new wiiting receive a full discussion. Instances have not been wanting of the blessing of God 
having followed this careful study of His word. Mr. Kincaid relates that during a journey through 
Burmah, a youth who had previously apphed for books came to him, and besought him, before he 
quitted the city to visit an old man who was anxious to see the teacher. Mr. Kincaid followed the 
lad home, and was surprised to find in the object of his visit an old man full of faith and hope in 
Christ, though he had had no other teacher than John's Gospel and a tract, called The View, accom- 
panied by the Holy Spirit. He said that he had loved Christ for about two years, and his language, 
Mr. Kincaid relates, was that of a man acquainted with his own heart.^ Narrating a voyage up the 
Irawaddy, from Rangoon to Ava, tliis ]\Iissionary describes the people as most eager to hear and to 
get books. One man said that he had got a book in Rangoon that told him about the Eternal God 
who made all things, and about Christ who died to open a way for the forgiveness of sins. He said 
the more he thought of tliis, the more sure he felt that it was true. Many such instan(;es convincingly 
show that a wide field is opened in Burmah for the diffusion of truth, and in a printed form.* To 
account for such large issues of the Scriptures as have taken place in Burmah, it should be stated that 
the Burmans are generally able to read, and a smattering of education is more common among them, 
perhaps, than any other people of the East. 


The Peguese language is still spoken in Pegu, a country which occupies all the sea-coast and the mouths of the rivers of the Burman 
empire: it comprises an area of 22,640 square miles, with a population of 48,000.' Great numbers of the agriculturists in Siam 
are Peguans. Pegu was formerly a great and powerful state, and goveraed by its own monarehs, but in a contest with Burmah and 
Siam it feU, and the Pegvians are now the slaves of both empires. Tlie Peguese language is supposed to be more ancient than the 
Burmese, it abounds in gutturals, and is simple in construction. The alphabet is the same as the Burmese, except two additional 
consonants. Since their conquest of the country, the Burmans have done their utmost to extirpate the language, and to render 
their own predominant, but they have not as yet succeeded. A translation of the Gospel of St. Matthew, and of St. John's Epistles 
has been made into Peguese from the Burmese by Ko-man-poke, a learned native, but no copy of this version appears to have reached 
Europe." A translation of the whole New Testament, by Mr. Haswell, is now in the press at Maulmein, but it is hoped that a 
specimen will be ol)tained in time for insertion in this work. The edition is of 3,000 copies.'' 

1 Account of the American Baptist Mission to Burmah, by * Baptist Missionary Register, 1834. 

A. H. Judson, p. 146. s M'Culloch's Geographical Dictionary. 

- See Missionary Register for 1832, pp. 177, 178. « Chinese Repository, Vol. II. 504. 

» Baptist Missionary Register for January, 1836. ' Missionary Register for 1848, p. 118. 



n]Bmsm%^wu§^Y) ^^ivdmsmmou^d moSi'^viqm'^Bms 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Siam Is the largest of the three empires com- 
prised in the Eastern peninsula of India. The Bay of Bengal, the Burman Empire, and the British 
province of Tenasserim form its Western boundary. Its area, according to Crawfurd, is 190,000 
square miles, but according to Berghaus it includes nearly 290,000 square miles. Its amotmt of 
popidation has been estimated at from 2,790,500 to 3,000,000 souls ; but the number of Siamese in 
Siam is thought not to exceed 1,260,000, the remainder of the inhabitants being chiefly natives 
of Laos, Pegu, Cambodia, Malacca, China, and Hindoostan. The Siamese language is, strictly 
speaking, confined to Siam proper, which forms but one province of the Siamese Empire. The other 
provinces are, a large portion of Laos or the Shan country, a considerable section of Cambodia, a 
portion of Pegu or the Mon country, and the peninsula of Malacca, from the head of the gulf down 
to latitude 7° North. ' 

Characteristics of the Language. — The language of the Siamese is sometimes called Thay 
or Tai, and in their ovni tongue they assume this name as their proper national appellation. The 

1 Hamilton's East India Gazetteer in voce. 

Mono-Syllaiuc Languages.] SIAMESE. 11 

Siamese language possesses considerable affinity with some of the provincial dialects of China, more 
especially the Mandarin or Court dialect, I'rom which many of its radical words and numerals are 
obviously borrowed.' Several fundamental terms, appertaining to Malay, are also found in Siamese, 
which has hence been regarded as the connecting link between the Chinese and Malay languages. The 
delicate intonations of the Chinese exist in Siamese, and it is more strongly accented than any other 
language of Indo-China. The political institutions of Siam, in point of despotism and tyranny, are 
akin to those of JJurmah, and have had great effect in moulding the language and the literature. 
The rank of the speaker may in Siamese, as in Burmese, be inferred from the pronouns he uses; and 
phrases expressive of adulation and flattery are very numerous and varied. The words which sub- 
serve the office of pronouns are hence particularly numerous, and attention to the rules regulating 
their distinctive use is so rigidly exacted from all classes, that the misapplication of a single pro- 
nominrd is considered indecorous and disrespectful.^ The alphabet, though formed on the model 
of the Pali and Devanagari characters, possesses several original elements, whence it has been con- 
jectured that an ancient style of writing was known in Siam prior to the introduction of Buddhism 
and the Pali language in the fourth century. There are thirty-five consonants and the vocalic a ; this 
latter is often placed in a word as a sort of pivot on which the vowel points are arranged, fomiing, 
as it were, the body of each of the simple vowels. There are sixteen simple vowels or finals, besides 
twenty-nine distinct and complex final vowel combinations. The nasals are quite as diversified as the 
Chinese; the letters b, d, r, which are rejected by tlie Chinese, are adopted in this language, but on 
the other hand .the letters ts, sh, tch, fh, hh, which belcjng to Chinese, do not exist in Siamese. 
Words are not generally divided in writing, and a small blank supplies the place of our colon and 
semicolon.^ Siamese differs from most of the Eastern languages, in admitting but little inversion of 
the natural order in the construction of sentences; the words follow each other much in the same 
way as in English; for instance, the nominative almost invariably precedes the verb, and verbs 
and prepositions precede the cases which they govern.* No orthographical changes whatever mark 
the variations of number, case, or person, but prefij^es and affixes are in constant use. The language 
has been represented as copious ; yet it rather, says Crawfurd, possesses that species of redundancy 
which belongs to the dialects of many semi-barbarous nations, and which shows a long but not a 
useful cultivation.^ 

Siamese Versions of Scripture. — In 1810, the design of providing Siam with a version of 
the four Gospels was entertained by the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society, and Dr. Leyden imdertook 
to superintend the translation ; but he died before this important project had been carried into 
execution. Perhaps the first attempt at translating the Scriptures into Siamese was made by 
Mrs. Judson, of the American Baptist Mission, who with the aid of her Burman pundit produced 
a version of the Gospel of St. Matthew.^ Owing, however, to the death of that lamented lady, 
a stop was put to further translation till 1828, when Messrs. Gutzlafi" and Tomlin visited Siam 
in the capacity of missionaries and physicians, and applied sedulously to the study of the language 
with a view to the translation of the Scriptures ; after a residence of nine months, Mr. TomHn was 
compelled by ill health to relinquish the undertaking, and Mr. Gutzlafl" prosecuted his important labours 
alone. Part of the MS. translation of the Xew Testament was forwarded to Malacca as early as 1829 ; 
but the missionaries connected with the j\Ialacca press proceeded with the utmost caution, and made a 
practice of printing no portion of the version until they had ascertained, by actual experiment, that it 
coidd be read and clearly understood by natives of every capacity, from those of the first literary rank 
to the commonest readers.' Mr. GutzlafF, being remarkably favoured with the best native assistance, 
subjected the translation to several revisions ; and after labouring night and day for a long period, he, 
in 1833, sent a revised copy of the New'Testament to Singapore.' The work of revision was continued 
by Mr. Jones, one of the Baptist missionaries in Burmah, who, from his having previously studied the 
cognate language of the Shans, was well qualified for the task ; he was sent to Bankok (the capital of 
Siam) at the instance of Messrs. Gutzlaff and Tomhn in 1834. Mr. Robinson, another missionary at 
Bankok, also engaged in the work, and in 1841 produced a translation of Genesis and Daniel, and 
a new or amended version of several books of the Xew Testament. The publication was aided by a 

» Leyden in Asiatic Researches, Vol. X. s Crawfurd's Embassy to the Courts of Siam and Coclunchina, p. 335. 

2 Low's Grammar of the T*hai. 6 Judson's Account of the American Baptist Mission to Burmah, p. 128. 

3 Low's Grammar of the T'hai. " Thirtieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixxviii. 
' Calcutta Christian Observer, Vol. VII. s Missionary Register for 1833, p. 32. 


grant in 1843 from the American Baptist Bible Society. In 1846, Mr. Jones completed the transla- 
tion and publication of the entire New Testament in Siamese. ' 

Eesults op the Dissemination of this Version. — Siam affords comparatively few instances 
of conversion following tlie perusal of the Word, yet in no country perhaps has the intervention of 
Providence been more manifested in opening a wide door for the general distribution of the Scriptures. 
The American Board of Missions and the American Baptists have missionaries in Siam, by whom the 
Scriptures are circulated among the people without let or hindrance from king, nobility, or priesthood.^ 
The priests have even frequently sent to the missionaries requesting to be supplied with copies of the 
holy volume, and have on some occasions expressed a degree of dissatisfaction with their own religion, 
and an apparently sincere desire to examine the tenets of Christianity. In fact, one of the missionaries 
stated, in 1842, that no class of people are more importunate in begging for books than the priests, 
and this too in public, and on aU occasions. This dissemination of Scripture has had the effect in 
Siam of considerably narrowing the original ground of controvei-sy. The Siamese now declare, that 
were they but fully satisfied as to the existence of a future state, they would gladly embrace Christianity 
as the only system which provides for the forgiveness of sins ; for they have been broTight to acknowledge 
the sinfulness of their own nature and practices, and they clearly perceive that Buddhism, which is in 
fact practical Atheism, offers no means or hope of pardon. The first appearance of the missionaries in 
Siam spread a general panic among the people, for it was well known by the predictions of the Pali books, 
that a certain religion of the West would vanquish Buddhism ; but upon the breaking out of the late 
war, the English remaining neutral, the people were reassured, and many instances occurred in which 
deep Interest was expressed in the perusal of the Scriptures. There are, however, peculiar impediments 
to missionary labours in Siam, arising partly from the character of the people, wliich is so fickle that 
an opinion tliey may embrace to-day they will be ready to reject to-morrow,^ and partly from the 
regularly organised system by which idolatry is supported : the pagodas are the schools of learning 
in which the youth of the empire are trained ; every educated Siamese, from the emperor down to 
the lowest of his subjects, is compelled at some period or other of his life to enter the priesthood, and 
" he who refuses to become a priest, must remain ignorant."'' It has been ascertained tliat the great 
majority of Siamese, male and female, are able to read ; and even in Siam instances have vmexpectedly 
been brought to Hght of the Divine blessing having accompanied the private study of Scripture. On 
one occasion, for instance, a missionary was called to the bedside of a sick man, whom he liad never 
before seen. After applying the remedies for the disease suggested by his medical skill, the missionary 
began to discourse on the glad tidings of the Gospel. The sick man immediately interrupted him, and 
said, with much earnestness and seriousness, that he himself knew Ayso (Jesus), and worshipped him 
every day. Surprised and delighted, the missionary asked for an explanation, and was informed 
that a brother of the sick man had read in his hearing portions of Scriptm-e and Tracts distributed 
by the missionaries, and that the precious seed thus sown by the way-side had been blessed by God.* 


It is worthy of observation, that Siamese is properly only one dialect of an ancient and widely extended language called Tai; 
the other dialects are the Laos, Khamti (almost identical with the ancient Ahom), and Shyau. Little has been done in these three 
dialects towards the translation of Scripture. The Laos people are described by Dr. Bradley as being in a pecuhar sense ripe for 
the Gospel harvest. Several applied to liim for books written with their own characters ; they said they could read Siamese books 
stammeringly, but their own with ease. A Laos man jileaded with Dr. Bradley not to forget him and his people, but to fm-nish 
them speedily with a version of the holy books in their own dialect. Although the Laos has been described by most travellers as a 
totally distinct dialect from the Siamese,^ yet such is the similarity between the two dialects that Captain Low states from his own 
experience, that it is easy for a person who understands the Siamese tongue, to travel safely (in so far as language is concerned) 
throughout North Laos. The Laos dialect has, however, an alphabet exclusively appropriated to it, which is more alUed to the 
Peguese or Mon than to the Siamese alphabet. 


The Cambojan language is spoken in Cambodia, once an independent and powerful state, but now divided between Siam and the 
empire of Anam. The language differs materially from the Siamese, being more harsh, but at the same time more copious.' 
Gutzlatf commenced a version of the New Testament in Cambojan, but it would appear that he afterwards discontinued it. 
Throughout the other provinces of the empire of Anam, a monosyllabic language denominated the Anamite or Anamitic is spoken, 
in which, however, no translation of the Scriptures exists. 

1 Missionary Register for 1846, p. 123. 
• Hoole's Year Book of Missions, p. 177. 

3 Chinese Repository, Vol, 1. p. 17. Japan. 

4 Chinese Repository, Vol. I. p. 468. ' Cliinese Repository, Vol. II. p. 52. 


(A Specimen of this Version will be given in a future Part of the Work.) 

Extent and Statistics. — The Kareens, Karcnes, or Careians, are a wild and simple people, 
scattered over aU parts of the Burman territories, and of the British provinces of Tenasserim: they 
arc also found in the Western portions of Siam, and northward among the Shyans.' Their residences 
are in the jungles and among the mountains, and are most numerous on the mountains which 
separate Burmah from Siam. The number of these people, owing to their nomadic habits and wide 
dispersion, is ditficult to be ascertained, but it has been estimated at about 33,000. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The Karen language possesses several original 
elements, and in many respects varies in genius and structure from the Burmese, Siamese, and Peguese 
languages, though it freely borrows words from cach.'^ It has five tones, some of which appear 
different from those of any other monosyllabic tongue. The Karen language is remarkably harmoni- 
ous, and well adapted for poetry : a final consonant never occurs, but every word terminates with a vowel 
sound. Till a comparatively recent period, however, Karen was totally unknown to Europeans. About 
1835, two Missionaries of the American Baptist Missionary Society, Messrs. Wade and Mason, acquired 
the language, and for the first time reduced it to writing. For this purpose they employed the 
Burmese alphabet, with a few additional characters to express the peculiar sounds of the language. 
The system of teaching reading, adopted by Mr. Wade, is so admirably conceived, that a person 
ignorant of a single letter can be taught to read a Karen book with ease in a few weeks. Mr. 
Mason aflirms that the alphabetical powers of the Karen alphabet are of Arabic or Hebrew origin.' 
This fact, together with the personal appearance and physical peculiarities of tliis singular people, 
and a series of very remarkable traditions current from time immemorial among them, has led him to 
form the idea of their being descendants of the lost tribes of Israel. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — The Missionaries were induced to 
undertake a version of the New Testament in Karen by the earnest and repeated entreaties of the 
people themselves for books. As early as 1828, Mr. Boardman, of the American Baptist Society, was 
visited frequently at Savoy, one of the missionary stations, by great numbers of the Karens, and had 
ample opportunities of proclaiming the Gospel to them. Among the most interesting of his 
visitors was a native chief, who appeared particularly anxious for instruction in the way of righteous- 
ness. " Give us books," he said, " give us books in our own native language ! then all the Karens 
will learn to read. We want to know the true God. We have been lying in total darkness — the 
Karen's mind is like his native jungle."'' The translation of the entire New Testament into Karen was 
accordingly accomplished by ^lessrs. Wade and Mason ; yet during several years, for want of adequate 
pecuniary means, no attempt was made at printing, but each book as soon as completed was copied 
and circulated in MS. In 1842, the American and Foreign Bible Society granted £625 towards the 
printing of the New Testament, and an edition soon after issued from the press at Savoy, under the 
superintendence of Mr. Bennett. Mr. Mason has since translated the Psalms into Karen, including 
both the Sgau and Sho dialects of that language. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — This version of Scripture appears 
to have been attended in a remarkable degree with the Divine blessing from the very first 
period of its execution. The Karens were in a manner prepared to welcome Christianity, not 
only by their reUgious tenets, which formed a noble contrast to Buddhism, but by a sLngidar 
prediction of their ancient seers, which caused them to look for rehef from Burman oppression 
to "the white foreigners."' In 1839, when the Karens had no books, few living teachers, and only 
a MS. copy of Matthew, they were gathered together in considerable numbers from aU parts by the 

1 Malcom's Travels in S. E. Asia, Vol. II. p. 228. * Calcutta Christian Observer for 1833, p. 522. 

2 Calcutta Christian Observer for 1833, p. 520. » Asiatic Journal for 18^4, p. 283. 
5 Calcutta Cliristlan Observer for 1836, p. 111. 


sound of the Gospel, and settling down in a district about two days' journey from Savoy, they formed 
a Christian village, the heads of every family being members of the Church. Civilization followed 
Christianity. Cleanliness (by no means a native Karen virtue) was substituted for their former depraved 
habits, and various industrial arts were learnt and steadily pursued. The power of the Scriptures upon 
these simple and unlettered people is shown by various anecdotes related by the Missionaries. " Once 
Mrs. Wade had occasion to read the chapter in Matthew concerning visiting Christ (as represented in 
his disciples) when sick or in prison. They immediately perceived how regardless they had been of 
persons in sickness and sorrow, and began thenceforward to perform services for the sick, which they 
had never thought of before. A poor widow suUering under a leprous disease, who had a young child 
similarly afHicted, was visited by many the next day. They performed various repulsive oiSces for 
her and the cliild, brought water, cleaned the house, gave them rice and other articles, and so enriched 
and comforted the poor creature that she was bewildered with dehght. These attentions they con- 
tinued constantly. Another person, bedridden with loathsome sores, was attended to in the same way. 
Since that time no one has been suffered to want any thing which the rest enjoy, and their.acts of 
kindness are done with studied concealment." ' 


(A Specimen of this Version will be given if possible in a future Part of the Work.) 

Geographical Extent. — Munipoora is the language of Munipoor, a small independent king- 
dom, wliich lies south of Assam. Great confusion has arisen from the various names given to this 
country ; the Burmans call it Kathe, and the Shyans Cassay, and geographers have distinguished it 
sometimes by one and sometimes by another name. It is not much above sixty miles in length, and 
lies somewhere between lat. 24° and 25° North, ^ and long. 93° and 96° East. The central part of the 
country consists of a rich and fertile valley, including an area of 650 square miles; the remainder of 
the territory is occupied by an encircling zone of moimtalns and hills, inhabited by various tribes subject 
to Munipoor.' The amount of population Is probably about 70,000 : ■* Pemberton, however, estimates 
It at only 20,000. Brahminism was imposed on the people little more than half a century ago, by 
command of the Eajah, but it Is by no means firmly rooted. 

Characteristics of the Language. — It appears from their language and physical peculiari- 
ties, that the Muniporeans are the descendants of some Mongol or Chinese colony. Like most mono- 
syllabic languages, Munipoora Is inartificial In structure, and uninflected. It has a close aflBnity with 

Versions of Scripture. — A version of the New Testament was undertaken by Dr. Carey in 
1814: he procured some learned natives from JIunipoor, and superintended their labours. This trans- 
lation was completed, and an edition of 1000 copies printed In the Bengalee character in 1824, at 
Serampore : it was aided indirectly by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

Kesults of the Dissemination of this Version. — Little is known concerning the 
effect produced on the Muniporeans by the perusal of Scripture, for they have as yet no mis- 
sionary among them. 

1 Malcom's Travels in S. E. Asia, Vol. I. p. 37. 

2 Calcutta Chiistiaii Observer for 1834, p. 263. 


(For Specimen of this Version in the Bengalee Character, see Plate I.) 
(For a Specimen of this Version in the Roman Character, see Plate HI.) 

GEOGRArniCAL Extent. — Khasscc is the language of the Cossyahs, Cassias, or Kliasias, a race 
of Tartar or Chinese origin ruled by a number of petty rajahs, who form a sort of confederacy. To 
some degree they still picserve their independence, but they are under the supervision of a British 
agent for Cossyah affairs. ' The Cossyahs inhabit a ridge of hills extending from Silhet (a town on 
the easternmost extremity of Bengal, latitude 25°) to within a hundred leagues of China. This 
region averages from 4000 to 5000 feet above the level of the sea, and is about 70 miles long by 50 
wide; it comprises 3500 square miles; it is bounded on the South by the plain of Silhet, Korth by 
the valley of Assam, East by Kachar, and West by the Garrow hills.- The amount of population 
has never been correctly ascertained. Tlie people, though uncivilized, are manly, upright, and sincere, 
and regard with detestation the falsehood and deceitfulness of the neighbouring Hindoos. They are, 
however, remarkably indolent and filthy, avaricious, ignorant, and extremely superstitious. Their 
religion has been represented to be a species of Brahminism, but they seem to have only a vague 
notion of some spirit or spirits to which they offer sacrifice, and their altars may well bear the inscrip- 
tion, " to the unknown God : " the country is the extreme limit of the predominance of the Brahminical 
sect to the eastward, for beyond these hills Buddhism is almost universal. 

Characteristics of the Language.— This language is uninflected and simple in grammatical 
construction ; and although strictly monosyllabic, it possesses none of those varied tones which appertain 
to other languages of this class. Some words of Sanscrit origin are to be found in Khassee, but it is 
difficult to recognise them on account of the monosyllables prefixed or added. There is no alphabet, 
the few among the Cossyahs who can read or write use the Bengalee character. But their adoption 
of this alphabet is merely owing to their frequent intercourse with Silhet, for their language bear.s 
internal marks of having been at some distant period allied with the Chinese ; this is evidenced by the 
personal pronoun, and by the frequent recurrence of the sounds ming:, eng, ung, etc. as in Chinese. 

Versions of Scripture. — A lady was honoured by God to be the main instnmient in 
preparing the first version of Scripture in this language. She was the widow of one of the rajahs or 
chieftains of the country, and Dr. Carey, pleased with her intelUgence, availed himself of her aid in 
translating the New Testament. Dr. Carey had also recourse to the advice of his Assamese pundit, 
who, from the vicinity of the Cossyah hills to his own country, had had opportimities of acquiring a 
tolerable acquaintance with the language. ' The preparation of tliis version occupied ten years ; it was 
printed in Bengalee characters, and an edition of 500 copies left the Serampore press in 1824. For 
about seven years it remained a sealed book, for no opportunity occurred of distributing it among the 
people for whom it had been prepared. In 1832 some of the missionaries at Serampore, being in ill 
health, visited Cherrapoonjee, a place in the Khassee country noted for its salubrity. Here their 
attention was drawn afresh to the spiritual destitution of the wild inhabitants of the hills, and gi-eat 
exertions were made for the establishment of a mission among them.'* Mr. Lish, the first missionary 
who entered upon the work, turned his attention to the revision of the Khassee version, and in 1834 
he produced a new or amended translation of St. Matthew, which was printed at Serampore in 
Roman characters. In 1840 a Missionary Association was formed by the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, 
and finding this station imoccupied by any other society, they sent the Kev. Thomas Jones as their 
missionary to these hiUs. He reached Cherrapoonjee in 1841, and after applying with diligence to the 
study of the language, he executed a new translation of St. Matthew's Gospel in Roman characters, 
wliich in 1845 he offered to the British and Foreign Bible Society. The Committee ordered a small 
edition to be printed as an experiment, and its value and fideUty have been fully attested by competent 


persons,' through the medium of the Auxiliary Society at Calcutta. Since then a translation has 
been made of the Acts of the Apostles, and other portions will follow by the instrumentaUty of the 
missionaries engaged on the above station. 

Eesults of the Dissemination of this Version. — Some very interesting accounts have 
been received of the recent progress of Divine truth among these people. Mr. Lish, their first mis- 
sionary, was welcomed joyfully; they laughed heartily when they heard him speak in their own 
language; but when he began to open to them the truths of Scripture, they were so forcibly 
impressed that they exclaimed that "he was a God, and they but cows and goats."- When the 
mission was re-established by Mr. Jones, a chief from a village wliich he had not yet visited, thus 
addi-essed him : — " If you have any thing from God to say to us, come quickly; otherwise we may be 
dead, and what you have to say will be of no use to us. What will then become of us?" 

Mr. Jones and his coadjutors have prepared elementary and reUgious books in the language. 
Several schools have been estabUshed, and conducted by the missionaries, then- wives, and a few native 
teachers. Many hundreds have already learnt to read, and are truly anxious ibr books. A desire to 
read and understand English is universal. Some of the natives have been led to abandon their super- 
stitions, and to embrace Christianity. Since their baptism they have endured much persecution from 
their relatives, and in the most trying circumstances have manifested strength of principle worthy of 
an apostoUc age. 

One of the missionaries writes thus: — "I have received the Gospel of St. Matthew from Cal- 
cutta, and the Cassias in the schools are dihgently employed in committing it to memory. This task 
they will accomphsh by the time tliis letter reaches you. I perceive already the great utiUty of 
suppljring them with the Holy Scriptures; for it is evident they understand and remember much 
better when they read themselves than when they listen to another: I see tliis very clearly in the case 
of my yormg converts." 

The missionaries testify that the baptized natives " increase in knowledge, tenderness of con- 
science, and godly simplicity." One of these converts said to the missionary, " The word of God is 
truly wonderful, for I have some new thoughts whenever I look into it. I do not find it so with any 
thing else ; but the word of God is like a fountain which sends forth fresh waters every day : they are 
not the same; but although they difler, they are all very good. Even the same verse says something 
new whenever I look into it."^ 

' British and Foreign Bible Society's Report for 1846, p. Ixxxv. Report of the Calvinistic Methodist Missionary Society for 1846 and 

2 Periodical Accounts of Baptists, No. X. 184?. Also "Y Drysorf*," for April and May 1848. 


(For a Specimen of Tibetan Character, see Plate II.) 

Extent and Statistics. — The vast and mountainous tract of country in which the Tibetan 
language is spoken lies directly north of Hindoostan, from whlcli it is separated by tlie Himalayan 
mountains. Its eastern frontiers border on China ; to the west, it extends as far as Cashmeer, Afghani- 
stan, and Turkistan, while on the nortli, it is bounded by the countries of the Turks and the Mongols. 
It is for the most part comprised within the Chinese empire; the western parts, however, appear to be 
independent of China. On account of the extreme jealousy of the Chinese government, Thibet has 
hitherto been almost inaccessible to foreigners, our knowledge of the country is in consequence ex- 
tremely hmitcd, and no correct estimate appears to have been ever formed of its area or population.' 

Characteristics of the Language. — Tibetan is sometimes called Bhotanta or Boutan, 
because spoken in the country of Boutan as well as in the adjacent regions of Thibet; it is supposed by 
some to be a Hnk between the Monosyllabic and Shcmitic classes. In the Mithridates, Adehmg un- 
hesitatingly ranks it among the monosyllabic languages, but Remusat docs not altogether assent to this 
classification, for while he admits that there are many monosyllabic sounds in Tibetan, he contends that 
there are likewise compound and polysyllabic words. Some of the very fimdamental woi-ds of the lan- 
guage, as well as almost all the derivative terms, are of undoubted Chinese origin, and in many cases, 
the original Cliinese vocables seem to have undergone but shght alteration. In the construction, too, 
of sentences, the Tibetans appear to follow the Chinese idiom." If compared with English, the words 
of a Tibetan phrase will be found to stand exactly in a reverse order. The sentence " in a book 
seen by me" would be rendered in Tibetan (if translated word for word) in the following manner : 
" me by seen book a in." The articles both definite and indefinite always follow the noun, the nouns in 
general precede their attributes, and the verb for the most part, stands at the end of a sentence. The 
several cases of a declension are formed by sufSxes, and the place of prepositions in English is supphed 
by postpositions.' The language is rendered difficult by the numerous impersonal verbal expressions; 
the general mode of conjugating verbs is by prefixing or athxing certain letters, which are, however, 
most frequently silent ;■* but the grammatical forms are in general few, vague, and seldom used. The 
alphabetical character is evidently borrowed from the Devanagari, and is written from left to right. 
There are thirty consonants divided into eight classes, and four vowel signs. There are likewise com- 
poimd consonants, representing soimds not strictly occurring in their alphabet.' Although a single 
letter often constitutes an entire word, yet the orthograpliical system is, for the most part, clumsy 
and burdensome, for initial, quiescent, subscript, and final letters are introduced upon every possible 
occasion, and though completely disregarded in the articulation of words, they add materially to the 
labour of reading and writing the language. 

Version of the Scriptures in this Language. — An attempt was made by the Church 

Missionary Society, in 1816, to furnish the inhabitants of this vast region with a version of the Scrip- 
tures in their own language, but unhappily this important imdertaking ultimately proved abortive. 
Mr. Schrceter, a Missionary of that Society, after having devoted himself with much stedfastness and 
success to the acquisition of the language, was cut off by death at the very moment that he was pro- 
ceeding to the translation of the Scriptures. Mr. Le Roche, another Missionary of the same Society, 
was appointed to succeed him, but the climate of India proved fatal likewise to liis constitution, and 
he died on his return homewards.* Major Latter, who had been chiefly instrumental in originating 
the mission, died in 1822, and since that event, no further attempts towards the preparation of a 
Tibetan version appear to have been made. A Dictionary, however, Tibetan and Italian, executed by 

' M'CuUoch's Geog. Dictionary, in vnce. * Calcutta Christian Observer for 1840, p. ;33. 

2 Remusat's Recherches sur les lanj^es Tartares, p. 368. * Schrceter's Bhotanta Dictionary. 

3 Csoma de KoKis, pp. 106 — 115. g Long's Hand Book of Bengal Missions, p. 237. 


some Roman Missionary, and collected and arranged by Sclirceter, has been printed at Serampore with 
a fount of types cast for the purpose. It consists of nearly 500 quarto pages, and was completed in 1826. 
Dr. Hceberlin, an agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, after journeying through 
Thibet in 1843, again enforced the necessity of a Tibetan version upon the attention of Christian 
Societies, and his suggestions appear to have been met by the American Missionaries, who, it is said, 
have now this work in contemplation.' Dr. Hisberhn states as the result of his observations and 
inquiries in Thibet, tliat " as far as the Tibetan language is spoken, and the Lamas have any sway, so 
far literature exercises an important influence upon the people. If there were a version of the Scrip- 
tures," continues he, " in the Tibetan language, thousands of volumes might annually be sent into the 
interior of Asia from five different points, along the immense frontier of British India ; and the 
millions of people speaking that language, and inquisitive as the Chinese are, might thus have an 
opportunity, and it Is to be hoped profit by it, to be made acquainted with the things that pertain 
to their salvation.'"^ 


The Lepcha language is spoken by the Lepchas, the undoubted aborigines of the mountain forests near Darjeeling.' The district 
thev occupy is perhaps about 120 miles in length, from N.W. to S.E., extending along the south face of the Himalayan mountains, 
until its Umits become undefined in the mountains of Bootan. Little is known in Europe concerning the Lepcha dialect, but recent 
researches have sho\vn it to be allied to, if not derived from, the Tibetan language. The Rev. W. Start, of Darjeehng, has com- 
menced a translation of the New Testament in this langiiage, and has recently caused 1000 copies of the Gospel of St. Matthew 
to be printed at his own expense. It is hoped that a specimen of this version may be obtained for insertion in the present edition 
of this work. 

Fortieth Report of British and Foreign Bihle Society, p. xcv. 3 Forty-third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xc. 

Calcutta Christian Observer for 1840, p. 640. 



EXODUS, Chap. xx. v. 1 to 17. 

I '?DS 3'? HK'j^n-isJ? ^ : :bs-'?y Dnnx d^h'^n ^S n^n^'^l? ' = ^"}?J^ "1?^ °'^-V^ fl^^ 
-kS ^ : fnxS nnria i d:»3 n^N} nnno f-ix3 ni'iSi *?:;»» i bhm '^^^ rfi^an-S^i 

^^' D j^nip ''}P'pb> '^n^*"? cs^sSnS npn nb'Vy '''^p^ ^^Ti'^V}. ^'p^p-^V. 

DiV" :%pisS&-S3 n^b'j;^ n3j;n b^p; r\m' •^^^l'?'? ^I^v^ °r^^ ^ipJ' s 

This Specimen portion exhibits the twofold use of the Hebrew accents. The one series is employed when the Decalogue is read by itself, and 
the other series is used when these verses are read as a continuation of the preceding section of the Pentateuch. The accents are also useo 
in this twofold manner in Deuteronomy, where the Decalogue is repeated. 


Predominance of the Language. — The Hebrew language, honoured by God as the first medium 
of written revelation, had in ancient times predominance over a far greater extent of territory than is 
commonly supposed. It may be inferred from various passages of Sacred History that the Canaanites 
or aboriginal inhabitants of Canaan conversed freely in Hebrew or some closely allied dialect with 
Abraham, and, many years subsequently, with the tribes of Israel under Joshua. Thus, the sjjies, for 
instance, sent by Josluia to survey the country, had no recourse to the aid of an interpreter in their 
intercourse with Rahab and others. Moreover the Ganaanitish names of places and persons, both in 


the time of Abraham and in that of Joshua, are pure Hebrew terms ; Melchisedec, Ablmelech, Salem, 
Jericho, and in iact all names recorded in Scripture of persons, cities, and towns, in Canaan might be 
cited as examples. (See Joshua, chapters 15 to 22). That the Canaanites formed part and portion of the 
people known in profane history by the name of Pha3nicians, has been clearly proved by the ethno- 
graphical researches of Gesenius ' and other German scholars ; and in the Septuagint, the words Pha?nicians 
and Canaanites, Phoenicia and Canaan are indiscriminately used : compare Exod. 6. 15 with Gen. 46. 10, 
and Exod. 16. 35 with Jos. 5. 12. Hence the obvious inference that Hebrew was the vernacular of the 
Phojnicians, and that it was therefore the idiom of Tyre, of Sidon, of Carthage, and of all the numerous 
colonies estabhshcd by that enterprising people. We may thus trace the use of Hebrew as a vernacular 
tongue, or as a medium of communication all round the coast of the Mediterranean, with the exception 
of Italy and (in part) of Greece. A\Tien the Old Testament was written, probably no language was 
so widely diffused as the Hebrew : it occupied just such a place as Greek did in the days of the 
Apostles. With the sole exception of the Jews, however, the nations by whom Hebrew was spoken 
have either passed away from the face of the earth, or have become amalgamated with other races. 
The number of Jews now dispersed throughout the world is generally estimated at about 4,000,000 -.^ 
of these there are only 175,000 in Palestine and Syria. In England there are 30,000 Jews, of whom 
20,000 reside in London, but they are still more numerous in some parts of continental Europe ; at 
Warsaw, for instance, they form one-fourth part of the population. In the following graphical 
description of the present state of the Jews, by Professor Gaussen, it will be perceived that the 
statistical calculations are founded upon different data from those above adduced. " The restless feet of 
God's ancient people are pressing at this very hour the snows of Siberia, and the burning sands of the 
desert. Our friend Gobat found numbers of them in the elevated plains of Abyssinia, eighteen 
hundred miles to the south of Carlo ; and when Denham and Clapperton, the first travellers that 
ventured across the great Sahara, arrived on the banks of the lake Tchad, they also found that the 
wandering Jew had preceded them there by many a long year. When the Portuguese settled in the 
Indian Peninsula, they found three distinct classes of Jews ; and when the English lately took pos- 
session of Aden in the south of Arabia, the Jews were more in number there than the Gentiles. By 
a census taken within the last few months in Eussia, they amount to 2,200,000 ; so that their 
population in that immense empire exceeds that of our twenty-two cantons. Morocco contains 
300,000, and Tunis 150,000. In the one small town of Sana, the capital of Arabia Felix, they 
assemble together in eighteen synagogues. Yemen counts 200,000 ; the Turkish empire 200,000, 
of which Constantinople alone contains 80,000. At Brody, where the Christians who are 10,000 in 
number have only three churches, the Jews, 20,000 in number, have 150 synagogues. Hungary has 
300,000. Cracovic, 22,000. In a word, it is imagined that, were all the Jews assembled together, 
they would form a population of 7,000,000 ; so that, could you transport them into the land of their 
fathers this very year, they would form a nation more powerful and more numerous than our 
Switzerland." ^ 

CHARACTEPasTiCS OF THE LANGUAGE. — Wliether Hebrew was or was not the primeval 
tongue of the human race has been the subject of much discussion, and is a question which, with our 
present means of knowledge, it is impossible satisfactorily to resolve. Certain it is, however, that the 
Hebrew language bears many internal marks of antiquity. The majority of Hebrew words, for 
instance, are descriptive ; that is, they specify the prominent or distinguishing quality of the person, 
animal, place, or thing, which they designate : and the vocabulary, though comparatively poor in 
abstract and metaphysical terms, is rich in words having immediate reference to those objects of sense 
with which a nomadic people might be supposed to be most conversant. Thus, there are no less than 
250 distinct botanical terms in the Old Testament ; and synonymous forms of expression for the 
common actions and occurrences of life are numerous and varied. Among these synonymes have 
been counted no less than fourteen different words of which each signifies to break; there are ten 
words answering to the verb to seek ; nine express the act of dying, fourteen convey the idea of 
trust in God, nine signify remission of sins, and eight denote darkness ; and to express the observance 
of the laws of God there are no less than twenty- five phrases.'' The language appears to have 
attained its utmost possible development at a very early period, and to have remained subsequently for 
ages in the same stage, witliout progression or retrogression. This is evidenced by comparing the 

1 Gesenius; Monnmenta PhcEnicia. ^ From a Sermon Preached at Geneva, by Professor Gaussen, 1S43 : 

" Malte Brun, and Balbi, p. 127. see Hoole's Year Book of Missions, p. 51. 

* Davidson's Lectures on Biblieal Criticism, p. 265. 

Shemitic Languages.] HEBREW. 21 

books of tlic Pentateuch with those of the later prophets : the latter differ from the former only by 
tlie disuse of a few words, wliicli in the course of centuries had become obsolete, and by the intro- 
duction of sundry terms wliich had been engrafted on the language by intercourse with the Assyrians 
and Babylonians : tliere arc, however, 268 verses of pure Chaldee in the Old Testament. A certain 
stilfncss of construction, joined to great energy and simphcity, appears to be the most prominent 
fealure of Hebrew and its cognate dialects. The fundamental structure of these dialects bears the 
impress, if we may so speak, of premeditation and design. Unlike all other idioms, the roots or 
elementary words are dissyllable and triliteral ; they are for the most part the third person singular, 
preterite tense, active voice of the verb, and seem to have been originally framed ibr the express pur- 
pose of representing ideas in the simplest possible form, while the application of these ideas to denote the 
varied circumstances of life (such as time past, present, or future, personal agency, passion, or feeling,) 
is effected generally by mere changes of tlie vowels placed above, within, or below, the letters of the 
root ; lor instance, ^P7 expresses a simple flict — " he learned," but lOp denotes an additional circum- 
stance, viz. : that he learned diligenthj : so "13'^ he spake, by the simple change of a vowel sign ("l^"^) 
comes to denote the thing spoken, that is, a word. Besides the vowels, a certain set of consonants 
set aside for this ofEce, and hence called Serviles, are sometimes used in modifying the meaning of the 
roots. With respect to the alphabetical system of the Hebrews, it has generally been the custom to 
attribute the introduction of the square character to Ezra. It has lately, however, been shown that 
the sqviare characters had no existence till probably two or three centuries after the Christian era. 
Kopp (in his Bilder imd Schriften der Vorzeit) traces the gradual formation of these characters from 
the inscriptions on the bricks at Babylon, down through the Phoenician or Samaritan letters on the 
Maccabean coins, and thence to the Pahnyrene inscriptions found among the nuns of Palmyra ; and 
Gesenius, in the last edition of his Grammar, admits that the square or modern Hebrew character is 
descended from the Pahnyrene. The rabbinical style of writing now in use among the Jews, is merely 
a ciu'sive modification of the square character, adopted for ease and expedition. ' 

History of the Hebrew Text oe Scripture. — From the first promulgation of the 
written word, special provision seems to have been made for its careful preservation. (See Exod. 
25. 21 ; — 40. 20). A distinct command had reference to the place in which the booh of the law was 
to be deposited, namely, in the side of the Ark of the Covenant. (Deut. 31. 26). The multiphca- 
tion of copies also was provided for by a Divine decree, (see Deut. 17. 18); and a copy of the law of 
Moses was made by Joshua. (See Jos. 8. 32). On the erection of the Temple, Solomon caused 
the Ark to be brought " into the oracle of the house, to the most holy place, under the wings of the 
Cherubim ;" and from that period the books of holy writ were guarded within the walls of the Sacred 
edifice, as is evident from such passages as 2 Kings 22. 8 •,—2 Chrou. 34. 14, &c. That these divine 
records did not fall into the hands of the enemy when the Jews were led away captive to Babylon, 
may be inferred from the fact that in the list of the spoils carried away from the temple, detailed as 
that list is, (see 2 Ivi. 25, — 2 Chron. 36 and Jer. 52), there is no mention whatever of the Sacred books. 
The captives, at the very moment that they were compelled to abandon the gold and silver of their 
temple, must have concealed and carried with them these most valued treasures ; — for Daniel, who 
^vrote during the captivity, made distinct reference to two dillerent parts of Scripture as documents 
well known to his comitryracn, (see Dan. 9); Ezra when he went up from Babylon to Jerusalem was 
" a ready scribe in the law of Moses wliich the Lord God of Israel had given," (Ezra 7. 6), and 
immediately on the return from captivity, the people called for the book of the law of iloses, which 
was opened and read to them. (Xeh. 8. 1). The completion of the Canon of the Old Testament 
is referred to about the time of the completion of the Second Temple ; and there can be no doubt 
but that the inspired men who Hved at that period, namely Malachi, the last of the Old Testament 
prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, Ezra, and Nehemiah, collected all the books that had been given by 
inspiration of God, and deposited them in the Temple. When the Temple and the city of Jerusalem 
woi-e destroyed by the Eomans, the characteristic faithfulness of the Jews to the sacred charge 
originally committed to them, remained the same. Some of the learned Jews opened schools in 
various parts of the East for the cultivation of Sacred hterature ; one of these schools, estabhshed at 
Tiberias in Galilee, is mentioned by Jerome as existing in the early part of the fifth century ; another 
school of almost equal note was established at Babylon, and at both frequent transcriptions of the 
Scriptm'cs were made. And the hand of Providence is to be traced in this multiphcation of copies 

> See Professor Stuart in Biblical Repository for 1832. 


at different places and by distinct institutions, for the comparison of copies afterwards formed a ready- 
mode for the correction of such errors as had crept in through the negligence of copyists. The most 
strino-ent laws, however, were in force among the Jews to ensure accuracy in their copies of the 
Scriptures ; the preparation of the parchment, of the ink, and even of the state of mind of the copyist, 
were all prescribed by rule ; and such has ever been their reverence for antiquity, that when in an 
ancient exemplar they have met -with the accidental inversion or misplacing of a letter, or when one 
letter has been made larger than the rest or suspended above the line, they have scrupidously refrained 
from rectifying even what was so manifestly erroneous, imder the superstitious notion that in the 
original formation and location of every letter some mystery Is Involved. Still further to ensure the 
perfect Integrity of the text, the Jews at some period between the fourth and sixth century carefully 
collected into one book all the grammatical and critical remarks on the letter of Scripture that had 
been current at different times and places since the time of Ezra. To the volume thus formed, which 
in process of time became larger than the Bible Itself, they gave the name of Masora, that is, 
tradition, because the criticisms it contained had been handed down by tradition from father to son. 
But besides being a collection of grammatical annotations, the Masora really was, as the Jews 
emphatically styled It " the hedge of tlie law," for It contains a multitude of the most minute calcula- 
tions concerning the number of verses, hnes, words, and letters. In the Sacred volume ; so that the 
number of letters in every verse, and even the middle letter of every verse having been ascertained 
with some exactness, it was anticipated that no interpolation or omission In the text could for the 
future pass undetected. The further Influence of the Septuagint and other ancient versions in securing 
the early copies of the Hebrew Scriptures from the possiblUty of corruption wiU be subsequently 
noticed. Eight particular copies seem to have been especially honoured among the Jews on account 
of their strict fidehty and accuracy, and to have been regularly used as exemplars from which all other 
copies were made. These eight copies were — 

1. The Codex of Hlllel, an ancient MS. no longer in existence, but it was seen at Toledo in the 
twelfth century by the Kabbi Kimclii ; Rabbi Zacvitl who lived about the end of the fifteenth century 
declared that part of the MS. had been sold and sent to Africa. This copy contained the vowel points 
invented by the Masorites. 

2. The Babylonian Codex, supposed to contain the text as revised under the care of Eabbi Ben 
Naphtall, President of the Academy at Babylon. 

3. The Codex of Israel, supposed to exhibit the text as corrected by Rabbi Ben Asher, President 
of the Academy above mentioned at Tiberias ; this MS. is imagined to have been the same as that of 

Lastly, the remaining five Codices were, the Egyptian Codex, the MS. of Sinai containing only 
the Pentateuch, the Pentateuch of Jericho, the Codex of SanbukI, and the book of Taygim. All 
the MSS. now in existence can be traced to one or other of these exemplars. The MSS. executed by 
the Jews in Spain foUow the Codex of Hillel, and are more valued than those made In any other 
country, on account of their accuracy and the elegance with which they are written, the letters being 
perfectly square, and having the appearance of print. German MSS. on the contrary are not elegantly 
written, and the characters are rudely formed, but they are valued on account of their containing 
readings coinciding with the Samaritan Pentateuch and the ancient versions. The Italian MSS. are 
neither so beautiful as the Spanish, nor so rude in appearance as the German, and they do not follow 
the Masora so closely as the former, nor deviate from It so frequently as the latter. ' 

Of the Hebrew MSS. now known to be In existence, the most ancient of which the date has been 
duly attested Is not much above seven hundred years old. It formerly belonged to Reuchlin, and is 
now preserved In the Library at Carlsruhe, whence it is famlharly known as the Codex Carlsnihensis : 
It is In square folio, Its date is a.d. 1106, and Its country is Spain. It contains the Prophets with the 
Targum. There are two or three MSS. to which an earlier origin is assigned, but the date of their 
execution is very doubtful. There are only five or six MSS. extant wliich were made so early as the 
twelfth century; we have about fifty MSS. written in the thirteenth century, eighty in the fourteenth, 
and 110 in the fifteenth.^ The Jews who have been located for several centuries In the interior of 
China do not possess any MSS. of earher date than the fifteenth century. The black Jews on the 
coast of ilalabar, who are supposed to have emigrated to India about the time of the Jewish captivity, 
possessed a Hebrew MS. which was brought to England by Buchanan in 1806,, and Is now carefully 
preserved at Cambridge. It Is a roll of goats' skins dyed red, and measures forty-eight feet long by 

1 Home's Introduction, Vol. II. - Davidson's Lectures on Biblical Criticism. 

Shemitic Languages.] HEBREW. 23 

twenty-two inches wide. It only contains part of the Pentateuch, Leviticus and a portion of Deu- 
teronomy arc wanted. The text, with a few slight variations, accords with the ]\Iasorctic. As is the 
case with all the more ancient MSS., there is no division of words ; an old rabbinical tradition says 
that the law was formerly one verse and one word. The division into verses is generally attributed to 
the compilers of tlie Masora. The division into chapters is more recent, and was first adopted in the 
Latin Testament. A more ancient division of the Pentateuch was into parashloth, or greater and less 
sections for the regular reading in the synagogue, a division still retained by the Jews in the rolls ot 
the Pentateuch.' 

Printed Editions of the Hebrew Bible. — The first portion of the Hebrew Scripture> 
committed to the press was the Psalter, with the Commentary of Rabbi Kimchi, it appeared in 1477, 
but it is not certain at what place it was printed. In 1482 the Pentateuch was published at Bologna, 
and other parts of Scripture were subsequently printed at various places. But the first complete Bible 
that issued from the press was that printed in 1488 at Soncino, a small town of Lombardy, between 
Cremona and Brescia. Copies of this edition are now so scarce that only nine are known to exist, one 
of which is in the Library of Exeter College, Oxford. It has points and accents, but from what MSS. 
it was printed is unknown. It formed the text of another edition, printed, mth a few corrections, at 
Brescia in 1494. The printers of both these editions were of a family of German Jews who had 
settled at Soncino ; they are noted for having been, in point of time, the first Hebrew printers. The 
Hrescia edition is famous for having been that from which Luther made his translation of the Old 
Testament, and the identical volume used by him is still preserved in the Eoyal Library at Berlin. 
This edition forms one of the three standard texts from which all subsequent editions have been 
executed ; the other two being the Hebrew text of the Complutensian Polyglot (published 1514 — 17, 
and for which seven MSS. were consulted), and the second edition of Bomberg's Bible. ^ Bomberg 
printed in all five editions, of which the first appeared at Venice in 1518 ; but the second edition, 
published at Venice 1525 — 26, is the most valued on account of its superior correctness, and its text 
still forms the basis of modem printed Bibles. It is pointed according to the Masoretic system, and 
was printed from the text of the Brescia edition, corrected by reference to some Spanish MSS., under 
the care of Rabbi Ben Chajim, a Jew of profound acquaintance with the Masora and rabbinical 

All the editions above mentioned were executed by Jews or Jewish converts. The first Hebrew 
Bible published by a Gentile, was that printed in 1534 — 35 at Basle, with a Latin translation in 
a parallel column, by Mimster, a learned German ; in a second edition published 1536, he introduced 
critical annotations and portions of the Masora : he used the Brescia edition of 1494 as his text, but 
seems to have consulted Bomberg's Bible and several MSS. In 1569 — 72 the Hebrew text of the 
Antwerp Polyglot was pulilished ; it is compounded of the Complutensian text, and that of the second 
edition of Bomberg's Bible. The next most celebrated editions, in point of time, of the Hebrew 
Bible were those of Buxtorf : he published an 8vo. edition at Basle in 1619, and his great Rabbinical 
Bible (so called because accompanied by the Masora and the Commentaries of five Jewisli rabbis) 
appeared in 1618 — 20. 

About this period the Samaritan Pentateuch was first introduced into Europe, and a new era 
commenced in the history of Hebrew criticism. Hitherto both Jews and Christians had rested secure 
in the supposed uniformity of Hebrew ]\ISS. Origen, who as will hereafter be shown, had certainly 
attempted to collate the Hebrew text with the Septuagint version, seems to have taken Httle or no 
pains in the comparison of Hebrew MSS. ; and though in some of the editions of the Bible, as above 
mentioned, several MSS. had been consulted, a general and systematic collation of aU the MSS. of the 
Old Testament had never been deemed reqvusite. Now, however, the attention of the learned was 
drawn to the variations between the Hebrew text, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Septuagint 
version ; the controversies thence arising happily led to the examination of the MSS. themselves, 
and the various readings there discovered were discussed by the same laws of criticism that had long 
been in force with respect to profane writmgs. Two most important critical editions of the Bible, 
published in 1661 and 1667 at Amsterdam by Atliias a learned Rabbi, were among the first fi-ults of 
these researches : the text was founded on MSS. as well as on a collation of previous printed editions, 
and one MS. was said to be 900 years old.-* So highly were the labours of Athias appreciated, that 

2 Bishop Marsh's Lectures on the Criticism and Iiiterprctatioii of 


in testimony of public admiration, the States General of Holland presented liim with a gold chain and 
medal appendant. Athias was the first editor who numbered the verses of the Hebrew Bible, every 
fifth verse had in previous editions been marked with a Hebrew numeral. His text, with some few 
alterations, was beautifully reprinted by Van der Hooght in 1705 at Amsterdain ; this edition is 
celebrated for its typographical elegance, and the clearness of the characters, especially of the vowel 
points. It has some few Masoretic notes in the margin, and a collation of various readings from 
printed editions at the end. It was reprinted in London 1811 — 12, under the editorship of Mr. Frey. 
Among other reprints of Van der Hooght's text, with corrections by various editors, the splendid 
edition of Houbigant appeared at Paris in 1753. In this edition the text is divested of vowel points, 
all Masoretic appendages are omitted, and several readings from the Samaritan are inserted in the 
margin of the Pentateuch. In the same year that Houbigant printed Ms edition, Kennicott published 
his first dissertation on the state of the Hebrew text, in wliich he clearly demonstrated the necessity of 
collating aU the MSS. of Scripture that were known to be yet extant. To defray the expense of so 
important an undertaking, a large subscription, headed by George III, was raised in England, and the 
work of collation, commenced by Kennicott and his coadjutors in 1760, continued till 1769. _ Kenni- 
cott collated 250 ]\ISS. with his own hand, (most of which, however, were only examined in select 
places), and the total number collated by him and under his direction was about 600. In 1776 — 80 
he published a splendid edition of Van der Hooght's text at Oxford, with various readings collected 
from Hebrew and Samaritan MSS., from printed editions, and from the quotations of the Bible occur- 
ring in the works of ancient rabbinical writings, and especially in the Talmud, of which the text belongs 
to the third century. An important supplement to this great work was published by M. de Rossi at 
Parma, 1784 — 87, consisting of addirional readings from Hebrew MSS. and other sources. De Eossi 
added a volume of SclioUa Critica in 1798. Up to the present moment about 1300 Hebrew MSS. 
have been collated in whole or in part ; but each j\IS. very rarely contains the whole Bible, some 
being confined to the Pentateuch, others to the Prophets, while others comprise but a single book. 
It is a remarkable fact, and a proof of the continued interposition of Divine Providence, that after all 
the laborious researches that have been made among MSS. belonging to diiFerent centuries and to 
various countries, not a single reading has yet been detected which affects the power of any one 
doctrine, precept, or consolation, contained in that holy volume which has been received during so 
many ages by Jews and Christians as the Word of God. Discrepancies to the amount of several 
thousands exist in different MSS. as to the insertion or omission of a letter, the use or rejection of a 
synonymous term, and similar minor details ; nor are these without their use, for it is obvious that 
such errata, though they affect only the orthography or mere diction of the text, subserve the double 
purpose of aiding in the grammatical elucidation of certain difficult passages, and of proving the 
general integrity of the Sacred Canon. Van der Hooght's text, with which all Hebrew MSS. hitherto 
collated have been compared by Kennicott and others, is esteemed the most con-ect of the printed 
editions : the typographical and other errors which encumbered the first editions have been removed 
by Halm and later editors, and it now forms our Textus Receptus. It is not, however, appreciated 
by some of the Jews, merely on account of Roman figures and sundry marks in the margin which 
have appeared in the editions of this text. To meet their prejudices the London Society for the 
Conversion of the Jews caused an edition to be printed immediately from the text of Athias as 
exhibited in his second edition of 1667, and which is the edition most prized by the Jews. The 
Society's Bible was edited by Judah D'Allemand, and pubhshed in London 1828 ; and special 
evidences of the blessing of God upon the Old Testament Scriptures, in preparing the minds of 
his ancient people for the fuller revelation of the New Testament are to be found in the Reports of 
the Society. 




St. JOHN, Chap. i. «. I to 14. 


■' • r]'^r\: n;3 Vin j o^n'^xn-nN' n^p'xi.? 
' lis' vn D'*nni • vn D":n i3 : T]^:]: 

' n'xen naxn -lix n;n xin ; ■iixn-':?y 

" x'? inx iS-i^xi • iS i^\Nf Sx xn xin 
"jib'pB' |n3 cnS inS|]5 -^m) : "^ap 

x^l ♦ ib'sn nixna ih) * d^ot?? xS 

" -13'^ni : nSij D'ri':5X0 dx-"'3 tr*x ^^ixaa 

•nins-nx nx-iii n3?ina pm n;ri nb'n'? 

: naxi non xSa • 2xS n^n^n 11333 

society's teesion. 

^^5?^* !^!Ci i3ini n3in n;n n^^'xi-i 
n;ri xin tD^n'^xC n;ri -i3ini n^nSxn- 
n;n3 "istSs :D*nSxn Ssx n*tJ'^{-!3^* 
:r^ir): -\m -i3"i n^n; x'? vnjj'psai i3 
:cnxn nix vn n^^nn^ Q^n vn i3^ 
s ; inS5^3 xV •^^i'nni nJ3 ^B'n? lixni ' 
:pnv w D^nSx nxo mW k'^x ^nv 

ii'C N''? ^! • iT^y Q*?? lyax: => 
xin t lixn-Sj; n^j^n^p-ax '3 -lixn '■' 
\Nt3-S3^ n>'»n *;^axn lixn n;n 
n^-'^y Q^iyCl -^^C '^^Siys j o'piyrt ' ■ 
ts!3 .vin : iyn*^ xS Qbiyni^ n;nj " 
: inx nSap x':' in^jpi inW-Sx 
nvriS niB'i jn^ inx iSii? i^x nWSi'- 
x'? ip^ :is^3 D^pxa"? D^nSx ':3" 
nixna xSi nbsn nixna iS'h c^pio 
n!0 i3ini. t nSiJ D^nSxo-cx "3 ini " 
iii33-nx nx-jpi i33in3 I3?r*i •1^3';' 
:naxi -iDH xSa 3x';' n^n^ ni333 


Hebrew Versions of the New Testament. — We have no certain information concerning 
the translation of any portion of the New Testament into the language of the Old Testament 
Scriptures, prior to the year 1537, when the Gospel of St. Matthew was published in Hebrew by 
Sebastian Munster, at Basle. Great attention was excited by tliis book at the time of its appearance, 
on account of an ancient tradition wliich prevailed in the Church that St. ilatthew originally wrote 


his Gospel in Hebrew. ' It was very evident, however, that Munster's pubhcation had no pretensions 
to be regarded as the text of the sacred original, nor even as an ancient version, for the language in 
which it was written was not the Syro-Chaldaic current in Palestine at the time of our Lord, but the 
rabbinical Hebrew in use among the Jews of the twelfth century ; it was moreover full of solecisms 
and barbarisms, and bore indubitable marks of having been translated either directly from the Vulgate, 
(sr from an Itahan version of the Vulgate. The translation was probably made by an imconverted 
Jew, at some period subsequent to the twelfth century. In an Apology for this work, dedicated to 
Henry VIII of England, Munster states that the MS. from which he printed was defective in several 
passages, and that he was compelled to supply the omissions as he best could from his own resources. 
This circumstance may serve partly to account for the errors which abound in the work. It passed 
through several editions, and a Hebrew version of the Epistle to the Hebrews was appended to it. 
Another edition of the same translation of St. Matthew, but printed from a more complete and correct 
MS. brought for the purpose from Italy, was published by Tillet, Bishop of St. Brleux, at Paris in 
1555, with a Latin version by Mercerus. 

A translation of the four Gospels into biblical Hebrew was made by Joannes Baptista Jonas,^ 
a converted Jew, and Professor of Hebrew at the University of Rome: he dedicated it to Pope 
Clement IX, and it was published at Eome in 1668, at the expense of the Congregation de Propa- 
ganda Fide. The first translation of the entire New Testament into Hebrew was made by Elias Hutter, 
a Protestant divine, born at Ulm in 1553. He was Professor of Hebrew at Leipsic, and first dis- 
tinguished himself by his ingenious plan of printing a Hebrew Bible, in which he had the radical 
letters struck off with solid and black, and the servile with hollow and white types, while the quiescents 
were executed in smaller characters and placed above the line ; thus exhibiting at a glance the root or 
elementary principle of each word. Hutter's success in this undertaking led him to project a Polyglot 
Bible : he commenced with the New Testament, but found himself utterly at a loss for want of a 
Hebrew version. He therefore determined upon supplying the deficiency himself, and in the course 
of one twelvemonth he produced a translation of the New Testament. He then proceeded with his 
original design, and completed his Polyglot Testament in twelve languages, at Nuremberg in 1600. 
This Hebrew version was afterwards detached from the Polyglot, and repeatedly printed. In 1661 it 
was revised and published in London, in 8vo., under the superintendence of William Robertson; but 
the greater part of this edition was consumed in the fire of London, 1666, so that copies are now 
rarely to be met with. Another edition, but in 12mo., was published in London in 1798, by the 
Rev. Richard Caddick, B.A., for the benefit of the Jews. It became, however, apparent that this 
version, although entitled to some measure of commendation in consideration of the short time in which 
it was executed, is unsuitable for general circulation. The Jews were prejudiced against it on account 
of its not being in pure biblical Hebrew: they objected to the frequent introduction of rabbinical 
words, and it was proved to be full of grammatical inaccuracies and solecisms. It had no sooner, 
therefore, been brought into use, than a^ new translation became a desideratum. In the meantime 
Dr. Buchanan brought from India a translation of the New Testament, executed in Travancore, 
among the Jews of that country, to whom allusion has been made above : the translator was a learned 
rabbi. The MS. was written in the small rabbinical or Jerusalem character; the style is elegant and 
flowing, and tolerably faithful to the text. Dr. Buchanan deposited the MS. in the University Library 
at Cambridge; but it was previously transcribed by Mr. Yeates, of Cambridge, in the square Hebrew 
character. ' A copy was presented to the London Society for the Conversion of the Jews, and it was 
at one time thought that it would greatly promote the object of the Society to print and circulate the 
production of a Jew so evidently master of his own ancient language. After much deliberation, how- 
ever, a more strictly literal translation was still deemed desirable; and accordingly, in 1816, Mr. Frey 
and other learned Hebraists executed, under the patronage of the Jews' Society, a new version of the 
New Testament. In 1818 nearly 3500 copies left the Society's press, and this edition was speedily 
followed by another issue. The British and Foreign Bible Society assisted materially in this work, by 
])urchasing at various times to a large amount. After this version had been in circulation some time, 
complaints from Hebrew readers in various parts of the world were laid before the Jews' Society Com- 
mittee, concerning the rendering of certain passages. To ensure minute accuracy, the Committee 
determined on a thorough revision. They consulted some of the most eminent men in Europe, and 
Professor Gesenius was recommended to them as the first Hebrew scholar of the age. To him, there- 

' Dr. Davidson's Introduction to the New Testament, Vol. I., con- 3 a MS. of the four Gospels in Hebrew, written by Mr. Yeates. 
tains a fnll discussion of the interesting question. in iyo5, is now in the British Museum, No. 11,659 of the 

- Simon's Critical History of Versions, p. 173. additional MSS. 

SiiEMiTic Languages.] HEBREW, AS A TRANSLATION. 27 

lore, they confided tlicir version, requesting from him a critique upon it, and suggestions as to alterations. 
Gesenius went carefully through the work as far as the Acts, and likewise through the book of lievclation, 
when Ills numerous engagements compelled him to resign the task. The work, with all Gesenius's 
notes, was then transferred by the Jews' Committee to Dr. Neumann, a converted Jew, lecturer 
on Hebrew at the University of IJrcslau. Dr. Neumann commenced the work anew, and his revision 
when completed was acknowledged to boar the stamp of " diligence, accuracy, zeal, and prolbund 
scholarship." The limited funds of the Society, however, prevented them from giving this valuable 
revision to the public, and it therefore remained some time in MS. At this very period the publisher 
of the Modern Polyglot Bible (i\Ir. Bagster) requiring a Hebrew version of the New Testament for 
the Polyglot, applied to the Society for the Conversion of the Jews for the critical emendations they 
had been amassing: the important notes of Gesenius and Neumann were in consequence handed to 
him, and were incorporated in the new version executed for the Polyglot by Mr. Greenfield, and 
published in 183L' In 1839 the Society issued an edition of 5000 copies of another version, executed 
by tlie Kev. Dr. M'Caul, Rev. M. S. Alexander, Eev. J. C. Reichardt, and Mr. S. Hoga. This work, 
a specimen of which accompanies this memoir, was afterwards stereotyped, and is the version now 
circulated by the Society. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — In the Reports of the Society for the 
Conversion of the Jews, are many affecting and well authenticated instances of the Divine blessing 
having attended the perusal of the Hebrew New Testament. One fact in connection with this subject 
requires notice here, as showing the power of the New Testament over the heart of a Jew. The learned 
rabbi, mentioned above as the translator of the Travancore Testament, engaged in the work solely with 
the design of confuting Christianity. That his triumph might be more complete, he endeavoured 
in his translation to keep as near to the original as possible, for he never doubted but that with 
his scholarship and logical abilities he would find it easy to refute the statements of the text. By the 
time, however, that he had gone through the life of Jesus, liis confidence was shaken, and as if afraid, 
says Dr. Buchanan, of the converting power of his own translation, he inserted a paragraph at the close 
of the Gospels, in which he took heaven and earth to witness that he had undertaken the work with 
the express design of opposing the Epicureans^ as he termed the Christians. A cloud hangs over his 
subsequent history ; but there are abundant reasons for believing that he fell a martyr to the bigotry of 
his people, and that after embracing the religion of Jesus, he sealed his testimony with his blood. 

Mr. Greenfield iiifoi-med Mr. Bagster, that lie never engaged in the important work of this translation without previous suppUcation for 

Divine assistance and guidance. 


EXODUS, Chap. xx. v. 1 to 17. 

• arrrA-i?3A^'Y • i55fZ/f • yi-K%m • nrai/t * : ^anraZ • !iaZA^ • arrrZis • Zis • Am • arrrstz/f • ZZia? * * 

• iaiTf^i? • Zv • arrrii^Tv • arrrstZA- • az • stmstm • yvz * ' iarrf^av • Amaa • ^nrsm^a • vsa. • ;i!3 

• 3frrt3a°?T : vsz^a • ?fv"v/f.a'^? • Zvza • sfmat^'a'^ • ^^"^ • Zat • Z^3 • aZ • '^avA • a-Z * 

• z7f • a^ZA^ ' ^r^m • rrra^iA- • a-Z^ : !it;i"»ia"^A • a-Zt • !i?Z • "^I-^a • aZ * : sfv^AZ • v^z^a 

• '^av? * • m/f-':^-^l • taorvmas • Zv? • arrrAAfrrZA • Zv? • arnica • Zv • i^^oA • a?v • '^va • Aip 

• asfZA : 5j?5tfTr • iS"* • art • za-^^A • az * • frf°fp?3 • m<\'K'':^l-K • rrra'^^z • arrraZAZ • '^^^ 

• atnr • Afir • 'sv* * — : : i^Tftaz • ^fta"^ • Aor • za^m°? • Am : st^am • ma^m • az • AZ5f • 'yi^l 

• stAvrrra'" • ^'n^m-K * • aA'^nrav • za • savA? • "^ia'"A • jaoraror • aa»" * • ^"^"svz • ?(Aa»" 

• • • • aASA? • a'^av • aA^a? • a^at • ^aa • ?t'^mav • za • ?fa • -^avA • aZ • asfZA • ^-K-^ml • Bta"* 
: ^tv^A • Aor? • stma?"" • aw • 5(?5(m • '^av • ama^rrr • a*""^ • aZ^i * • alrf^?pa°? • a^tnn? 

• Am • 3(??rm • a^a • l^a • zv • scvma"^ • ^atma • ^:iA? • li^a'T • za • Am? • stam • Am? 

• ama?m • l^ta^Am • zm°?az ' aaA • Am? • a?aA ■ Am • m??a * * — : : 9[»"'^v? • ^Aa"* • a?m 

• a^iKA • AZ * : ^?^A • aZ * • Z^pa • az * : aZ • aatm • a^tZA : ?(?3fm'^ • scv^a • Zv 

• AAA • '^a'^A • AZ? • a^a^ • Ama • 'S'h-^a • az * • ^p>"<^ • ?'^v^ • av^a • "^m-^A • az* 

— : : a^a^Z°f • Za?' st^a'^? • 9['s?a • 3JAaA? • ^f^av • 3Zpv : a^a^ 


Predominance of the Language. — The Hebrew language (in which tlie Samaritan Penta- 
teuch is written) was predominant, as we have shown (pp. 19, 20) in many countries of antiquity. It 
has long ceased to be the vernacular of Samaria, the inhabitants now speak Arabic, but the Sacred 
books and liturgy belonging to the few remaining descendants of the ancient Samaritans, are written in 
a dialect called the Samaritan, which has never obtained extension beyond the limits of Samaria itself. 
The Samaritans have lost all political importance, they have dwindled down to a few families, and 
merely constitute a small religious sect. They dwell on the site of Shechem their ancient capital, now 
called Nablous or Naplosa, a corruption of the Greek word Neapolis, the new city. The houses 
occupied by them are said not to be above fifty or sixty in number ; the total amount of inhabitants 
has not been exactly ascertained, but in 1824 there were only about sixty among them who paid the 
capitation tax. They still go up three times a year to Mount Gerizim to worship, but from fear of 
the Turks they offer sacrifices privately in their own city. 

Languages of Samaria. — Up to the period when the ten tribes of Israel were carried away 
captive into Assyria, Hebrew was the language of Samaria. The characters employed by the ten 
tribes in writing Hebrew were however totally different from those now in use among the Jews. The 
Samaritan letters, as they are called, are closely allied to the Phoenician, ' and appear originally to 
have been employed by the whole Jewish nation, for the characters on the Maccabean coins are very 
similar to the Samaritan, and these coins, of which the series probably commences about 150 years 
before Christ, were struck by Simon, Jonathan, and other members of the Maccabean dynasty. 

The mixed nature of the dialect which became predominant in Samaria on the removal of the 
ten tribes, may be inferred from 2 Kings 17. 24, where we are told that " the king of Assyria brought 
men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and fi-om Ava, and from Hamatli, and from Sepharvaim, and 

1 See Bayer's De Nummis HebrEeo-Samaritanis. 


placed tlicm in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel ;" moreover, a Hebrew Priest 
was appointed as the public teacher of religion to this mixed multitude, and hence, as might have 
been expected, a dialect partly Aramiean and partly Plebrew, became in process of time the general 
medium of communication. Arabic being at jsresent the language spoken in Samaria, this dialect has 
now no existence but in books ; it is greatly venerated by the Samaritans, and they affirm that it is 
the true and original Hebrew in which the law was given, and that the language formerly spoken by 
the Jews was not Hebrew but Jewish. ' 

History of the Hebr2eo-Samaritan Pentateuch. — The date, copyist, and origin of 
this transcript of the Hebrew Pentateuch are involved in inextricable mystery, yet after all the dis- 
cussions that have taken place on the subject, the most probable conjecture seems to be, that when the 
ten tribes under Jeroboam seceded from their alliance with Judah, they possessed this copy of the 
Pentateuch, which they ever afterwards carefully preserved, and transmitted to posterity. It is 
written throughout in pure Hebrew, and corresponds nearly word for word with our Hebrew text, so 
that the mere acquaintance with the Samaritan characters is all that is requisite to enable a Hebrew 
scholar to read this ancient document. It is rather remarkable that in about two thousand places 
where the Samaritan ditiers from the Hebrew text, it agrees with the Septuagint, and among the 
various hypotheses that have been started to account for this circumstance, it seems most reasonable to 
suppose with Gcsenius, that the Samaritan copy and the Septuagint version were both made from 
some ancient Hebrew codex whicli differed in a few minor particulars from the more modern Masoretic 
text. The variations of this Pentateuch do not, however, affect the force of any doctrine, the two 
chief discrepancies between the Samaritan and Hebrew texts being, the prolongation of the period 
between the deluge and the birth of Abraham in the Samaritan, and the substitution of the word 
Gcriziiii for Ehal in Deut. 27. In these cases it is impossible to say whether the Jews or the 
Samaritans were guilty of corrupting the original text. The Septuagint represents the contested 
period as even longer by some centuries than the Samaritan, and it is followed by the Roman Catholic 
Martyrology ; but in the Latin Vulgate, the computation of the Hebrew text has been adopted. ^ 
The chronology of the Samaritan has been vindicated by Dr. Hales, but generally, where various 
readings exist, the authority of the Hebrew is considered paramount. These occasional readings do 
not however diminish the value of the Samaritan Pentateuch as a witness to the integrity of the 
Hebrew text. That the same facts and the same doctrines should be transmitted in almost precisely 
the same words from generation to generation by nations, between whom the most rooted antipathy 
and rivalry existed (as was notably the case between the Samaritans and the Jews), is a strong argu- 
ment in proof of the authenticity of the books ascribed to Moses ; the purity of the text handed 
down to us through these two separate and independent channels may likewise be argued from the 
fact, that no coUusion to alter passages in favour of their own prejudices is ever likely to have taken 
place between two such hostile nations. 

The Samaritan Pentateuch was studied by Eusebius, Jerome, and other fathers of the Church, 
and in their works several citations of the various readings existing between it and the Hebrew occur. 
Yet singular enough, this valuable text for about a thousand years was quite lost sight of by the 
learned, and it was vmknown, and its very existence almost forgotten in Europe, when Scahger, in the 
year 1559, suddenly instituted inqiuries respecting it, and at his suggestion a negociation was opened 
by the learned men of Europe with the remnant of the Samaritans, for the purchase of copies of this 
Pentateuch. In 1616 Pietro della Valle effected the purchase of a complete copy, wliich was bought 
by De Sancy (afterwards Bishop of St. Maloes), and sent by him in 1623 to the Library of the 
Oratory at Paris. In the meantime efforts were being made in England for the possession of copies, 
and between the years 1620 and 1630, Archbishop Usher obtained six MSS. from the East, of which 
some were complete and others not. Five of these MSS. are still preserved in England, but one copy 
which the Archbishop presented to L. de Dieu seems to have been lost. At various times other copies 
of the Samaritan Pentateuch have been since received in Europe, and there are in all about seventeen 
which have been critically examined ; of these, six are in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and one in 
the Cotton Library in the British Musemn. They are all written either on parchment or on silk 
paper, there are no vowel points or accents, and the whole Pentateuch, like the Hebrew text, is 
divided into sections for the service of the synagogue, but while the Samaritan has 966 of these 
divisions, the Hebrew has only about 52. Some of the MSS. have a date beneath the name of the 

» Fisk in MissioncLr>' Herald for 1824, p. 310. - Butler's Horee Biblic£e, p. 34. 


copyist determining their age. The MS. belonging to the Oratory at Paris is supposed to have been 
written in the eleventh century ; our other MSS. are more recent, except one attributed to the eighth 
century, but its date is very uncertain. The Samaritans themselves, however, ascribe extraordinary 
antiquity to their own copies, and Fisk says that the Kolien or Priest showed Mm a MS. which they 
pretended had been written by Abishua, great grandson of Aaron, thirteen years after the death of 
Moses : it was a roll, in some respects hke the synagogue rolls of the Jews, and kept in a brass case ; 
a copy in another brass case was allkmed to be 800 years old. Fisk observed a number of MSS. of 
the Pentateuch on a shelf in the Samaritan synagogue, and he says, that besides the Pentateuch they 
have copies of the books of Joshua and Judges, but in separate volumes. 

The first printed edition of the Samaritan Pentateuch was made from the Codex Oratorii (i. e. the 
MS. belonging to the Oratory at Paris); it was printed by Father Morinus in the Paris Polyglot. 
This text was reprinted in the London Polyglot, with corrections from three of the MSS. wliich 
formerly belonged to Usher ; and so correct is this edition that a Samaritan Priest whom Maundrell 
visited at Naplosa, esteemed this Samaritan text equally with a MS. of his own, which he could not 
be prevailed to part with at any price. ' Fisk when in Samaria saw a relic of the very copy of the 
Polyglot mentioned by Maundrell. Various readings collated from the Samaritan MSS. were given 
by Dr. Keunicott in his edition of the Hebrew Scriptures as mentioned page 24: and in 1790, 
Dr. Blayney published at Oxford the Samaritan Pentateuch from the text of the London Polyglot, in 
square Hebrew characters ; and the variations of the Samaritan text have likewise been published by 
Mr. Bagster. 

History of the Samaritan Version. — Three versions, of which two only are now extant, 
have been made of the Samaritan Pentateuch. The first version was made from the Hebrajo- Samari- 
tan text into the Samaritan dialect, but the date and author are unknown ; by some writers it is 
ascribed to the period when a Hebrew priest was sent by Esarhaddon to instruct the mixed multitude 
of Samaria in the service of God ; while others affirm that it was executed in the first or second 
century of the Christian era. Tliis version is in the highest degree exact and literal ; it is in fact, a 
complete counterpart of the parent text. In some instances, however, its resemblance to the Chaldee 
Paraphrase of Onkelos is very striking, and there are no means of accounting for this singular agree- 
ment, unless we adopt the supj)osition that it fell into the hands of Onkelos, and that it was inter- 
polated by him. It has been printed in the Paris and Loudon Polyglots, and in 1682, Cellarius 
pubUshed extracts from it with Latin annotations and a translation. Copious extracts are also given 
in UUmann's Institutiones Linguro Samaritans. 

When the Samaritan dialect fell into disuse, and the language of the Arabian conquerors became 
the vernacular of the country, the Samaritans had at first recourse to the Arabic version of Saadias 
Gaon, at that period in general use among the Jews. A translation into the Arabic langviage as 
spoken in Samaria, and written in Samaritan characters was afterwards prepared by Abu Said. It is 
not known with certainty in what year this translation was made ; vSaadias Gaon died A. D. 942,^ and 
it must have been made subsequently to that period, as Abu Said made great use of that Jewish 
rabbi's labours. This version is remarkably close and literal, and follows the Samaritan even in those 
readings in which it difiers from the Hebrew text. Several MSS. of tliis version still exist in Libanus, 
but the whole has never been printed. A third version of the Samaritan Pentateuch was made into 
Greek, but this work, though quoted by the fathers, is no longer extant. The Samaritan and Arabic 
versions, from their noted fidelity, are of much value in correcting the text of the Samaritan 
Pentateuch, and in fact form almost the only sources for its emendation. 

1 Maundrell's Journey, p. 33, edit. 1810. - Davidson's Lectures on Biblical Criticism. 


EXODUS, Chap. xx. v. 1 to 17. 

'^.^l.''>'^ ' : Nnnaj; n^ap onvp-i av'^m •qnpSNi n \n^N ^\\ n3k 2 ; np'pS tj^Kn N'Djns-^s n» j^ 7?ti1 

-ir'?j; tnnp-i'j^-by in?x 'ain nypp n|p ^n rin^x ;;^ nSx nx t-nn^sn N^i fin^ nijpn-N^ s : XJ;^^?^ 
npj^-i »Dqi^ i^."; 's^«^ -i^'P T3i;i. 6 : pnrinaN~in3 '^^np^ s>?3-ppWp-i3 'S3b^ "y^nTiT^V'. 'n'^ri 
snacn sp'vn^ ■'i?T''-''-n ' • ^^^''^ '^'J?P'? 'P""^ ". i' '''ir f*^ '^.n >«3|oV ^n^'^- "T^?^'? 'P'^ !^,^ ' '• 7,-''P? 
NriTa]^:^3 i^3yn-N^ rin^vX ;;;aii5^ xn?:?' nsp^nc' xpvi i» : ^ni^nv-b n^avni n^ari ppi' nrb' 9 : irnity'iiJ^ 
Npi-ni K^i.N-nii N'Df -ni ;; iiy ]>w mc' ns " : 1)^153 n ^-li'ji ij^ya-i ^npsi tjiny ■^nnaJi ^na-i 1 rk 
Snii ■qsN-nii ■^n^<l-n* ii's.iw :n*;;ni5i xniB'T xor-n: ;^ ■^ns t?"^y HI^V*??^ '^P*? 1?'! i''^? T^?""-^. 

tijn^n^ '■! "pbi anpqi nnini n^noxi an^jji •q'i3n nnx Tpnn ah ripsn n^a n\pnn kJji' :s5?B'T sn-nno 


The Aramean or Sjrriati language appears from tlie earliest times to have been divided into two 
grand branches, namely, the West Aramean or Syriac, which was the dialect spoken to the West in Syria 
and Mesopotamia, and the East Aramean, generally denominated the Chaldee, which was spoken to 
the East, in Babylonia, Assyria, and Chaldea. But this division of the Aramean language into two 
branches is rather geographical tlian philological, ibr with the exception perhaps of a few words 
peculiar to each dialect, and some shght variations in the vowels and the position of certain accents, 
no difference whatever, either in grammatical structure or lexicography can be detected between Syriac 
and Chaldee. Jlichaelis, indeed, has remarked, that the Chaldee of Daniel becomes Syriac if read by a 
German or PoUsh Jew. The chief, and perhaps the only material point of distinction between the 
two dialects is, that Syriac is written in characters peculiar to itself, whereas the square characters, 
which are also appropriated to Hebrew, are employed in writing Chaldee. Do■^\^l to the time of 
Abraham, Chaldea is supposed to have been almost, if not quite, identical with Hebrew, and to have 
acquired subsequently the peculiarities of a distinct dialect. However this might have been, the 
dialect spoken in Chaldea was the original language of the Abrahamidfe, for Abraham was called from 
" Ur of the Chaldees," (Gen. IL 31). Isaac and his family spoke Hebrew, which was the language 
of Canaan, tlie land in which they sojourned, and Hebrew continued to be the language of their 
descendants till the time of the Babylonish captivity. During the seventy years passed at Babylon 
tlie dialect of the captives seems to have merged into, or to have become greatly adulterated with that 
of their conquerors, and the great similarity in genius and structure between the two dialects, naturally 
accelerated the effects of political causes in producing this admixture. On the return of tlie Jews to 
Jerusalem, it was the custom of the priests to read tlie law of Moses publicly tothe people, and after- 
wards to give an exposition, (see Neh. 8. 8, etc.) It is the opinion of many eminent scholars that the 
law was read as it stood in the original Hebrew, but explained in Chaldee, the only dialect then 
generally intelligible among the Jewish people. However this may have been, it is certain that at 
least as early as the Christian era, written expositions of Scripture in the Chaldee dialect were in 
circulation among the Jews. The name of Ta'rgums, from a quadi-iliteral_ root signifying an explana- 
tion or version, was given to these Chaldee compositions. The most ancient Targum now extant is 
that written by Onkelos, a disciple of Hillel, who died 60 b. C. This Hillel is by some supposed to 


have been tlie grandfather of Gamaliel, Paul's instructor.' In purity of style Onkelos equals the 
Chaldaic sections of Ezra and Daniel, and his fidehty to the Hebrew text, which he generally follows 
almost word for word, is so great, that he deserves to be looked upon as a translator, rather than as a 
paraphrast. No writings of his are extant except his Targum of the books of Closes, wliich has been 
printed with a Latin translation in the first volume of the London Polyglot ;- it is esteemed of much 
service in biblical criticism from the fact of its being supported, in passages where it diifers from the 
Masoretic text, by other ancient versions. Besides the Targum of Onkelos, seven other expositions of 
Scripture in the same dialect, though greatly inferior in merit, are now known to be in existence. 
The Targum of Jonathan Ben Uzziel upon the greater and lesser prophets is believed by some authors 
to have been written about 30 B. C: though others assign it a later date ; it abounds in allegories, and 
the style is diffuse and less pure than that of Onkelos. It conforms generally to the Masoretic text, 
but differs from it in some important passages. A Targum written by another Jonathan (hence called 
the Pseudo Jonathan) made its appearance at some period subsequent to the seventh century : the 
style is barbarous, and intermixed with Persian, Greek, and Latin words ; it is confined to the Penta- 
teuch, and generally follows the rabbinical interpretations, hence it is of no use in criticism. The 
Jemsalem Targum is also upon the Pentateuch, but is in a very mutilated state, whole verses being 
wanting, and others transposed : it repeats the fables contained in the Pseudo Jonathan, and is written 
in the same impure style ; by many, indeed, it is considered merely as the fragments of an ancient 
recension of the Pseudo Jonathan. The Targum of Joseph the Blind on the Hagiographa is also 
vsritten in very corrupt Chaldee, and adulterated with words from other languages. The remaining 
Targums (on Esther and Canticles) are too puerile and too paraphrastic to be entitled to notice here. 
The first seven Targums are all printed in the London Polyglot ; the eighth (on the Chronicles) was 
not known at the time of the pubhcation of that work ; it was discovered in the Library at Cam- 
bridge, and published at Amsterdam in 1715. Beck had previously pubhshed large fragments from 
an Erfurt MS. in 1680 — 81 at Augsburg. The great utility of the earlier Targums, for the later 
Targums are of Httle or no use, consists in their vindicating the genuineness of the Hebrew text, by 
proving that it was the same at the period the Targums were made, as it exists among us at the present 
day. The earlier Targums are also of importance in showing that the prophecies relating to the 
Messiah, were understood by Jews in ancient times to bear the same interpretation that is now put 
upon them by Christians. And, it must be added, that, in developing the customs and habits of the 
Jews, in exhibiting the aspect in which they viewed contested passages of Scripture, and in denoting 
the mode in which they made use of idioms, phrases, and peculiar forms of speech, considerable light 
is derived from the Targums in the study both of the Old and of the New Testaments. 

Davidson's Lectures on Biblical Criticism. - Hamilton's Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures, p. 189. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 


)^N'^ ocno . JKI:^^ )bvyi wOToiy) Lj^iJii, 

^ ■ » ■; '^ Joan u«tio^) )ljot . JJ^^.^^>^ oot Joot 

. j6qi )JLX CTLT) . Jbcnj pt^Ss 'Loot \l^ (la) 
ocno . )_«_LjLjj:a» IJotoj ^ocruiy) (JlXo 
•:• ot3»»| |J )oQl«l2o •. iOT-L:2> Jiioj*.;!^ Jjcncu 
. .'t-n. <T To» • Jctt2S« ^ '!'^)? )-»JJ-^ jbcTi 

• J5otQJ '^>S »OT m "l? )>r>«t-n nn\ ]l\ \_j^ 
JOOT OCTl )J . OTi^J.^ ,^ Kl )OT_I <.m\ No; 
■ ^ i\n\. JOT I Vi? .■ )jL«» jfOTCU ^-i^C lOOT 

I v^V xr. . )bcn (v)Nn~< . >vN,nN )L)'» 
(TiXis^ . cttjSj^ |J liviNso . Jocn cnt^lL^ 
^» rr^' • '•"?'^^~'0 )i ca!^»o . \l] 
(Ju-iij )J.j5^aj» ^ocn^ ij^otI; •. uoto^^^^j 
. qTyi>~i yKVK\>frcsii ^j^^U • ^oootJ JcnJSsi 

. jLcci^? '■'-^i r^ ^^ ' '■^? r^ *^? r^' 
. OjJ^L) IcTi^ ^:i) y| lines' \^=^\ ^ )io 

.• |J>) ^> pf. 


. iAAi; iooi wOioA-^j |ou^o . loi^ LaX \oai 
^Ji \ ") . joiJ:^ Zq\ ja.;.r> jooi ^aio^u| jjoi 
.• (hw jlaj Z,ooi •. ^aio, \ \ no . ^ooi m, .] ^ 
I ■ «o . (ooi ^jOioA_i( I - •■ 01..0 . Z,ooij >jdi 
jioia-io •. i fi 1 . 1 — Ot jjoioj jooi ^oioA_| 

■> yh] |J ai_X I ^O ■ >,^ -. int 1 S^ j "> o«..^ 

ou\ lla* •. jou^ ^ ..^mlXZUJi j.aj^ jooj 
'"^io joiflU) jocuj jZoioiaA. jZ.| }joi . ■ -Tr 

|J . oip-^i^ ,oiViiOU ^cTi\oi I I ::x.| . |;ai2j 

"vs^iD loimj; )±a,j |]j . jioioj ooi jooi wOioZuj 
OOI . j •,-»•,,» OOI jioiQj jooi ^oioAl^J .:■ j)aia_j 
i N-i \ \ -> . 1 ViNsN ji); 1 ■ 1^ VA iOLLicj 

j 'o \\n .. jooi OI^JO I S-1 \ S O •. jooi >_.010A^( 

01X.J ^Qjoio . jZ,j oi\*j . iNoiX ■:• '-^.^ jJ oiA 
.^ou ■. ^aiQ_0_m_i> _<> ^01 -. wOia-CL.m_] (J 
^oiX .• ^oou jov^; jii O; jj-^Jloa ^oiX 
.. j^Ci ,^ qX; ^01 . 01X-) JSto ^.iVi.oi^g; 
•. j;ji^. U*^^ ^ Uo .• ivxao, K»Oj ^ |Jo 
jooi ];jaiO jA\v^ 0010 •:• o,A^Zj joi^ ^ jlj 
j^sjkOaa ■. oiX.>i j-.-^T \ _i_.VyO . ,-0 ^^-<^o 


Geographical Predominance of the Language. — The Syxiac, also called the AramEean 
language, from Aram the Hebrew name of Syria, was ouee predominant over a very extensive territory; 
and a Hebraic dialect of Syriac is supposed to have been the language chiefly spoken in Palestine 
during the time of our Lord ; but Arabic has completely supplanted it as the vernacular of S3n:ia and 
Mesopotamia, and it is now only spoken by a few obscure tribes in two or three confined districts. 
As an ecclesiastical language, however, it still retains its importance, and is used in the Jacobite and 
Nestorian Churches of Syria. It has likewise been for ages the litin-gical language of a remarkable 
people in India who, during a period of about fourteen himdred years, have preserved the name of 
Christians in the midst of idolatrous nations. They dwell partly within the British territories, and 


partly in Cochin and Travancore, two states on the Malabar coast, forming the southern extremity of 
Hindoostan, and tributary to the British. In number they amount to 100,000; and although they 
have suffered severe persecutions from the Roman Catholics, especially from the Inquisition at Goa, 
they still possess a regular hierarchy and retain fifty-five of their ancient churches. They were con- 
verted to Christianity about the middle of the fifth centuiy by the Syrian ]\Iar Thomas, who has been 
confounded by the Portuguese with the Apostle St. Thomas. But prior even to the time of Mar 
Thomas the Christian religion had been established in India, for a Bishop from that country was 
present at the Council of Nice in A. D. 325. Yet, although the Syriac language was introduced with 
Christianity among the Malabar Churches, Malayalim has continued the vernacular of the country. 

Characteristics of the Language. — Although inferior to most of the other branches of 
the Shemitic class in point of copiousness and variety, the Syriac is of particular importance and utility 
to biblical students on account of its close affinity with Hebrew. ]\Iany words are common to both 
languages, and hence terms which occur but once, or of which the meaning may appear doubtful in 
the Hebrew Scriptures, often receive elucidation by reference to the mode in which they are used in 
the Syriac language. The roots of words in Syriac, as in the other Shemitic languages, are generally to 
be traced to the third person singular, preterite, of the first conjugation of verbs. But Syriac roots, 
while they resemble those of cognate dialects in consisting almost always of three, seldom of four 
letters, have the peculiarity of being mostly monosyllabic, in triliteral roots the vowel being placed 
under the second letter, so as to form but one syllable.' In grammatical structure Syriac is closely 
akin to Hebrew. The adjectives, as in Hebrew, are remarkably few in number, but their deficiency 
is supphed by other parts of speech, which take their place, and perform their office. The superlative 
degree is often formed by the duplication of the positive. Pronouns are generally expressed by certain 
particles called afiixes, placed at the end of nouns, verbs, or other particles, and with which they are 
so incorporated as to form but one word.^ The system of conjugation is conducted upon the same 
plan as the Hebrew. Verbs expressing modification of a primary idea are connected in conjugation, 
and are considered to form collectively one entire and perfect verb. In Syriac there are eight forms or 
conjugations of verbs, of which four have an active, and fom- a passive, and sometimes a recij)rocal 
signification. The alphabetical characters in Syriac are the same in number as the Hebrew, but differ 
considerably in form. The Estrangelo Syiiac characters are evidently of the same origin as those on 
the inscriptions found at Tadmor or Palmyra. There are several MSS. extant written in this charac- 
ter, some of which are as ancient as the sixth century. The rectilinear character, that is, a character 
written with a continuous straight connecting line is now commonly used in our printed Syriac books, 
and is a modification of the Estrangelo, bearing the same relation to it as the modern Greek and Latin 
characters do to the Uncial. Another mode of writing Syriac peculiar to a sect in Syria called 
Christians of St. John, is the Zamian ; the consonants are formed in the usual way, but the vowels 
instead of being represented by points above and below the line, are denoted by strokes fastened to 
the letters, as in Ethiopic and Sanscrit. 

Syriac Versions of Scripture. — Several very ancient Syriac versions are still extant, and 
are of considerable service in the elucidation of difficult passages of Scripture, because in time, place, 
and modes of thinking, the translators were closely approximated to the inspired writers.^ Of these 
versions the most ancient and the most important is called the Peshito (signifying clear, literal, exact) 
on account of its strict fidelity to the text. The period at which this version was made has been much 
disputed : by some the translation of the Old Testament of this version has been referred to the age 
of Solomon, while various other traditions have ascribed the translation to Asa Puest of the Samari- 
tans, and to the Apostle Thaddeus. Ephrem, the Syrian, who wrote in the middle of the fourth 
century of the Christian era, speaks of it as a work in general vise ; and there are reasons for believing 
that the whole version was completed by the close of the first or commencement of the second century, 
at any rate we have proof that it was in common use in the year 350 A. D. The disparity of style 
apparent in different parts of the version has led to the beHef that several persons were engaged in its 
execution. The translation of the Old Testament seems to have been made immediately from the 
Hebrew, but with occasional reference to the Septuaglnt and to the Chaldee Paraphrases. This 
version is more particularly valuable on account of its being more ancient than any Hebrew MS. now 

1 Phillips's Syriac Grammar, p. 49. 3 Hug's Introduction, Vol. I. 

2 Phillips's Syriac Grararaai-, p. 40. 

Shemitic Languages.] SYRIAC. 35 

in existence. It contains all the canonical books of the Old Testament, but not the Apocrypha. The 
Peshlto version of the New Testament was made from the original text, as appears Irom the frequent 
occurrence of Greek words ; the Greek codex used for the translation belonged to no known family 
of MSS., many of the readings agree witli the quotations from the Testament in the writings of the 
earlier fatlicrs of the Church.' It is rather singular that in all ancient j\ISS. of this version, four 
epistles, namely, the second epistle of Peter, the second and third of John, and that of Judc, and 
IJKewise the Book of llevclation are wanting ; they also want the story of the woman taken in 
adultery, John 8, and 1 John 5. 7. Pocockc found the four missing epistles in a MS. belonging to 
the Bodleian Library, and the younger Scaliger obtained possession of a MS. of the Revelation ; the 
Epistles were published by Pococke in 16;50, and the Apocalypse by De Dieu in 1627: these have 
been ever since appended to tlie Pesliito in printed e<litions, but evidently do not belong to that 
ancient version, being vastly inferior to it in point of purity, style, and fidehty. The Peshito version 
was not known in Europe till A. r>. 1552, when Moses of Mardin was sent in the name of the Syrian 
Church to Rome, to acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope, and to request that an edition might be 
printed of their ancient Scriptiu-es. The late Mr. Ricli travelled in central Asia in search of ancient 
JISS. : he discovered in Assyria in all fifty-nine Syriac MSS. now deposited in the British Museum ; they 
afford abundant evidence of the general integrity of our received text of the Peshito. 

Next in antiquity to the Peshito, but considerably inferior to it in elegance and accuracy of diction, 
if superior to it in servile literality, is the Pliiloxenian version, so called from having been executed 
under the auspices of Philoxenus, Bishop of Hierapolis in Syria, by Polycarp, A.D. 488 — 518. The 
Pliiloxenian version was revised and collated with Alexandrine MSS. by Thomas of Harclea, A. D. 616 ; 
and this revision was published by Professor Wliite at Oxford in 1778. There are also three other 
ancient Syriac versions ; namely, 1. The Karkaphensian, which is httle more than a recension of the 
Peshito made towards the end of the tenth century by David, a Jacobite Monk of Mesopotamia, for the 
especial use of the Monophysite or Jacobite Christians. It derives its name either from a Syriac word 
signifying the head, and also tlie summit of a moimtain (Karkupho), or from a town in Mesopotamia. 
2. The Palestine- Syriac, or Syrian translation of Jerusalem of unknown date, of which the portions 
still extant, consisting of a greater part of the Gospels, are preserved in MS. in the Vatican Library. 
It was discovered, and a portion of the text edited, as a specimen, by Professor Adler, about the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. In language and written characters it differs from common Syriac, 
and approaches the dialect formerly spoken at Jerusalem. It is supposed to belong to the fifth 
century, and to have been made from the Greek text, its readings generally coincide with those of the 
Western recension. It is valued on account of its correctness, and Professor Scholz in his last edition 
of the New Testament, has given readings from it. The story of the woman taken in adultery, which 
is wanting in the Peshito and the Pliiloxenian or Harclean, is found among the fragments of this 
version.^ 3. The Syro-Estrangelo or Syriac-Hexaplar version, which is a translation of Origen's 
Hexaplar edition of the Septuagint ; it was executed by an unknown author in the beginning of the 
seventh century, and closely adheres to the Septuagint throughout. The first portion of the Sjrriac 
Scriptures committed to the press, was the Peshito New Testament, printed in quarto at Vienna 1555; 
copies of this edition are now of considerable rarity. The entire Syriac Scriptures were inserted in 
Le Jay's Polyglot Bible in 1645, and in Walton's Polyglot, 1657. 

When Dr. Buchanan in 1806 visited the Syrian Christians in India, he foimd several important 
MSS. of great antiquity which he brought with him to England. The last years of his useful and 
laborious life were devoted to the preparation of a printed edition from these MSS., and he died, so to 
speak, with the sheets of the Syriac Testament in his hands. A short time prior to his decease, he was 
walking with a friend in the churchyard at Clapham, and he entered into a minute account of the plan 
he had pursued in preparing the Syriac text. Suddenly he stopped and burst into tears : as soon as 
ho had recovered his self-possession, he said to his friend — " do not be alarmed, I am not ill, but I was 
completely overcome with tlie recollection of the delight with which I had engaged in the exercise. 
At first I was disposed to shrink from the task as irksome, and apprehended that I should find even 
the Scriptures pall by the frequency of this critical examination. But so far from it, every fresh 
perusal seemed to throw fresh light on the Word of God, and to convey additional joy and consola- 
tion to my mind." The four Gospels and Acts were printed in 1815 at Broxboume in flertfordshire, 
under the eye of Dr. Buchanan. At his death, the British and Foreign Bible Society for whom the 
work had been originally undertaken, appointed Dr. Lee of Queen's College, Cambridge, to complete 

' Hug's lutroduetion. Vol. I. 2 Davidsou's Lectures on Biblical Criticism, p. 66. 


the New Testament. This was the first introduction of tliis great orientalist to the Committee. 
Dr. Lee objected to Dr. Buchanan's omission of the vowel points, and to his use of the European, 
instead of the Syriac system of grammatical pronunciation ; and upon these and other representations 
the Bible Committee agreed that the whole work should be commenced anew imder Dr. Lee's super- 
intendence, and that the Gospels and Acts edited by Dr. Buclianan, should be cancelled. Dr. Lee 
adopted the very accurate text published by Leusden and Schaaf in 1717, as the standard text, and 
introduced emendations from various ]\ISS. The New Testament left the press_ in 1816. In 1823, 
Dr. Lee edited the Syriac Old Testament, under the patronage of the Church Missionary, and at the 
expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society. In preparing this work he took the version of the 
Polyglots as his text, and collated the MS. brought by Dr. Buchanan from India, a MS. belonging to 
Dr. A. Clarke, and a MS. of the Pentateuch in the Library of New College, Oxford. In 1826 the 
Bible Society published an entire edition of the Syriac Scriptures, the Old Testament being from the 
text of 1823. In 1829 a Peshito New Testament in 12mo. was edited by the late Mr. William 
Greenfield, for the Publishers of this work, from the text of Widmansted 1555, with the book of 
Revelation and the Epistles, described above as being wanting in the Peshito version, supphed, as in 
previous editions, from the publications of Pococke and De Dieu. 

Eesults of the Dissemination of this Version. — Two grand results have followed 
from the early, though hmited, circulation of this version in India. First, the integi-ity of our 
Western copies of Scripture has been firmly established by the fact of their having been ascertained, 
on critical examination, to correspond in all important points with the ancient and independent MSS. 
that had for ages been buried, so to speak, in the East. Secondly, the assumptions of the Church of 
Rome as to the antiquity of her usages are clearly disproved, by the rejection of Romish dogmas and 
observances by a Church that was among the first to receive, and among the most zealous to preserve 
the oracles of God: here, indeed, as Bishop Wilson justly remarked, "is an ancient Church knowing 
nothing of the pretended supremacy of Rome, nor of her peculiar dogmas ; but standing a witness, in 
addition to the primitive Churches in Haute Dauphine and the valleys of Piedmont, to the pure 
Gospel of Christ ; and thus demonstrating the comparative novelty of the superstitious doctrines and 
usages, and indeed of all the assumptions of the Church and Court of Rome — a testimony in a day 
like the present of no little value." The boon conferred upon the Syrian Churches in the multiplica- 
tion of copies of Scripture by the British and Foreign Bible Society in the editions of 1815, 1816, 
and of subsequent years, has been duly appreciated by them ; and the Missionaries relate that In several 
instances the never failing result of the conscientious study of the Scriptures has been manifested, by 
the substitution of vital godliness for a merely outward orthodox profession. 


The Syriac New Testament in Hebrew characters was printed for the benefit of the Chasidim and Cabalistic Jews of Poland, 
Constantinople, and the East. It was pnblished in 1837 by the London Society for the Conversion of the Jews. The Syriac 
Peshito had previously appeared in Hebrew characters in the fifth part of the .\ntwerp Polyglot. Before, however, the printing of 
the Antwerp Polyglot, liiimanuel Tremellius had used Hebrew ch.iracters in his edition of the Syriac New Testament. He did this 
in consequence of there not being at that time any place where Syriac types were obtainable except at Vienna. De la Boderie and 
others have used Hebrew letters in their editions. 



(For a Specimen of the Syro-Chaldaic Version in the Estrangelo Character, see Plate II.) 

People for whom this Edition is designed. — The Syriac language is written in Nestorian 
characters, by a professedly Christian people, of whom some are entrenched among the mountains of 
As>;yria, and otliers settled in the adjacent plain of Ooroomiah, in West Persia, between 36° and 39° 
north latitude, and 43° and 46° east longitude : they arc supposed to amount, in point of number, 
to about 2()0,0()() souls. They are sometimes called Chaldeans or East Syrians from the coimtry 
they inhabit ; but they are more commonly known by the name of Nestorians, which latter 
appellation, they contend, is not derived from the celebrated Nestorius who was condemned at 
the third Council of Ephcsus, but from Nazareth the city of Mary. It is said that they originally 
fled from the Eoman empire during persecution in the reign oi Justinian, and that they placed 
themselves under the protection of the king of Persia, who assigned them an abode in his 
dominions. They then consisted of 50,000 families, each headed by a bishop, and the family of the 
bishop who then held precedence over the rest, still retains the principal civil and ecclesiastical power. 
During the severe persecutions they subsequently suffered from the Mahommedans, they were driven 
to their present impregnable abodes. Their religious tenets are more uncorrupted than those of most 
oriental churches. Tliey seem never to have practised image worship nor auricular confession ; and so 
great is their antipathy to popery, that they have a singular and most anti-christian custom of cursing 
the Pope regularly every day, his grandfather, grandmother, and grandchildren. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The language generally denominated the Syro- 
Chaldalc or Nestorian, differs in no respect from the Syriac, unless it be, indeed, in the occasional 
variation of one or two grammatical forms, and a difference in the pronunciation of the vowels. Thus 
a Syro-(,'haldaic book if transcribed in Syriac characters, would be pure Syriac. The Chaldean Priest 
at Khosrova had a copy of the Pentateuch which he had caused to be transcribed, word for word, from 
the Syriac of Walton's Polyglot, only substituting the Nestorian for the Syriac characters, and it was 
ascertained beyond doubt by the Missionaries that the language of this Pentateuch was perfectly 
identical with that of the Church books in common use among the Nestorians. The Nestorian 
characters may be said to be almost the same as the ancient Estrangelo, only slightly modified in form ; 
they are very clear and agreeable to the eye, and Missionaries stationed in the country who have been 
afflicted -with ophthalmia, and thereby deprived of the power of reading English type without pain, 
have found themselves able to read books written or printed in the Nestorian character with ease and 
pleasure. ' The dialect at present commonly spoken among the Nestorians is a very corrupted form of 
their ancient Syriac : it abounds in contractions, abbreviations, and inversions, and is adulterated by 
Persian, Turkish, and Kurdish words. In sound it is even harsher than the Armenian. It still, however, 
retains its character as a Shemitic dialect, many Arabic and Hebrew words are discoverable in it, and 
it is rather remarkable that the Nestorians and the Jews settled in adjacent villages are able to con- 
verse together, although the dialect spoken by the Jews is a barbarised form of Hebrew, altogether 
distinct from the vernacular of the Nestorians. 

Editions of Scripture in this Language. — Several ancient MSS. of Scripture have been 
found in the possession of the Nestorians, which from time to time have been brought to Europe. 
Dr. A^'oUf during his travels in 1826 purchased of the Nestorians several MSS. of various portions of 
their Bible ; these he brought safely to England, although on two several occasions he very narrowly 
escaped shipwreck. The MSS. became the property of the London Society for Promoting Chi-istianity 
among the Jews, and the Committee lent them to the British and Foreign Bible Society for publication. 
An edition of 2000 copies of the Syro-Chaldaic Gospels was accordingly printed by the latter Society, 
under the editorship of T. P. Piatt, Esq. and those passages in which the MSS. were deficient were supplied 
from the Syriac version ; for Mr. Piatt had ascertained on critical examination that the Syro-Chaldaic 
text was identical, or nearly so, with the Society's Syriac version, the character only being different. 

1 Biblical RepOBitiry, Vol. II. 


The types were cast for the purpose by Mr. Watts, and the edition left the press in 1829. This, how- 
ever, was not the first time that Syriac had been printed in Nestorian characters, for a Syriac liturgical 
work called Missale Chaldaicum, containing the selections from the Gospels and Ej^Istles read on 
Sundays and Festivals, was published in these characters in 1767 at Kome, accompanied by an interpre- 
tation in Carshun. The Missionaries now among the Nestorians are said to be engaged in the 
elaborate preparation of a Syro-Chaldaic Old Testament, in which they take the ancient and valuable 
Syriac version, the Peshito, as their text. An edition of the Scriptures has been projected by the 
Christian Knowledge Society from valuable MSS. collected at the cost of the Society in Mesopotamia:' 
but little if any progress seems as yet to have been made in the publication of this important work. 
Mr. Perkins, of the American Board of Missions, commenced in 1836 a translation from the ancient 
or ecclesiastical language into the modernised corrupt dialect now vernacular among these people. It 
does not appear that any portion of this version has yet been committed to the press. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — Dr. Wolff of the London Society for 
the Conversion of the Jews, travelled in 1826 among the Nestorian churches, and had frequent interviews 
with the priests and people. He found them, as they themselves admitted, in a wild and uncivihsed 
state; but when questioned on the cause of their want of civilisation, they acknowledged it to be the 
result of their lamentable destitution of copies of the Scriptures. They had no printed copies what- 
ever, and the MSS. were extremely scarce and never found in the hands of the common people. 
" But," said they, " we have heard that the Enghsh are able to write a thousand copies in one day, 
would they not write for us several thousand copies and send them to us ? we become wild like Curds, 
for we have so few copies of the Bible. The Enghsh have written those of the Jacobites (in Syriac 
characters) which we cannot read generally, why should they not write these of ours?" The expecta- 
tions and desires of these simple people were realized, and soon after they had been put in possession of 
the Gospels by the British and Foreign Bible Society, the divine seed sprang up and bore fruit to 
the glory of God. The Missionaries of the American Board of Missions who have for some years been 
labouring among them, give the following account of them; "the Hght of heavenly truth is rapidly 
pervading the mass of the people, many of whom appear like a person awakened from a deep sleep, 
unconscious of the darkness in which he has been enveloped, and are inquiring how it is that they 
have been kept so long in ignorance and self-delusion. To this their Priests reply. We ourselves, 
till now, have been dead in trespasses and sins ; and our criminahty is even greater than yours for 
having hidden the light so long." 

Report of Foreign Translation Committee of Christian Knowledge Society for 1844, p. 83; and see Report of the same Committee for 1845, p. 41. 




St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

J^ * djji jJlc ^joJi J \^ J^ * ^^^^ y^ ^^j ^^ ^ u^ "^^^j '^♦^^ ^^ '^^^ "^ 
^Lji ji3 ^. o-iJi o^^ jyJ^ J^ *jy^ ^-^ ^ ^^^ ^ uA-. r^ *^^ J^^ cr*.-^ 

1^ ^j *<UwV ^(^«^v. crr'^l aiJl ^ Ij^,^. J,l GUaL j^lWli s^ ^.^\ Uli *'^- ,^- 

* lL>-_. ^UJi3 (^ t_j3\ ^^ v_f JJl 'V^ji^ J^ ^"^^sy* i'i^sy ^\)i ^w 


Predominance of the Language. — It is almost impossible to calcvilate with any degree of 
accuracy the amount of population by whom this language is spoken. The population of Arabia itself 
has been variously estimated from 10,000,000 to 14,000,000 inhabitants ; but Arabic is also vernacular 
in Syria, in Mesopotamia, in part of Persia, in some parts of the Malabar and Coromandel coasts, in 
Egypt, in Nubia, and in Barbary. Arabic is also extensively used as the language of religion and 
commerce in Western, Eastern, and Central Africa, and before the Missionaries had reduced some of 
the African dialects to writing, Ai-abic was the only written language known to the natives of that vast 
continent. As the language of the Koran, Arabic is venerated and studied from "the Western confines 
of Spain and Africa to the Philippine Islands, over 130 degrees of longitude ; and from the tropic ot 
Capricorn to Tartary, over 70 degrees of latitude." ' Its importance as a medium of commumcation 
between distant nations may be inferred from the reason assigned by the Rev. Henry ilartyn lor 
undertaking a new version of the Arabic Testament. " We will begin to preach," said that devoted 
Missionary, " to Arabia, Syria, Persia, Tartary, part of India and of China, half of Africa, all the sea- 
coast of the Mediterranean and Turkey, and one tongue shall suffice for them all." 

Chakacteristics of the Language. — The Arabic language, in its earliest and rudest state, 
was the vernacular of a few nomadic tribes who derived their descent from Kahtan, the son of Heber, 
a great grandson of Shem, and from Ishmael (the son of Abraham, by Hagar), who, by his marriage 
with a daughter of Morad, of the race of Kahtan, engrafted liis posterity on the Arabic stock.^ It was 
spoken among these tribes in a variety of dialects, concerning which we now know httle more than 
that the Koreish and the Hamiar were the distinctive appellations of the two predominant dialects. 
Mahomet spoke the Koreish dialect, and under his influence and that of liis successors the other dialects 
insensibly merged into it. Hence the extraordinary copiousness of the Arabic language ; the result, 
not of foreign admLxtiire (for Arabia was never conquered), but of the gradual amalgamation of 
numerous dialects into one. The language is rich both in lexicography and in grammatical forms. 
It has a complete, though simple, system of declension ; a stock of augmentatives and diminutives ; 

I M'Culloch's Geographical Dictionary. '■ Butler's Hora Biblics. 


tliirteen conjugations of verbs, both in tbe active and passive voice ; two genders, masculine and 
feminine; three numbers, singular, dual, and plural; and also a peculiar form of the plural which seems 
to appertain almost exclusively to the Arabic and Ethiopic languages, and which is called the pliu-al 
of paucity. ' There is one article {al or el) answering in many respects to our English the ; it appears 
in many words which we have borrowed from the Arabic, as in Alcoran (hterally the Koran), alcohol, 
algebra, etc. The particles are, as in most languages, indeclinable ; and are divided into two classes, 
the separable and the inseparable ; the former are always used as prefixes, and the latter, though 
forming separate words, always precede the word they govern. The process of simphfication which 
has ever been at work in the modification of all vernacular languages, has not spared the antique forms 
of Arabic grammar. There are as many distinct Arabic dialects as there are countries in which Arabic 
is spoken, and in aU these dialects the inflexions of case, the passive form of the verb, and the dual, 
have more or less disappeared. Words and phrases from other languages have also in many cases been 
introduced. The Moorish Arabs have adopted a negative form pecuhar to French and its dialects ; 
the phrase il ne vient pas is, in Occidental Arabic, ma yegychi (ma answering to 7ie, and chi to pas). ^ 
Yet, amidst all these local changes, the modern Arabic still preserves a close resemblance to the Arabic 
of the Koran, which is everywhere rehgiously upheld as the model of classic beauty and elegance. 

It is uncertain what alphabetical system was oi-iginaUy in use among the tribes of Arabia. About 
the time of Mahomet a style of writing was adopted by the tribe of Koreish called the Cupliic, from 
the town of Cufa in Irak, in whicli it originated. It is evidently derived from the Estrangelo Syriac 
alphabet. In this character, which is clumsy and inelegant, consisting mostly of straight strokes, 
Mahomet wrote the Koran ; it was superseded in the tenth century by a character called the Nishki, 
wliich has ever since continued in use, not only among the nations who write the Arabic language, 
but also among the Turks and Persians. De Sacy has proved that this character is at least as ancient 
as the time of Mahomet. It appears that, about the period of the adoption of the Kishki character, 
three vowel signs were introduced, placed, as in Hebrew, above or below the line, according to the 
nature of the vowels. There are twenty-eight consonants, and to many of them a different form is 
appropriated, according to their position in words, as initial, medial, or final. 

Veesions and printed Editions of the Scriptures. — It was in Arabia (as the district 
east of Damascus was tlien called) that the great Apostle of the Gentiles commenced his ministrations 
(Gal. i. 17); but Christianity did not, as in Syria and Egypt, become the established roHgion of the 
country, and there are few if any very ancient versions of Scripture in Arabic. A version, of which 
no part is now extant, is said to have been made by Warka, the son of Naufel, during the lifetime of 
Mahomet ; and this fact serves to account for the deep knowledge of Scripture displayed by the false 
prophet. The most ancient of the MSS. that are known in Europe seem to have been executed 
soon after tlie conquest of the Saracens in the seventh century. Towards the middle of the eighth 
century, John, Bishop of Seville, finding that the Latin language was falling more and more into 
disuse, executed a translation from Jerome's Vulgate into Arabic. The churches under tlic Patriarchates 
of Antioch and of Alexandria also produced translations in Arabic at different periods from their 
ancient Church versions. Printed editions of some of these MSS. have been pubHshed at intervals 
since the year 1546. The four Gospels were published at Kome in 1591, the translation is directly 
from the Greek. In 1616 an entire New Testament was printed by Erpenius, at Leyden, from an 
exemplar said to have been executed in Upper Egypt by a Coptic Bishop in the fourteenth century. 
The Gospels of this edition are substantially the same as the Eoman text of 1591, but the Epistles bear 
internal evidence of having been derived fr-om the Peshito, while the book of Eevelation is a translation 
from the Coptic. The first Arabic version printed in England was that in Walton's Polyglot, pubhshed 
1657. This version is merely a reprint of an Arabic translation of noted inaccuracy published in 1645 
in the Paris Polyglot, but with the omissions supplied from one of the Selden MSS. The Pentateuch 
inserted in these Polyglots is said to have been first published in 1546, at Constantinople, by Saadias 
Gaon, a Jewish teacher of Babylon, and is an unfaithful and inelegant production. It is extremely 
paraphrastic, and though in general it conforms to the Masoretic text, it sometimes follows the Chaldee 
Targum of Onkelos, and sometimes the Septuagint. The other books of the Polyglot editions are, for 
the most part, by unknown writers ; in some books the Syriac version is followed so closely that, in 
the London Polyglot, the same Latin translation, with a few marginal alterations, answers both to the 
Syriac and to the Arabic Texts. The Gospels of the Polyglots are nearly the same as the Eoman 

1 See Encj-clopsaia Mctropolitaaa. : Jovjiial Asiatique for 1329. 

Shemitic LANGrAOEs.] ARABIC. 41 

and Erpenian texts, but tlic other books of the New Testament are apparently a translation from the 
Greek : they were printed I'rom an Egyptian MS., and are supposed by some to have originally agreed 
generally with the Erpenian version, but to have been altered by the editors. Erpenius also pubhshed 
the Pcntateueh in Arabic at Leyden, in 16C2, in Hebrew characters, from a MS. in the possession of 
Scaliger, and supposed to have been made by an African Jew of the thirteenth century. It is a direct 
translation from the Hebrew, to which it adheres so closely as to be almost unintelligible to persons 
unacquainted with that language. The version of Abu Said from the Samaritan Pentateuch has been 
noticed page 30. An edition of the entire Bible, in three volumes foUo, was published by the 
Propaganda at Kome in 1671. Forty-six years were consumed in transcribing and revising the te.xt. 
It was undertaken by order of Pope Urban VIII, at the earnest request of several oriental prelates. 
Sergius Risius, the Maronite Bishop of Damascus, was appointed, in conjunction with other learned 
men, to collate the various printed copies with the original oriental versions of the Vulgate. The work 
was completed in 1650, but was subjected to a fresh revisal prior to publication on account of its not 
being sufficiently conformable to the Vulgate. An important edition of the Psalms in Arabic was 
published in London, 1725, by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. The text of this 
edition is attributed to Athanasius, the Melchite Patriarch of Antioch, and is valued on account of 
its fidelity. In 1727 an Arabic New Testament was published by the same Society from the text of 
the Polyglot, corrected by the Editor, Solomon Negri. Although 10,000 copies of this work were 
printed, the edition is now extremely rare, for none of the copies were sold in Europe, and but few 
given to the learned. Two copies are preserved at Cambridge. A great part of the edition was sent 
to Russia, for distribution in the surroimding Mahommedan countries.' An Arabic Bible is reported 
to have been printed at Bucharest in 1700, and the Gospels at Aleppo in 1706, but httle is known of 
these editions m Europe. About the year 1811, an edition of the Scriptures in Arabic, from the text 
of the Polyglot, was printed at Newcastle. This work, projected by Professor Carlyle, was imder the 
patronage of the Bishop of Durham, and the Bible Society lent assistance to its publication and 
circulation. It was afterwards discovered that the churches of the East, for whom this edition was 
chiefly intended, are scrupulously averse to the reception of any version except that which they 
have been accustomed to recognise. To meet their case, the Society in 1820 issued 5000 copies 
of the New Testament from the only text which these churches regard as genuine, namely, that pub- 
lished in 1671 by the Propayanda Fide: this was followed in 1822 by an edition of the Old Testament 
from the same text, pubhshed under the care of Professors Lee and Macbride. In 1819 the Society 
had printed an edition of 3000 copies in 12mo. of the Psalter, from the text employed by the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, which text was hkewise adopted at the celebrated press of the 
Convent of St. John the Baptist on Mount Libanus. An attempt to produce a version of the New 
Testament in modern Arabic was likewise made by the Rev. William Jowett durmg his travels in 
Syria : he employed a learned priest of Jerusalem to commence a translation from the original Greek, 
on the basis of the Propaganda: the MS. was completed as far as the end of the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
and sent to Malta, but never printed.^ The need of an improved translation of the Arabic Scriptures, 
so long and so deeply felt by the Eastern Churches, has at length been met by the Christian Knowledge 
Society. Their agent, the Rev. C. Schlienz, relates, as the result of his personal observations in the 
East, " that the only two printed versions of the Arabic Bible (the edition of the Polyglot and tliat of 
the Propaganda) known in Egypt and Syria, were both regarded with rooted autijjathy by the 
Mahommedans ; the Polyglot chiefly for its presumptuous impiety in adopting the phraseology of the 
Koran, and for its inequality of style, and the Propaganda for its vulgarity and inelegancy of language."* 
In 1839 the preparation of a new Arabic version was commenced, by the direction of the Society, 
under the superintendence of the Rev. C. Schlienz. The translation was executed by Mr. Fares, one of 
the most learned Arabic scholars of the East, at Malta. He translated from the sacred originals, but 
with constant recourse to numerous valuable MSS. collected for the purpose at the expense of the 
Society. The proofs were sent for correction to scholars of eminence in London and the East. Finally, 
the work was brought to Loudon, and is now being completed imder the supervision of Dr. Lee, 
assisted by Dr. Mill and Mr Cureton. A version of the New Testament in modern Arabic was printed 
at Calcutta in 1816, designed principally for the learned and fastidious Mahommedans in all parts of 
the world, who, it was thought, might have been repelled from the study of Scripture by the anti 
quated style of former versions. This translation was made by a learned /\j-abian scholar, the imhappy 

1 Michaclis, Vol. I. p. 5!19. 3 Report of ForeigTi Translation Committee of Christian Knowledge 

■ Researches in Syria and Palestine, p. 409. Society for 1838, p. 120; also the Report for 1839, pp. 158, 159. 


Sabat, under tlie supervision of the Eev. S. M. Thomason. The lamented Henry Martyn was deeply 
interested in Sabat, and the production of his version; but he did not live to see its completion. A 
second edition was printed in London in 1825, imder the care of Professor Lee ; and a third in 
Calcutta, by the Rev. S. M. Thomason, in the followiag year : but the version has not been found 
generally acceptable in countries where the language is vernacular, and it has not since been reprinted. 

Results of the PKOrAGATiON of the Arabic Version. — Wherever the Arabic language 
prevails, there Mahommedanism is predominant ; but among the followers of the false prophet, the 
Arabic version is gradually and silently effecting the purposes of God. Perhaps no one version of the 
Scriptures has been received in so many countries, and blessed to so many different nations, as the 
Arabic. In Western Africa, the natives on first receiving the copies sent to them by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, " were astonished that a white man should have written this book in their 
favourite language."' The Rev. T. Dove, Missionary at Macarthy's Island, wi-iting m 1835, expresses 
his beHef that many of the Arabic Bibles, Testaments, and Psalters, had been conveyed hundreds of 
miles into the interior of Africa.- " I have seen (said the Rev. Mv. Richardson in 1838) Moors reading 
our Bible in their shops in broad day, in the midst of business ; . . . I have fallen upon these Moors 
by pure accident, and I have distributed many an Arabic Testament with my own hands among these 
devotees of Mahomet."' " Even the sons of Kedar (says the Rev. Mr. Ewald) have heard the Gospel 
sound beneath their tents, and have often and willingly bought the word of the living God."^ In 
Egyjjt, also, the Arabic Scriptures sent by the British and Foreign Bible Society were received with 
equal readiness, as is attested by the Rev. W. Jowett, in his account of his ]\Iission thither, dated 1819.* 
In illustration of the results of the dissemination of the Scriptures in that country, the Eev. Mr. Kruse, 
of the Church Missionary Society, writes from Cairo : — " Some few Mahommedans are coming to me, 
and in one or two I begin to hope the Scriptures are \mfolding the true hght. You will easily conceive 
how thankful I feel when I hear a Mahommedan relating the history and doctrine of our Saviour. 
One in particular evidences that he has a clear knowledge of the Scriptures, and I really believe that 
he has received the truth as it is in Jesus." ^ 

AbdaUah, an Arabian of noble birth, was converted from Islamism by the simple perusal 
of the Bible. When his conversion became known, Abdallah, to escape the vengeance of his 
countrymen, fled from Cabul in disguise, but was met and recogTiised at Bokliara by Sabat: Abdallah 
perceiving his danger, threw himself at the feet of his friend, and besought him, by all the ties of 
their former intimacy, to save his life. "But," said Sabat, " I had no pity ; I delivered him up to 
Morad Shah, king of Bokhara." Abdallah was ofiered his life if he would abjure Christ, but he 
refused. Then one of his hands was cut off, and a physician, by command of the king, offered to 
heal the wound if he would recant. " He made no answer," said Sabat, " but looked up stedfastly 
towards Heaven, Hke Stephen, the first Martyr, his eyes streaming with tears. He did not look with 
anger towards me ; he looked at me, but it was benignly, and with the countenance of forgiveness. 
His other hand was then cut off. But," continued Sabat, " Ae never changed, he never changed. And when 
he bowed liis head to receive the blow of death, all Bokhara seemed to say, "What new thing is this ?" 


The Arabic Pentateuch, published by Erpenius at Leyden in 1622 was, as we have seen, printed in Hebrew characters. The 
necessity of printing an edition of the Arabic New Testament in Hebrew characters was suggested to the Committee of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society as early as 1820, by a clergyman then traveUing in the East. Nothing, however, appears to have been 
effected for the many thousand Jews in Egypt, Tunis, and the whole north of Africa, Yemen, Syria, and Mesopotamia (to whom 
the Arabic is vernacular, but who seldom read or write except in their own characters), until 1846, when the Bombay Auxiliary 
Bible Society commenced for their use an ecMtion of the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. John, with the Acts of the Apostles, and 
the Epistle to the Hebrews, under the superintendence of the Rev. Dr. WUson of Bombay. As it was found impossible to carry on 
this work in India, the parent Society undertook an edition of 2000 copies, which they completed and pubhshed in 1847.' 

> Eleventh Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society. s gee Sixteenth Report, pp. 170—175. 

- Thirty.lirst Report. e Forty-second Report. 

3 Thirty-fouith Report. ' Forty-third Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 91 ; 

» Thirty-third Report. and Forty-fourth Report, p. 95. 


THE BIBLE SOCIETY.— GENESIS, Chap. i. v. 1 to 8. 


^J] Ui-Jk^_j * ^J,JI\J ^UJl dill jLi. IjAjJl Ji 

ZVi ■J^'^ ^i J^ (^^ '■^^ J^J L5-J^ 
J^j jyA\ JJ\ <dJl JUj * Ul Jx j]/. ^1 

k-y 1^ ji?- ^JJ!i <dll JUj :)< Jo-l_j |«_jj JjC.5 

^^ crlVj '^' '-^i-^a^' cT* o*^^ ^^ c;:'.^ tlri? 
jijss! i^\ ^_j^) * 1J>^ :J^i 'i^\ jy l_5jJ' 

* u?^^ r-^"- c^ li'^j 1^ ^'^j ^'^ 

is>-j i^jlc i»iyi c:^l^j : ijJl^ ^.j^ l/^J^' 
Jlij * \^s^]j UjJ ^Uo ^l^ 2L^ ^^j : IaJ 

iLuil ^^ J^j j^UvSt iijl Jj«j * Ulij U!l 

^^l^j : <Gy |J*]1 iLk/*il ^J:W5 jlsJl ci-vsy ^yi\ 

:Jt bjlj UjJ _U-5 ^(^ 


An attempt has very recently been made to prodnce a translation of the Scriptm-es in the Arabic dialect spoken in all the states of 
Barbary. We have no exact statistical account of the amount of population to whom this idiom is vernacular. The Empire of 
Morocco alone is said, by Jackson, to contain 14,000,000 inhabitants, while others estimate the population only at 5,000,000; 
Dr. Thomson, writing in 1847, states that ten miUions may be near the truth. Add to Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and TripoU, and 
also vast regions to the South of Morocco, and the whole amount of population to be reached by this (Ualeet may perhaps be 
estimated at from twenty to thirty milhons. These millions of inhabitants are principally Moors ; they are Mahommedans, and 
Dr. Thomson (the Agent of the British and Foreign Biljle Society) says, that so far as the work of distributing the Scriptures is 
concerned, they are not inaccessilile. 

After some difficulty arising from the religious scruples of the people, Dr. Thomson has succeeded in obtaining a translation of 
a portion of the Koran into the vernacular (Ualeet of Barbary ; the work was executed with much reluctance and hesitation by a 
Moor, and under the express condition that the fact of his having rendered this assistance should be kept secret from his country- 
men. The object of this translation was, to enable the learned to form au acciu'ate judgment concerning the idiomatic difference 
l>etween tliis modem Arabic ihalect, and the Arabic of the Koran. 

Dr. Thomson subsequently met with a Jew who, like all the other members of lus race bom in Barbary, spoke the vernacular 
of the country, and who also possessed the abihty, seldom attained by the Jews, of writing in the Arabic character. Dr. Thomson 
employed him in translating the first three chapters of Genesis, and afterwards engaged him to produce a version of the entire 
Book from the Hebrew, into African Arabic' In a letter dated Tetuan, December 1847, Dr. Thomson apphed to the Bible Society 
for assistance in this imdertaking, but it does not appear that his appeal has been successful. 

' A portion of this fragrment is given above as a specimen, with the corresponding passage from the Arabic Scriptures, pablisbed by 

the Bible Society. 


BIBLE SOCIETY. St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

^)Lo . cn_iQ^.aSs oot otJSSso . otJSSs . i v ^ ot viNo'^o . e n viNn^ ^ .-.j-^iSs i*2 

^cx*^ • «n f '^ »CTi_»>^ cn»Jcn_»Jfc. (.^ J»cn . |-L>i/Cl> ctuocd) . crCSx ^ ''^>^o»] vf-'^ajj ^ 

^__^ J]o ) iDj ^_iO pOT «nn>No . m v> iv\|-s OJ-iOQj ^y-^ • OT—iSS. (« I *> joi^.^ ^) )l_J^5.^.C0 

^^o |v ^ " •)■ crL5Q^.a2^o . cn^ ^ )Oj-!!i.o ^^o^ ^^^ ot >«><> ^_:o )Jo jn **>> wocn 


The Carshun, or Arabic in Syriac characters, is used (chiefly by members of the Syrian Chm-ches) in Mesopotamia as far as Bagdad, 
in Mount Lebanon, at Aleppo, and in many other parts of Syria. It has been calculated that the number of individuals who speak 
Arabic, but use the Sj-riac character, is about one miUiou. A diglot edition of the New Testament, in which the Syriac Peshito 
and the Carshun from the Arabic text of Erpenius,' were ranged in parallel columns, was published in 1703 at Rome, at the press 
of the College de Propaganda Fide, for the use of the Maronite Christians. Dr. Pinkerton forwarded a copy of this edition from 
Malta to the Committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1819. About eight years later, the Society undertook a new 
edition, and there being no suitable type in England, it was printed at Paris. M. de Quatremere and the Baron de Sacy were the 
editors. An edition of the Carshun alone, and another edition of the Syriac and Carshun, in parallel columns, had left the press 
in 1828.= 

1 Hug's Introduction, Vol. I. p. 435. - Twenty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 29. 




St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

^.^oijlh : 3>A : (D'>»t= : (DdhTslJ : S'A : in : "iSlK^ndi.C = GPT^t^ ■ (D>»TK?t'n 
di.C : ah>»'f : 3»A : : (DTlTf : >»9"1»<^oi»' : IH : 'Yx'^H.t\'nA\.C ■ (I>'>it5 : : Yl'-A- : P 
■VA^h :(DH>»'}nA.lMl : ?»AP : HTPI : (D?v'?n^^ I, : >»7nHlr«i :: Pt^ : ^£(0^ : (D- 
"^f : (D/h^(D^n : -flCW^ : A>kaA : ^itJO^^O). : (D-'Kf :: (D-nCH'Jrt : HCD-flT : X-A 
ou-l- :ynC«:rt>JPC?».:®»Airo^l,:?V^<i:VlP ::(DUA° : ?»fhK. : 'n>»rX : HT^KD : 
>i9n'in :'?i"lK?^-Pth.C= Hfiow : P'rhTfl :: (DOh'AI' : tro»?i : AflT^O : rtoflOT :^ 
YhT : n>»Tr : -flC^^T = Vio" : Yl-A- : ^>»o«-i : Pti : : (DA/VlMl = ?».1r«i = -flCWl : £>k 
tro-: noijO-r :.eYhT : n>»Tr : •HCHT :: H(D ^.l' : -flC**! = ^K^ ■ H^PCtJ :AYr-A-: 
rt-nTi : HJio™»>» : (D-flT ■- *^A9" :: (DCD-flT : t^AT" : U/V : (D^AT"!, : Pf: : t^l : 
(D^iATOrt : ?».JPX«roC :: (D-flT : RMh : troX-}\ : a)>»A.MMl : ?v-ra)Vl^(p :: (DA 
>»Art : 1'(DVie.<P : (DUPOW : ^"^"\\ : O^A-R = "Js^H.^k'fldi.C = ^tM- : A>»A : ^7" 
V, : nfiow :: hA : ^.M- : >»9ni : HK9" = (D^.>»9n<5.a*K = ^.l"®^ • HA";) : (D?v>»9n 
]Mt}o^-r : -fl>»|X : J\A : ■?»90>»"lH.2\-flth.C = TCDAje^. :: a)(D'>.f : ^£\ : M*;! : Tni : (D 
'iR^. : AOAl : (DCM fi'fl'h'UU' = Tn«»n : fin/hT : hfh.^ : T^JE^- : AhP-lh : HTOA- 
>» : X:i : (DqPTll : (DX^K'1' •: 


Geographical Predominance of the Language. — Etluopic is called by the Abyssinians 
Lisana Ghe'ez or language of the kingdom, because it was anciently the only vernacular dialect of all 
Abyssinia. About A.D. 1300, a family from tlie province of Amhara obtained possession of the 
government, and since that period Amharic has been the language of the capital and the court, while 
Ethiopic has become exclusively the ecclesiastical and written language of the country. As no 
measurements or surveys have been taken of Abyssinia, it is difficult to estimate its precise extent. 
It formed part of the ancient Ethiopia, and the Arabian geographers first distinguished it by the name 
of Abyssinia (from Habesch, mixture or confusion), to indicate the supposed Arabic origin of the 
inhabitants, and their subsequent mixture with African tribes. Abyssinia probably includes about 
300,000 English square miles ; it stretches from 9^ to 15° 40' north latitude, and from 36° east longi- 
tude to the Red Sea. Its probable amount of population has been estimated, though with little 
certainty, at 4,500,000. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The dialect of the Himyarite Arabs the 'OfMrjptTac 
of Ptolemy, still spoken under the name of Ehhhili on the southern coast of Arabia, is the parent 
dialect of the Etliiopic. Inscriptions in this ancient dialect, of which the characters bear a striking 
resemblance to the Ethiopic, have been discovered in South Arabia, by Lieutenant Wellsted and 
others. The Ethiopic possesses all the characteristics of a genuine Shemitic tongue. It has ten con- 
jugations of verbs, formed upon the same system as those of Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic. In each 
conjugation there are two tenses, the preterite and the future ; there are two genders, masculine and 
feminine, but no dual number. As might be expected from its origin, Ethiopic bears a close affinity 
to Arabic. According to Gesenius, about one third of its roots and primitive words exist in Arabic, 
and a large proportion of the remainder in the Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac. The Eunuch of Candace 
reading the prophet Isaiah seems to establish this affinity of the Ethiopic with the Hebrew. Ludolf, 


wlio fir,?t made the Ethiopic language accurately known in Europe, says, that " it approaches nearest 
the Arabic, of which it seems a kind of production, as being comprehended almost within the same 
grammatical rules, the same forms of conjugations, the same forms of plurals, both entire and ano- 
malous ;" and he adds, that whoever understands Arabic, may with little labour acquire the Ethiopic. 
Unlike all other Shemitic languages, Ethiopic and its cognate dialects are written in the European 
mode, from left to right. There are twenty-six consonants and seven vowel sounds ; but the vowels 
instead of being denoted, as in Hebrew and Arabic, by points above and below the lines, are Indicated 
as in Sanscrit by changes in the form of consonants; so that a single letter in Ethiopic and Sanscrit 
is equivalent to an entire syllable. 

Ethiopic Versions of Sceiptuke. — A very ancient Etliiopic version of the entire Scrip- 
tures mentioned by Chrysostom in his second homily on John,' is still extant, but when or by whom 
executed is unknown. It certainly was not produced later than the fourth century. By some it is 
attributed to Frumentius, who about the year 330 preached Christianity in Abyssinia, and was 
ordained Bishop of the country by Athanasius, Patriarch of Alexantlria, whence perhaps the depend- 
ence, still subsisting, of the Church of Abyssinia on that of Egypt. In this version the books of 
the Old Testament appear to have been mainly translated from the Septuagint ; in the Gospels, 
the translator seems to have availed himself of various MSS., and some peculiar readings occur : 
considered as a whole, however, this version may be said to correspond pretty closely with the 
Alexandrine family of MSS., as might, indeed, have been expected from the proximity of the 
countries and the connection between the two churches ; for the Coptic Patriarch of Egypt is the head 
of the Abyssinian Church, and the Abuna or resident Bishop of Abyssinia is always appointed by him. 
The Epistles and Book of Revelation belonging to this version are unhaj^pily very paraphrastic ; in 
other respects the Ethiopic New Testament is of considerable use in bibhcal criticism, as it shows the 
state of the text at a very early period. The entire Ethiopic Bible has never yet been printed. The 
Psalter, through some mistake erroneously entitled a Chaldee Psalter, was published by John Potken 
at Eome in 1513 ; and again, in 1657, it appeared in the London Polyglot with various readings and 
notes by Dr. Edmund Castell. In 1701 another edition of the Psalter was edited by Ludolph, the 
celebrated Ethiopic scholar. In 1548 the New Testament in Ethiopic was printed for the first time 
at Rome, by some Abyssinian Priests. This edition, afterwards reprinted in the London Polyglot, is 
very inaccurate ; the MSS. used on the occasion were old and mutilated, and the editors filled up the 
chasms that occurred in the text by translating from the Vulgate. The subject of printing this ancient 
version, was first brought before the Bible Society by a communication transmitted through the Edin- 
burgh Bible Society, from the Rev. George Paxton of Edinburgh, concerning the spiritual state of the 
Abyssinians, and the scarcity of copies of Scripture among them. The British and Foreign Bible 
Society accordingly, in 1815, gave an edition of the Psalter, accurately printed from Ludolf's edition, 
to Abyssinia ; and as no correct printed edition had been ever issued of the New Testament, strenuous 
efforts were made to obtain authentic MSS. The only Ethiopic MS. of importance at that period 
easily accessible in England was a MS. of the Gospel of St. John brought from India by Dr. Buchanan, 
and deposited at Cambridge. This was found in collation to difier from the printed copy in ahnost 
every verse, and its readings were evidently more accurate than those of the printed edition. With 
the view of inspecting other LISS., Mr. Thomas Pell Piatt visited Paris in 1822, and collated the 
valuable MSS. belonging to the Royal Society,'^ and in 1826, the Four Gospels were completed under 
his editorial care. They were printed from a fount of types cast at the ex|icnse of the Bible Society, 
from the matrices which had been presented by Ludolph in 1700 to the Frankfort Library. The 
entire New Testament was published in 1830. In this edition no one MS. was exclusively followed. 
The plan adopted by the editor, Mr. Piatt, was, as he himself informs us, first to prepare a correct 
copy from a MS. of undoubted value, leaving considerable space between the lines ; other MSS. were 
then carefully collated with the copy, and every variety of reading that occurred was inserted in the 
space left for the purpose, beneath the corresponding words of the copy. Afterwards, these readings 
were subjected to a rigid examination ; the reading which afforded the strongest marks of being 
genuine was retained, and the others were expunged. We are indebted to the Abyssinian Church, not 
only for the ancient and valuable version of Scripture just described, but also for a ciu-ious apocryphal 
writing called the Book of Enoch, which has been found in no other Church ; its date and origin are 
unknown, it is by some supposed to be the book quoted in Judo 14, and although it has no claim 

I Michielis, Vol. I. p. 602. 2 T. P. Piatt's Catalogue of the Ethiopic Biblical MSS., p. -1. 

Shemitic Languages.] T I G R E . 47 

whatever to be placed among the Books of Scripture, it has excited much interest on account of its 
great anti(juity.' 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — From the pecuhar character of the 
Abyssinians, and the strange mixture of Christianity, popery and lieathenism tliat prevails among 
them, few visible effects have as yet resulted from the multiplication of the Ethiopic Scriptures. The 
Scriptures have indeed been received vnth joy, yet little can be said as to any permanent change 
resulting from their perusal. " One day," said the devoted Jlisslonary, Mr. Gobat (now Bishop of 
Jerusalem), " I am all joy with the hope that in a short time the Abyssinian mission will be crowned 
with glorious success ; the following day I am cast down to the very dust by the id(.'a-that all attempts 
will be useless: for the Abyssinians very generally yield to the truth, but it is only for a while ; they 
cannot make up their minds to quit so much as one of their customs." Thus faith is tried for a 
time ; yet the promise is sure, that God's word shall not return to Him void, and the day perhaps is 
near when " Ethiopia will stretch out her arms unto God." 

T I G R E. 


^ Wer enter worrcd horn ker el ambar, hu mucker hom iiider hi negger er sevvi zer 
reiyer liom negger, sliar el Wod der sevvi tennessar ker el mote. '" Wer haz hom zer 
negger ov wost hom enter tiock hadda mis hadda munte marlet el tennessar ker el mote. 
" Wer tiock hu hom, Ber negger munte zer bel el sarfe tar Elias mussea fellermer. '^ Wer 
hu mellash wer negger hom, Elias be ack zer mussea fellermer w^er hu melless coulu 
negger * iccar, wor comha zer ter sarf ov el Wod der sevvi ender hu carl buze er negger 
wer sedded hu be yelhem * yeavila. '^ Mai ane zer bel kar, Elias be Ack artou * artehu, 
wer gewer hom zer delleyea ov hum com zu ter sarf ov hum. '* Wer shar enter mussea 
ov ariot hum, hu reiyer awnea mergavier cublie hom, wer el sarfetart enter tiock mis hom. 
'^ Wer shar sliar coulu souart, shar enter reiyer hom ler hum ter gurrem hom, wer wciyer 
ov hum ignersar * idnersar hum. 

t A tenn synonymous, or difi'ering: in orthography. 

In connection with the Ethiopic version of Scripture, that in Tigre requires consideration, for Tigre is little else than vulgar 
Ethiopic. The province of Tigre is the most important of the three divisions (Tigre, Amhara, and Showa) of Ahyssinia. It 
lies directly west of Amhara, from which it is separated hy the Tacazze, one of the larger branches of the Nile. It has the 
form of an irregular trapezium, and comprises about four degrees of latitude, and so many of longitude. During Mr. Jowett's 
residence in Egypt, in 1819, he superintended a translation of part of the New Testament into the vernacular of this extensive 
province. The person whom he employed to effect this translation, was an Enghshman, named Natbanael Pearce, a man of most 
eccentric character, but of extraordinary attainments in the dialects of the country. He had acquired varied and extensive information 
by constant wanderings through various countries ; he had roamed through Russia and China ; he had lived as a Mussulman in Arabia, 
and afterwards, for fourteen years, had resided as a Christian and a warrior in Abyssinia." He translated Mark and John ; but as, 
ovrmg to his restless habits, he had never acquired skill in writing the Ethiopic character, he was consequently obliged to write his 
translation in Roman characters. The orthography he regulated by his ear, spelling every word according to the sound, just as he 
would have done in English. His MS. is in the possession of the British and Foreign Bible Society ; it has never been published, 
and its comparative value is still unascertained. In 1831, part of Luke was translated by Mr. Kugler, a Missionan- of the Church 
Missionan- Society, and on his death the work was continued by Mr. Isenbcrg of the same Society. Competent native assistance 
was obtained, but it does not appear that any part of this version has been committed to the press. The natives employed in this 
work translated from the Ethiopic Scriptures, and their translation was afterwards revised and corrected by the Missionaries from 
the Greek original. 

* See the English translation of tliis book by Dr. Laurence, Oxford, 183S. ^ Missionary Register for 1819, p. 366. 




St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

3»A : hn^. :: ^*Tl : /\ft1'^qn : 1n>»^H.^^■nch.C = H^^K: ■ IH*^ :: U-ff : flCl"!- : Ifi " ^ 
ACll"9n : ^Alfl"?" : y^lT" : TninOh : IhA- : : A^JSCD^ : HCfr = 5n<^^ :: ih^m'V 
9" : PrtO)- : -nC^T : in*^¥ :: -flC^IT?" : nCQ-AO^ :yn^.A :: tClA"99o : ?»:rTr(D' 
9" :: f\(D- : \m. : Yl>»"IH.i\n£h.C = Pt'AYl : fioo.911 : p-fhTfl :: ^Tl : A9"l1VlC = "" 
"1 : A-nCW'l: /^nrt^C-U-A-: tlCff : yUaT : H'iK ■■'^C.ff ■ ■nCM'i : ?\^^t\7^ :: 
ilC.-l'i : TAYI : A-flC^T : A.'"JrtVlC :: >kaM'rf : -flCHI : 104 : Ahd)- : IhA- : P 
nRyn<5. : a)K : »iA9» : AnRoroaia), : : nt^AVn : htl^:: t^AO^-T" : HClV : ITl :: «4 
tifoi" : ?iA(D1'a)'9n :: (DR ■ (mr*P : ""oi :: (Dir^?^ : ?iA'r«l»nA>'1'9n :: ATI* 
ntf^ : Ihtt- : "IT : flA"\'i : rt^l^Oh : P>»"lK^-nrh.C = A^^ : ^l/l- : H^^ :: Hfl 
oo-: pan^9DV.::Yi(E:9n : (DTI : ^^^A- : YlM^^ : d.?*^*/" : Yll*l(D'«J™ : ODQ^gj^ -.: 
nC : IT : Tn>»"lH.^'n(h,C : T(DAK. " 9^1° ■ i^D ■ Wi : flVf" : ?iK4 "■ Vl-fl<.T 
9": i^Pli^'JJ^i'h'JKioroifV.: VlflC : tl^v-n :: i^;;] ■.'h(D^\'fUo : PouAn^:: 


Geographical Predominance of the Language. — Amharic is properly only the vernacular 
dialect of Amliara, a division or kingdom of Abyssinia lying ^west of tlie Tacazze, and measuring 
about 112 miles from east to west, by forty in breadth. From the circumstance, however, of its 
being the language of Gondar the capital, and the native dialect of the reigning family, Amharic pre- 
dominates far beyond the limits of Amliara, and by its aid a traveller can make himself understood 
throughout Abyssinia. Amharic is also extensively used as a medium of intercourse with negro and 
other tribes from the interior of Africa, who frequent the north of that continent. 

Characteristics of the Language. — Amharic is a degenerated Shemitic language, having 
to all appearance lost many of its original characteristics by admixture with African dialects. In 
grammatical structure it varies considerably from the Ethiopic, but above half the words are still the 
same in both languages. The Ethiopic alphabet is used in writing Amharic, but seven additional 
consonants have been adopted to represent the compound Amharic consonants. 

Amharic Version of Scripture. — The earliest attempts to translate portions of Scripture 
into Amharic were made by the Romish Missionaries, but the date and comparative value of their 
productions are unknown, for the MSS. have never been seen in Europe, neither is it now known 
what has become of them. The Gospel of Mark was translated by Mr. Pearce, under the superinten- 
dence of the Rev. Mr. Jowett, and this MS., written in Roman characters, is now in the possession of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society. An Amharic version of the entire Scriptures, which has 
superseded all others, was commenced about 1810 by M. Asselin de Cherville, French Consul at Cairo. 

Shemitic Languages.] AMHARIC. 49 

After many fruitless inquiries for a person competent to aid him in the acquisition of the language, 
he was providentially directed to an old man named Abu Kumi, whom he eventually engaged to 
translate the Scriptures. " Imagine," said M. AsseUn, " my surprise in finding in this poor old man 
a person master of the literature of his country; a traveller who had penetrated the most remote 
regions of Asia; the instructor of Bruce and of Sir WiUiam Jones." Abu Kumi was well qualified 
for the work of translation by his acquaintance with Arabic, Greek, Persian, and several other lan- 
guages besides his own. He executed his version under the immediate direction of M. Asselin ; twice 
a week, during a period of ten years, they secluded themselves from all other occupations, and read 
together the Arabic version from which the translation was to be made. M. Asselin explained such 
terms as were abstruse, difficult, or foreign to the Arabic by reference to the original text, the Syriac 
version, the Septuagint, and various glossaries, but Abu Rumi also often found the key to them in the 
Ethiopic itself In the early portions of the work, ]\I. Assehn declared that he had often occasion to 
admire the patience of his aged companion. But when they came to the Epistles of Paul, Abu Rumi's 
zeal began to cool, the difficulty of the task frightened him, he wanted to set off for Jerusalem, and it was 
only by dint of time, care, and sacrifices, that M. Asselin convinced him of the necessity of not leaving 
the work imperfect.' It may not be uninteresting to mention that this poor old man immediately on 
the completion of his work, executed his favourite project of visiting Jerusalem, and was cut off by 
the plague soon after his arrival. The version was sold by M. Asselin to the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. The Rev. ]\Ir. Jowett was employed by the Society in carrying on the negociation, 
and in 1820 he undertook a journey from Malta to Cairo to effect the purchase. The purchase money 
was £1250. The MS. was brought to England in 1821, and was read vnth much approbation by 
those acquainted with the language. Dr. Lee, in a letter addressed to the Bible Committee, dated 
1822, says, "the work appears to have been executed with uncommon ability and accuracy. There 
is no attempt whatever to display the learning of the translator by any of that verbiage so common 
to all the languages of the East, but all is precise, easy, and natural." In 1824 the Gospels were 
carried through the press by Dr. Lee, Mr. Jowett, and Mr. Piatt, and in 1829 the entire Amharic 
Testament was completed. In 1840 the Old Testament was published, and in 1842, an edition of the 
whole Scriptures. In superintending the printing of these editions, ]\Ir. Piatt carefully compared Abu 
Rumi's edition with the original Greek and Hebrew, and inserted such corrections as seemed indis- 
pensably requisite, leaving a more complete revision for a future opportunity. A second edition of 
the Pentateuch was afterwards printed, in which, with the assistance of the Rev. C. Isenberg, formerly 
a Missionary in Abyssinia, such a revision was to a great extent accomplished. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — There are more impediments to the 
saving influence of the Scriptures in this nominally Christian land, than in many idolatrous countries. 
The moral and mental condition of the people is deplorable. Polygamy prevails to a considerable 
extent, and they are the victims of many degrading superstitions. All afflictions they attribute to the 
immediate influence of devils and of witchcraft. The life of Mr. Gobat was once nearly sacrificed by 
the prevalence of these superstitious notions ; he was ill, and those among whom he laboured, and who 
were sincerely attached to him, instead of giving him assistance, crowded round him, some holding 
his hands, others his feet, while one amongst them was engaged in thrusting into his ears, mouth, and 
nostrils, nauseous substances which they called medicines. Yet the Abyssinians have not been foimd 
unwilling to confess the absurdity of their opinions when confronted with the light of Scriptural truth. 
They invariably bow to the authority of Scripture. On one occasion, a monk went to the Missionaries 
with a very self righteous air, but apparently very ill. The account he gave of himself was as follows : 
— " Being the son of a Governor, he said, and somewhat at ease, I lived many years in sin. At 
length, my conscience was awakened, and I began to fear the wi-ath of God. My agony and terror 
increased continually; and I did not know what to do;" (for he dared not to call on the name of the 
Lord, having never heard of the way of salvation by the merits of Christ), " at last, I determined to 
leave secretly my wife and my children and all that I had ; and to retire into a wilderness which was 
inhabited only by wild beasts. There I lived many months upon roots, taking only just as much as 
was necessary to keep me aUve. As I could find no peace for my heart, I determined to stand in a 
river of cold water from sunset to sunrise; which I did for a long time. I next bound my ankles so 
fast with a chain that I have ever since been unable to walk without very great pain. Finally, I 
inflicted a number of stripes every day on my body, the source of my sins, till it was covered all over 

* See M. Asselin's Letters to Committee of Bible Society. 


with putrifying wounds. Tliis, he added, has ruined my heahh ; but I console myself with the idea 
that I have done all this for God's sake." When Mr. Gobat told him that all those self-inflicted 
sufferings were the result of ignorance and pride, and therefore sinfid — and that it was altogether 
impossible to find true rehef by means of any expedient of that kind — ^he trembled for fear; but when 
some passages fi-om the Epistles of Paul and other parts of Scriptm-e were repeated to him, which 
testify that by grace we are saved through faith, not of ourselves, for it is the ^ft of God, the poor 
man was quite astonished, and cried out, " Is it possible? and can I yet be saved.'"' " I had despaired," 
he afterwards said, "of finding peace with God: I determined therefore, if possible, to secure a good 
name among my fellow-men; and for that purpose I have been going about, for some time, exhorting 
people to hve better. But now I will read the Gospel, and seek for the way of salvation in the Word 
of God." There are many other instances of the readiness vfith. which the Abyssinians receive the 
testimony of Scripture. Mr. Gobat, by whom the foregoing narrative is recorded, says that when he 
first began to distribute copies of the vernacular Scriptures among the people, they evinced little 
desire to receive them, being afraid of being deceived. By placing some copies for distribution in the 
hands of the priests, these suspicions were removed, and people immediately came, earnestly requesting 
to be furnished with the Word of God. " If," contuiues Mr. Gobat, " I had had some thousands of 
New Testaments, I could have distributed them to eager readers. I know some instances where 
persons have given all their property in order to purchase a copy of the New Testament: one man 
who had two oxen gave them for a copy of the Four Gospels; and another man gave four oxen in 
exchange for the Four Gospels." 





By Hekby Marttn, 8vo. 

St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

L/* ^•J uV?^- "^ [)u^ j^ '^ *■;;— '^ c7 l/:^ '<J^^ij J * '^'^ ti-vl^-i J>^^:;j J\ J ^ -^y. 


Extent and Statistics. — The kingdom of Iran or Persia Proper lies between 39° and 26° 
north latitude, and 44° and 62° east longitude. Its inhabitants are divided into two distinct classes, 
the Taujiks or aboriginal inhabitants of the country (whose number has been estimated by Fraser at 
about 7,000,000), and the Ilyats or Eilauts, a collective name given to the nomadic tribes by whom a 
considerable part of Persia is occupied. Of these tribes some are of Persian and others of Turkish, 
Mongolian, Aifghan, and Arabic origin; the languages spoken in Persia are therefore as numerous as 
the races by whom it is peopled. Turkish is predominant in the northern and western provinces, 


although the natives are likewise acquainted with Persic. The Eev. H. Southgate, an American 
Missionary, remarked that in his travels through these provinces he never once found it necessary to 
resort to Persian in his conversations with the people. The Taujiks, whose vernacular is invariably 
Persic, form the main population of Pars, and of almost all the towns of Persia. But the Persian 
language is predominant far beyond the regions of Persia Proper. In India it is spoken at all the 
Mahommedan courts ; and it is, or was till very recently, the language adopted by the British Govern- 
ment in all judicial proceedings throughout Hindoostan. It is the vernacular language of the ancient 
Transoxiana, and indeed of the whole of Turkistan, now subject to the Usbec Tartars; in this country 
the Taujiks possess four independent governments in which pxu-e Persic is spoken. Generally speak- 
ing, however, the Taujiks do not dwell together in corporate societies like other nations, but disperse 
themselves over the regions adjacent to their native land, and adopt the dress and customs of the 
dominant race in the countries in which they sojourn. They are said to be scattered as far as Thibet, 
and to have been met with in Chinese Turkistan. In Afighanistan they have been calculated by 
Elphinstone to number 1,500,000, and the Cohistan of Caubul is occupied almost solely by them. 
The religion of the Taujiks is Mahommedanism ; but Soofeeism or free thinking, a species of infidelity 
akin to the rationalism of Germany, is extremely prevalent among them. There are also about 2,300 
families of Guebres or fire-worshippers in Persia, and on the western coast of India there are about 
200,000 individuals belonging to this ancient sect. These Guebres or Parsees of India now form one of 
the most valuable classes of the subjects of Britain;' their ancestors are beheved to have fled thither 
when Persia fell imder the Mahommedan yoke, and the books and sacred fire which they brought with 
them are still religiously preserved. 

Ghaeacteristics of the Language. — The origin of the Persic language dates from the 
invasion of the Arabs in the seventh century. Prior to that period, various idioms prevailed through- 
out the Persian empire, of which the principal were the Pehlvi, the Farsi or Parsi, and the Deri. The 
Pehlvi, rude and masculine in structure, was closely allied to Chaldee, and was the dialect of Media 
properly so called, while the Farsi or Parsi was the language of Persia Proper, and its sub-dialect the 
Deri was the polished idiom of the court. Modern Persic was gradually formed during the long 
dominion of the Saracens in Persia, by admixture of the Parsi and Deri elements with the language of 
the conquerors. But the primitive type of the whole Persian family is undoubtedly the Zend, a lan- 
guage belonging to the same stem as the Sanscrit. Concerning the period during which this ancient 
tongue was vernacular, history is silent ; but it appears to have been the language of Zoroaster and of 
the Magi, and to have been once predominant in the west of India among the worshippers of the Sun. 
Modern Persic, although greatly adulterated with other languages, still retains abundant evidences of 
its descent from the Zend. The numerous and important points of affinity wliich united the Zend 
with the Sanscrit, are not all obliterated in Persic. All the Indian words which occur in Persic are, 
however, characterised by their abbreviated form, and it is rare in this language to meet with an un- 
mvitilated Sanscrit term, for the final letters are generally cut off, and words of two syllables reduced 
to one.'^ The Persic, like its parent the Zend, is more allied than any of the other Asiatic languages 
to the Germanic family; in fact, the entire fabric of the etymology of German and its cognate dialects 
is based upon the Persic.^ Of the 12,000 radical words composing the Persian language, 4,000 are 
found with more or less change in the Germanic dialects, and a strildng conformity prevails even in the 
inflections of these languages. The termination of the infinitive of verbs in the Persic is ten and 
den, the en of the German, and the eiv of the Greek. The termination of the plural in Persic for 
men and animated beings is the syllable an, corresponding with the plural termination n of the German. 
Comparatives are formed in Persic as in German by the addition of the syllable ter or er ; for instance, 
the Persian adjective signifying _90orf, in the comparative forms biliter, in German lesser, and in English 
better. The pronouns and numerals in German and in Persic are also etymologically connected. With 
respect to the personal terminations of the verbs, the Persic sometimes follows the German, sometimes 
the Sanscrit, and sometimes the Greek or Latin forms. The future tense is formed as in English by 
the aid of an auxiliary, and the passive is formed according to the same analogy, by placing the past 
participle of the active verb before the different tenses and modes of an auxiliary.'' The affinity of 
the Persic with the other members of the great Indo-European class of languages is to be traced even 
in the particles of composition. The Persian a represents the Greek privative a ; and Von Hammer 
has not hesitated to say that this same particle also occasionally corresponds in meaning with the Greek 

' Martin's British Colonies, Vol. I. p. 4-1.1. 

- Schlegel, Langue et Philosophie des Indiens, pp. 21—23. 

Indo-Eukopean Languages.] PERSIC. 53 

particles airb and iirl, and the German an, ab and anf. The Persian ha, he says, is the German hey 
and English hi/. The particle pes in Persic he considers equivalent to post in Latin, and the Persian 
negative particles 7ie and me, equivalent to the Latin ne and the Greek /xjy. Persic also resembles 
Greek, German, and English in its power of compounding words; and in the variety and elegance of 
its compound adjectives it is said even to surpass these languages. The Persian adjectives are com- 
pounded in three ways; by placing a substantive before a contracted particle, by prefixing an adjective 
to a substantive; and, lastly, by adding one substantive to another. The combinations produced 
according to these three Ibrms are exceedingly numerous, and sometimes highly poetical: they are 
often used, especially in the plural number, as substantives without any noun being employed, and so 
melodious are they accoimtcd by the Persian poets, that an entire distich is frequently filled with them.' 
The great beauty of the Persian language consists in its extreme simplicity ; its style of phrase- 
ology is natural and easy, and capable of being reduced to few rules. In this simplicity of construc- 
tion, in harmony of sound, in facility of versification, and in consequent adaptation for poetry, the 
Persian resembles the Italian. It has been said that the crown of Persian literature is its poetry; the 
same perhaps is true of the Italian ; and in connection with the several points of resemblance between 
these two languages, both in regard to their present development and to their origin and early history, 
it is rather a striking fact, and a subject for inquiry to a psychologist, that a remarkable similarity of 
sentiment and imagery pervades the works of Persian and Italian poets. This similarity has been 
repeatedly pointed out, and the sonnets of Petrarch have been compared to those of Sadi.^ Another 
prominent feature of the Per.sian language is its intimate admixture with Arabic words and idioms. 
Turkish words also occur in Persic, but scarcely a line or sentence is to be met with free from some 
words either purely Arabic, or of Arabic origin.' The peculiar forms of the plural called broken, 
imperfect, or irregular plurals, which characterise the Arabic and Ethiopic languages, are borrowed by 
the Persic; and Arabic syntax is sedulously studied by all who desire to write the Persian language 
with correctness. 

Alphabetical System. — The primitive alphabetical system of the Persian empire seems to 
have consisted of a peculiar set of characters called from their form arrow-headed, and cuneiform or 
wedge-shaped. Specimens of these characters have been found in ancient inscriptions on monuments 
of stone, and sometimes on bricks at Persepolis, and in the west of Persia. The efforts that have been 
made of late years in the study of the Zend, have tended to facilitate the decyphering of these inscrip- 
tions, the language in which they are written being an ancient and long extinct idiom closely con- 
nected with the Zend. The Persians, since the time of the Saracen conquest, have used the Arabic 
letters, which they write, like the Arabs, from right to left. Their alphabet consists of thirty-two 
characters, of which four are peculiar to their language: on the other hand, eight of the Arabic 
characters have no corresponding sound in Persian; for instance, the th of the Arabs is pronounced like 
s in Persia,'' just as the Polish Jews pronounce n: these eight letters are nevertheless retained in Per- 
sian writings, and are useful in showing the derivation of words, for they are seldom or never found in 
any word not purely Arabic. 

Versions of Scripture. — An ancient version of the Scriptures existed in the language 
formerly spoken in the Persian empire; but of this version, and even of the particular dialect in which 
it was written, we have httle or no information beyond the casual allusions of Ghrysostom and 
Theodoret.' Christianity was early established in Persia, for Constantine the Great wrote to Sapor, 
king of that country, in behalf of the Christian churches in his dominions. The Elamites present 
on the day of Pentecost doubtless carried back the Christian doctrine with them, and we are assured 
of a bishop of Persia being at the Council of Nice. The oldest version existing in the modem 
Persian language is probably that of the Pentateuch contained in the London Polyglot. This 
Pentateuch is believed to have been translated by Rabbi Jacob, a Jew, who, on account of his 
having come from a city called Tus, was surnamed Tusius or Tawosus. The period of its execution 
is unknown, but it certainly was translated subsequently to the eighth century, for Babel In Gen. 
10. 10, is rendered Bagdad. The translation is supposed to have been made from the Syriac, but 
it follows the Hebrew pretty closely. It was first printed at Constantinople in 1546, accompanied 
with the Hebrew text, the Chaldee Targum of Onkelos, and the Arabic version of Saadias Gaon.^ 

> Sir William Jones's Grammar of the Persian Lanf^iage, p. 102. ■» Sir William Jones's Grammar of the Persian Language, p. 24. 

■-■ Ouseley's Persian Miscellanies, Introduction, p. xxi. 5 Chrysos. Horn. II. in Johan. and Theod. IV. 555. 

' Ibraheem's Grammar of the Persian Language, p. 241 . « Waltoni Prol. .\rt. ", 9. 


The only other portion of Persian Scriptures contained in the London Polyglot consists of the four 
Gospels, supposed to have been written at Caffa, a town of the Crimea, about a.d. 1341, by a Roman 
Catholic. This translation is evidently from the Peshito, as is proved by many internal evidences, but 
it is interpolated with readings from the Vulgate, and even from Romish rituals and legends. If it 
had been free from these glosses and additions, it would have furnished valuable aid in the criticism of 
the Peshito.' Another edition of the Persian Gospels was commenced under the care of Wheeloc, 
Professor of Arabic at Cambridge, and at his death superintended by Pierson. This edition left the 
press in 1657. The editors used the very MS. from which the Gospels in the London Polyglot were 
printed; and although they possessed two other MSS., of which one is supposed to have contained 
a version from the Greek, yet they confounded them altogether, and appealed to the Syro-Persian text 
in the formation of their own.- Le Long speaks of another version of the Persian Gospels, which he 
says was transcribed in 1388, from an original of much older date, and sent by Jerome Xavier, a 
Jesuit, from Agra to the Collegium Romanum.' Yet it is recorded of this same Xavier that at 
the request of Akbar, Emperor of the Moguls, to be furnished with the Scriptures in Persian, he 
merely feigned compUance, and with the aid of a Persian compiled a life of Christ, partly from the 
Gospels, and partly from Romish legends, which, when presented to the Emperor, only served to excite 
derision. This production was printed by De Dieu, at Leyden, in 1639. The next attempt to procure a 
version of the Scriptures in Persian was made by Nadir Shah. This Emperor was desirous of pro- 
curing a translation of the Gospels, the Psalms, and the prophecies of Jeremiah, on accormt of the 
references made in the Koran to the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, and with this view he summoned 
several Armenian bishops and priests, Romish missionaries, and Persian Mullahs, to Ispahan. The 
Armenians, from their imperfect acquaintance with the Persian language, were unable to take any 
efScient part in the translation, the whole of which, in consequence, devolved upon the Romish and 
Mahommedau priests : between them they effected their work by the aid of an ancient Arabic and 
other versions, but it was dressed up with all the glosses which the Koran could warrant, and the 
Romish priests made such use as they could of the Vulgate.'' Wlien the work was presented to Nadir 
Shah, he turned it into ridicule, and declared that he could himself make a better religion than any 
that had yet been produced. If this story be true, the version sometimes found in the hands of the 
Armenian priests in India may be safely conjectured to be the same as that of Nadir: a copy of this 
version was shown to the Rev. Henry Martyn, who remarked that he did not wonder at the Emperor's 
contempt of it. 

As the style in which the Gospels of the Polyglot are written has long been antiquated at 
Ispahan, several efforts have been made during the present century to produce a version in the pohshed 
dialect now spoken by the Persians. A translation of the four Gospels was made under the superinten- 
dence of Colonel Colebrooke, and printed at Calcutta in 1804.'' Our accounts of this work are very 
meagre, and it never seems to have obtained much circulation. In 1812 the Rev. L. Sebastiani had 
advanced nearly to the end of the Epistles, in a translation of the New Testament from the Greek," 
and during the same year 1000 copies of the Gospels of this version were printed at Serampore by 
order of the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society. Sebastiani had been many years resident at the Court 
of Persia, and his version was chiefly designed for the use of the Christians dispersed in Persia. In 
the meantime another translation of the whole of the New Testament had been progressing at Dina- 
pore, in the East Indies, under the superintendence of the Rev. Henry Martyn. The translators were 
Sabat and Mirza Fitrut : the former had previously been employed in this translation at Serampore, 
and the latter by Colonel Colebrooke. This version was completed in 1808, but it was found to be so 
replete with Arabic and abstruse terms intelligible only to the learned, that the Rev. Henry JIartyn 
determined upon visiting Persia in person, that he might there obtain the means of producing a clear 
and idiomatic version. In 1811 he reached Shiraz, the seat of Persian literature, and remained there 
nearly a year. He was received with much friendship by some of the principal men of the city, who 
expressed the warmest sympathy for the man of God, as they habitually designated our Missionary. 
When the weather became too intense for his enfeebled frame to bear the extreme heat of the city, 
Jaffier Ali Khan, a Persian noble, pitched a tent for him in a dehghtful garden beyond the wall, and 
here he executed from the original Greek a translation of the New Testament, remarkable not only for 
its strict fidehty to the text, but for its astonishing conformity to the niceties of the Persic idiom. By 
the Persians themselves this work has been designated " a masterpiece of perfection ;" and while other 

> Hug's Introduction, Vol. I. p. 34g. < Buchanan's Christian Researches, p. 94, 

2 Hug's Introduction, Vol. I. p. 350. ^ Marsh's History of Translations, p. "7. 

3 Le Long, Biblioth. Sacra, Vol. I. p. 133. 6 Eitrhth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 13. 

Indo-Eueopean Languages.] PERSIC. 55 

Oriental versions have been superseded by more accurate translations, the Persic and Hindoostanee 
Testaments of tliis accomplished scholar are at this day in higher repute than ever.' On the accom- 
plishment of his object, he found tliat his constitution had been completely shattered by the ellects of the 
climate and extreme exertion, and he attempted to return to England, but expired during his journey home- 
wards at Tocat, a commercial emporium of Asiatic Turkey, m 1812.'' Copies of the work which had 
caused the sacrifice of his valuable life were deposited with Sir Gore Ouseley, the English Ambassador in 
Persia. One copy was presented to the King of Persia, who, in a letter written on the occasion, expressed 
his approbation of the work. On returning to England, by way of St. Petersburg!!, Sir Gore Ouseley met 
with Prince Galitzin, and it was suggested that the Prince, who was the head of the Russian Bible 
Society, should cause an edition of Slartyn's Testament to be printed at St. Petersburgh, for circula- 
tion in the provinces of Western Persia. The impression was completed in less tlian six montlis, and 
consisted of 5000 copies.^ In 1813 a communication was received by the Corresponding Committee 
at Calcutta from Mecr Seid Ali, the learned native employed by the Rev. Henry Martyn at Shiraz, in 
which, witli many expressions of regret for the loss of his excellent master, he informed the Committee 
that the MS. of the Persian New Testament and of the Psalms (which had likewise been translated at 
Shiraz) was in his possession, and that he waited their orders as to its disposal. He was directed by 
the Committee first to take four correct copies of the MS., that no risk might be incurred in the trans- 
mission of so great a treasure, and then to forward the MS. to Calcutta, whither he was invited him- 
self for the purpose of superintending the publication.'' The Psalter and Xew Testament passed 
tlu'ough the press at Calcutta in 1816. The Psalter was reprinted in London under the editorship of 
Dr. Lee in 1824; and the New Testament, edited by the same distinguished scholar, was published in 
London in 1827. This Testament was reprinted in London in 1837, and an edition of 3000 copies 
was printed at Edinburgh in 1847, at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society,'* 
in order to accompany an edition of the Old Testament, which, as we shall presently have occa- 
sion to mention, was then passing through the press in that city. Of all these editions of 
Martyn's Testament, the most incorrect seems to have been that printed at St. Petersbiu'gh in 
1815. This impression was so defaced with errors that the Missionaries deemed it useless, and at 
their reipiest the issue was stopped by the Russian Bible Society. The Rev. William Glen, of the 
Scottish Mission at Astrachan, was in consequence led to imdertake a version of the Psalms in 
Persian for the benefit of the numerous individuals speaking that language who resort for purposes of 
trade to Astrachan and the South of Russia. In preparing his version, Mr. Glen first made a literal 
translation of the Hebrew text, which he submitted with due explanations to lus teacher ; it was then 
the oflSce of the latter to give as exact a representation of the sense as possible in classical Persian ; his 
production was then revised and compared with the original by Mr. Glen." In 1826 the Committee 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society made arrangements with the Scottish Missionary Society for 
the services of Mr. Glen at Astrachan, in making a translation of the poetical and prophetical books of 
the Old Testament. In the meanwhile, Mirza Jaflier had been engaged by the same Society to pro- 
duce a version of the historical books of the Old Testament at St. Petersburgh,'' under the eye of 
Dr. Pinkerton, and according to specific directions sent out for the purpose by Dr. Lee. The only 
portion of Mirza Jaffier's version which appears to have been published, is the book of Genesis, printed 
in London in 1827, imder the care of Dr. Lee. Mr. Glen's version of the Psalms and Proverbs was 
revised by Mr. Greenfield, assisted by Mr. Seddon, and pubhshed in London in 1830, 31; the edition 
consisted of 1000 copies,'* and another edition appeared in 1836. The entire Old Testament, trans- 
lated by Mr. Glen, was eventually printed at Edinburgh, under the auspices of the Committee of 
Foreign Missions connected with the United Associate Synod of Scotland, and the British and Foreign 
Bible Society contributed £500 towards its publication; the edition left the press in 1847.^ 

In consequence of a gi'ant by the British and Foreign Bible Society in aid of the translation 
department of Bishop's College, Calcutta, the Rev. T. Robinson (then Chaplain at Poonah, but after- 
wards Archdeacon) applied for the sanction of the Bishop of Calcutta to a projected version of the Old 
Testament in Persian, and on its being ascertained that the design fell within the terms of the gi'ant, 
the translation was commenced in 1824.'" The Pentateuch was completed and printed at Calcutta in 
1830, and in 1838 the entire Old Testament was finished ; the translation is from the original text, 
and is accounted faithful and accurate. A Persian version of the prophecy of Isaiah was purchased 

' Missionary Register for 1822, p. 45. s Henderson's Biblical Researches in Russia, pp. 429, 430. 

- Owen's History of the British and F. Bible Society, Vol. II. p. 265. ' Twenty-third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. .\lviii. 

' Owen's History of the British and F. Bible Society, Vol. II. p. 41. s Twenty-seventh Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 9;. 

' Eleventh Report of British and Foreign Bible Societv, p. 38. s Missionary Register for 1347, p. 72- 

■■ Forty-third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Uxxviii. >» Twentieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. lij. 


by the British and Foreign Bible Society for the sum of £100 in 1833. This version had been ex- 
ecuted by the Mirza Ibraham of the East India College at Haileybury, and revised by Mr. Johnson, 
one of the Professors of that College. The translator took the EngHsh Authorised Version for a basis, 
and adhered to it as far as it expresses faithfully the sense of the original. Being well acquainted 
with both Plebrew and Arabic, he made it a rule to use in his translation an Arabic word of the same 
root with the original, where such a word had been adopted into Persian ; and in rendering the sense 
of difficult passages, he first consulted our English version, then turned to the original Hebrew and 
compared it with the Arabic, and finally discussed the question with some of the members of the 
College, besides referring to several commentators.' In 1834 an edition of tliis book was published 
by the Society under the care of Mr. Jolmson. In 1841 the attention of the Calcutta Committee was 
occupied in lithographing an edition of the Scriptures in the Persian character, a method deemed pre- 
ferable to the former system of Arabic type printing.'^ In 1842, 5000 lithographed New Testaments 
of Martyn's version left the Calcutta press, and in 1844, 5000 copies of Genesis and part of Exodus 
of Archdeacon Eobinson's translation were also lithographed. 

Kesults of the Dissemination of this Version. — The work of distributing the Scrip- 
tures has been very extensively prosecuted in Persia : the portion which has there gone into widest 
circulation is Martyn's Testament, and a recent traveller declares that this inestimable work has made 
its way by single copies into many houses in Persia, and that he found persons acquainted with it in 
every city through which he passed.^ The Scriptures have not yet effected any general change in 
Persia, but individual instances are not wanting of their blessed influence. A writer in the Asiatic 
Journal states, that once, at a convivial meeting in Persia where religious questions were being dis- 
cussed, he chanced to express his opinions with a considerable degree of levity. He was immediately 
afterwards startled by perceiving the eyes of one of the guests fixed upon him with a peculiar and 
piercing expression of surprise, regret, and reproof. On inquiry, he found this person to be by name 
Mahomed Rameh, a man of great learning and high moral endowments ; he had, it was said, been 
educated as a Mollah, but had never ofilciated, and led a life of retirement. The writer obtained an 
interview with him, in which Mahomed avowed himself a Christian, and related the history of his 
conversion in nearly the following terms: — " In the year 1223 of the Hcjira, there came to this city an 
Englishman who taught the- rehgion of Christ with a boldness hitherto unparalleled in Persia, in the 
midst of much scorn and ill-treatment from our Mollahs as well as the rabble. He was a beardless 
youth, and evidently enfeebled with disease. I was then a decided enemy to infidels, and I visited the 
teacher of the despised sect with the declared object of treating him with scorn, and exposing his 
doctrines to contempt. These evil feelings gradually subsided beneath the influence of his gentleness, 
and just before he quitted Shiraz I paid him a parting visit. Our conversation — the memory of it 
will never fade from the tablets of my memory, sealed my conversion. He gave me a book ; it has 
ever been my constant companion, the study of it has formed my most delightful occupation." Upon 
this Mahomed brought out a copy of the New Testament in Persian; on one of the blank leaves was 
written — " There is joy in Heaven over one sinner that repenteth. — Henry Martyn."^ The Persian 
Scriptm-es have been likewise distributed in the countries adjacent to Persia, where, as has been above 
stated, vast numbers of people speaking the Persian language are dispersed. The following instance 
of the blessing of God on this version occurred in Hindoostan in 1844; the narrator is the Eev. A. 
Sternberg of Arrah. " I am thankful to tell you, he writes, of a Hindu who two months ago was 
ba^Jtized by me, having been brought to a thorough conviction of the truth of our reUgion only by 
reading, by himself, a Persian New Testament ivhich he had got at Cuttak some months previous. He 
was a Kaith, and was well acquainted with the common creed of Mahomedans and its errors before he 
became acquainted with Christianity. In the commencement of the year 1844, he undertook a 
pilgrimage to Jagganath ; on his return he received a Persian New Testament from a Missionary 
preaching in a Bazar Chapel at Cuttak; but he did not touch it for fear. On his arrival at Arrah, he 
was obhged to stop on account of his wife's and child's illness. Now the time was come: he had 
leisure, and began to read his Persian Testament, and instantly he was struck with the tnith of the 
word. Only one passage made him stop a Httle, the term ' Son of God:' when his Mahomedan pre- 
judices on this subject had been removed, he applied for baptism; since that period," continues Mr. 
Sternberg, " he has shown such deep knowledge of all the principal doctrine? of faith, as well as 

1 Twenty-ninth Report of British and Foreif^ Bible Society, p. Iviii. 3 Southgate's Narrative of a Tour in Persia, &c. Vol. I. p. 141. 

2 Thirty-seventh Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixiv. 

Indo-European Languages.] JUDiEO-PERSIC. 57 

a thorough change of sentiment, that ho was and is to me, who was very far from expecting to see a 
Hindu truly converted, a most seasonable evidence of the mighty power of the written word of God. 
He has had no teacher; the reading of the word alone has converted him. It is encouraging to find 
again the saying true, ' one soweth and another reapeth.' " ' 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

: 113 |nd:x '\s2£i''n nx^n jxi mn nx^n ix m ^ : niiN^j iiji nox msy -iijid ns 

'♦Nil 1X1 ' J ma x^n^ B'Odx ni niB' rnwS*nD-i3 xni n^x^i rx ni iin ♦5:iB' " 
}xo'x IX ntaxDii n»n no {x xn nm iij |x in mxriB' hd }x xn tax mxna' 
: nmi mxrtB' \^*:jj'n |x 12 ni -iin max niSi ni2J vs^cyii ni5 1x1 * t n^nix 
: n:xnn3 'a ni^a n^x *a m jxnJi na x-i dd nn to nox jx ♦p'pn ♦xjE'ini ' 
}xsxD '^1031 " : nixjcr ^a^ EJ'jxn^i na^j -ins ix niDXDii jxn^i -iin jxnj -n j^xi '" 
riD nxn mnp xn jxk'^x C'njnsins hd njji'^ :jyijninns3 |xej"xi nax sr^b 
Tx jxt:'\s nSini" :"i3imx |xa\s jj'aDxi ni n^-tin {x£j'\yi TJijj'n xni fxiins 
:ni3 xni rx m^a niSn mij ♦jxDSi jj'nxiii 'jxaoj ^nxii ixi tox'^ix 
|xi Dnn xo x-i ix "Sim 1-131:1 ixnp xa jx^a -n mti' ddjo naSi {xi " 

: ni3 "noxni "jxinna tx 121 -112 ma 'hjxi" 'nnD\sB' ni mn ""^jn 


Nearly all the Jews who are settled in Persia and in Bokhara speak the Persian langnage, which they are able to read and write 
only in the Hebrew character. The Rev. Mr. Pfander, wlien in connection with the Basle Missionary Society, made application for 
means to print the Persian Scriptures in Hebrew characters for the benefit of these Jews ; but he was soon aftenvards removed from 
Shushi, in Southern Russia, where he was stationed at the period of his making that request, and for a time, at least, the project 
was in consequence dropped. In 1841, Dr. Hsel)erlin applied to some Chiistian friends for aid in imparting the Scriptiu-es to the 
Persian Jews ; and in reply he received from Herat a copy of Martyn's Persian New Testament, written in Hebrew characters 
under the care of Dr. Login, who stated that the Jews had frequently asked him for the Scriptures in this form. Dr. Hsberlin 
laid the version before the Calcutta Committee, and they agreed to refer the means of printing it to the consideration of the Parent 
Society.'- Their application was promptly met by a request on the part of the latter Society to print an e(Ution of 2000 New Testa- 
ments in this form, and it was arranged that the edition should be carried through the press at Calcutta, under the eye of the Rev. 
Dr. Yates. The death, however, of that lamented Missionary rendered this plan abortive ; and in 1845 the Bombay Auxiliary 
Society transmitted to London MS. copies of the Juda;o-Persic Gospels, of which an edition of 1000 copies was completed in London 
in 1847,' under the superintendence of the Rev. Dr. Wilson of Bombay. 

1 Fortieth Report of British and Poreisn Bible Society, pp. c, ci. ^ Fortj'-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xcv. 

= Thirtj'-seventh Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixiii. 



St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

j\ ij (^jiiJjjj u~^ ''%, * J»J ''^ ^'V^ ""^ L^ ■^■^ U^ *%, *-" '"^ ^ i>JtJi/>jli> j\ J_j^ Ijuo ^^Jt^ 

^A>J i^l?^'^ ^jh^ u^ ^^JJ"^ <J^^ '^ * *-^^. '^'^ cy "^ b ^^ y. oj^ ^J jjJJ^ <u1as^<0 
-J^'J'^ ^r^. ^'-^ ^ y^ ^^ ijyi ""f- _j*> ij^ * Xi J^ i;liJ jjiis- j^ri^ j^ i^b ^j^y 

Jas-aJ I) Ai;i^ J-Slj"^ ""^ * i;^ i^JJj\j J^'} 1^^ «ulj<0 ^_^Jj, ^jjSi j! Ju^ ^IjcJ-J 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The Affghans, a warlike and semibarbarous 
nation, inhabit AfFghanistan, a mountainous territory lying du'ectly south of Hindoo Coosh. They 
call themselves Pushtaneh, whence, by a corruption of the word, they are styled by the Indians 
Patans. Their language is termed Pushtoo. They received the designation of AJfghans from the 
Persians, by which name alone they are known in Europe. According to Elphinstone, the number of 
Aifghans residing in AfTghanistan, and within the Hmits of the ancient kingdom of Caubul, amounts to 
4,300,000. In AfTghanistan itself, he remarks, there is scarcely any part in which the wliole popula- 
tion is Affghan, the mixtiu-e is composed of Tajiks in the west, and of Hindkces in the east.' Sir 
William Jones, and others, have assumed that the Afighans are of Hebrew origin ; but though this 
idea may at first sight appear to be countenanced by some of the Afighan traditions, which represent 
them as lineally descended from ancient Israel, yet abundant proofs might be adduced from historical 
and philological sources in confirmation of the now generally received opinion, that this peof)le are the 
aborigines of the region in or near which they now dwell. Their religion is the Mahommedan, but 
they belong to the sect of Soonnee, who recognize the first three Caliphs as the lawful successors of 

Characteristics of the Language. — The structure of the Pushtoo or Afighan language 
refutes the hypothesis of the Hebrew origin of the Aifghan people. It exhibits none of the peculi- 

1 Elphinstone's CabiU, Vol. I. p. 403. 

Indo-European Lanottages.] PUSHTOO. 59 

arities of the Shemitic dialects, but, on the contrary, forms an important link in the great Indo- 
Enropcan chain of languages. Many of the words are Persian, and some of the roots can be traced 
distinctly from the Zend and Pehlvi dialects, while others again are from some unknown source. 
Mr. Elphinstone compared an Aflghan vocabulary, consisting of 218 words, with the correlative terms 
in Persian, Zend, Pehlvi, Sanscrit, Hindoostanec, Arabic, Armenian, Georgian, Hebrew, and Chaldaic; 
and he ascertained that in this collection of Affghan words, there were no less than 110 which could 
not be referred to any of the above languages, but appear to be distinct and original. Of the remain- 
ing words, by far the greater nimiber were modern Persian, but some of these could be traced to the 
Zend, and many more to the Pehlvi; other words were proved to belong exclusively to these latter 
languages, not being employed in modern Persian. The instances in which a similarity was traced 
between the Afighan and the Sanscrit and Hindoostanec words, are to be accounted for by the con- 
nection, we have elsewhere noticed, which originally subsisted between the Zend and Sanscrit lan- 
guages. Most of the terms relative to science, government, and religion, have been cngi-ai'tcd on the 
Pushtoo language from the Arabic, through the Persian. In its grammatical forms, Pushtoo is more 
closely allied to Zend than to Persian, and in its inflections it retains some of the features of that 
ancient language which are lost in Persian. Although Pushtoo is said not to be unpleasing to those 
who are accustomed to the rough sounds of Oriental tongues, it is decidedly harsh and unpolished, and 
contrasts strongly in this respect with the soft and musical language of Persia. The Affghans use the 
Persian alphabet, but they have altered the sound of several of the letters, which changes they in- 
dicate by means of diacritical marks appended to the letters, which in Persian approach the nearest 
in sound to their own peculiar enunciation : these distinctive sounds are the hard d, t, r, and csk. 

Version of the Scriptures. — The first attempt to produce a Pushtoo version of Scripture 
seems to have been made by Dr. Leyden, who in 1811 fiu-nlshed the Corresponding Committee of 
Calcutta with a translation of the Gospels of Matthew and Mark. At his death the translation was 
continued by the Serampore Missionaries, with the aid of some learned natives previously In the 
employ of Dr. Leyden. An edition of the New Testament, consisting of 1000 copies, was printed at 
Serampore In 1819.' The Missionaries then proceeded with the translation of the Old Testament into 
Pushtoo, and In 1832 an edition, consisting of 1000 copies of the historical books of the Old Testa- 
ment, was in the press.^ The rest of the Old Testament is in course of preparation. Little encourage- 
ment, however, has as yet been aiforded to Christian efforts in this particidar sphere of labour, for 
although some copies of the Pushtoo New Testament have been distributed, and testimonies received 
from several natives as to the clearness and mtelllglbllity of the style in which It is written, yet no 
general distribution of any portion of Scripture among the Alfghans has ever yet been accomplished, 
the fierce and warhke character of the people having hitherto formed a bar to missionary labours 
among them. 

' Ninth Memoir conceruiiig tile Serampore Translations, p. 3. - Tenth Memoir concerning the Serampore Translations, p. 61. 


(A Specimen of tliis Version will be given, if possible, in a future Part of the Work.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Beloochistan, the country of the Beloochees, lies 
between Afghanistan and the Indian Ocean, and extends along the shores of that ocean from the 
Indus to Persia. But it is only the western portion of this country that is inhabited exclusively by 
the Beloochees, the eastern provinces being chiefly peopled by the Brahooes, a j^eople who speak a 
dialect of Sanscrit origin, resembling that of the Pimjab. In rehgion the Beloochees are Mahomme- 
dans, of the sect of Omar. In number they are conjectured to amount to about a million, but Mr. 
Elpliinstone considers this too low an estimate; and it is supposed that the entire population of Beloo- 
chistan, including the Juts, Tajiks, Dehwars, and other tribes who dwell among the Beloochees, would 
together amount to nearly two milHons. 

Chakacteristics op the Language. — The structure and idioms of the Beloochee language 
and above half of its words are Persic, and notwithstanding the corrupt and unaccountable pro- 
nunciation of the Beloochees, Lieutenant Pottinger was at length enabled, by his knowledge of Persian, 
to understand every sentence in Beloochee. The language possesses no literature, and, if we except a 
translation of part of the Scriptures, it may be said to be unwritten. 

Version of the Scriptures. — The history of the Beloochee is in some respects similar to 
that of the Pushtoo version. Both versions were commenced by Dr. Leyden, and at his death trans- 
ferred to the care of the Serampore Missionaries, who availed themselves of the aid of the learned 
natives previously employed by Dr. Leyden.' As it is stated that these natives were thoroughly 
acquainted with the Persian and Hindostanee languages, we may infer that they made the translation 
direct from the Persian Gospels and Hindostanee Testament (which had been printed at Serampore in 
1811), and that their work was afterwards compared with, and corrected by, the Greek original. It 
is not certain whether the translation has ever been advanced beyond the book of the Acts of the 
Apostles, but the first three Gospels were printed as early as 1815: the number of copies of which this 
edition consisted is not specified.- The character is Persian, with no variation. It does not appear 
that the Beloochee version has ever obtained circulation among the people for whom it was designed. 

1 Eleventh Report of British and Foreiffn Bible Society, p. 32. 2 Tenth Memoir concerning the Translations at Serampore, p. 61. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 8. 

NO. I. 


' bUliAP^U'ut ^P ' aUlibUf^t'b i^P 

(tfo- « li- in tf- ^p fi.iuislj t 
\jut ^p pulfop.uj'itl;- utrL. 
tuh- X \J^t/i-ltutjh f'^f 

ftnJutL. hrtL- • II. UMn-u/hn 
Itnpiu knli- L- ntfiht np 

{tiii knli^ X XjnJtuL. 

Ifb-uihp ^p f Ll. l^huthpit 
5-/1 / o/" t/tupn-ijuiu • t?^ 

injuh ft fuiut-iupft uthif. 

fnuuuiunp tp t ^ juuiuiup 
%Jus nt bnL- ^tuunu. x 

jlHj , tu'bniJl ItJtu jnil^ 
^utith^u X ' \}m brl^ ft 

buj^ tljuiAi inuunjlt . qf, 
tMMuIrljbpplM ^ujL^uitnuMuahu 
Itni^L. X ili_ ^P ^"^ 

tfutuh ^i^unjh X 

p.uthp ♦ rtL. p.tuiip luj ^nifh 
^p ♦ nu (u*^) p.utitp^ tucr 

tp « '' V^-gCL. p^l{h"p^k'i' 

tSj ^ni(h ^p X ^ lli/S/J-li 

ppp ujhni] IrnutL. , nu 
tun^uAiq luunp (ip^apUut/ 
ibnuiL. fi^f "P t-rjuii. It/j^ X 
[jk-utltpp uAinJ l^p f nu 
LhuslMpn ifiupq.nq tni^uu 
irp » ^ fl'- /f-o^ ujI, 

pttUL^mpfilt ulj-pp 

^p f nL. fuint-tupp IMUp^lU 

ih ^utulfpjiuL. X U 4-4 

Jiuprf-Jp bntuL. luuutnulr^ 
i/^- fuppLpiJtuif f tuhnp 

iuljnL-%p in^tulAil^u X 

^j^uftl^iu JlfiujbinL. b^ 
LusL, f np tnuunL-ii ^luutup 
JLutj^ • np UMuU^iMPp ui^ 
"Lntl^ -^u,..u,u,u,% X ' h^^ 

■eiL lfJ^"C_ ikp , ^UMUIM 

ybl^u^LS) np ini-unu% >"'-' 

NO. II. 

\jhcjlF-"'- ^P p-'t'^f' • 



O'nj t/osnu 


IJ^uuinL.h'nj Jouth ^p x 

\J^J1^% [titf Ijnpuihnil t^-tuiL. , 

U. lun^uiJta unptuJi puLp nt 

IjIm^ ^1^1- t h'i'i_ np hij^>- > 

XjnpiuhnJ l^buAi^it l^-p , 
L- l^buAtpii Jiupij-l^u/hij injuh 
tp • ^ [?■- /"/"^ {utuutu^ 

pnuiut ["J" k'P uitujpu U- 
p£U£U{upu €pt/ufqU£U unpiuu X 

' XTh^ -Tuspi. huf^ U"- 

utni^ush'usupa ni^nuMpl^Jiuh- np 
Isnpus ushnL.^li ^o^tulihl^u 

itp) X " U"- qk-^jn^P^bu,!. 

<yiuJutp blfUJU, np jni-unj 
^utJiup ilLutjl^ ♦ np ujJ^%^ 
.pU linpu/hnil ^un-utmutlt x 

' *li"' i^P UP"'' * F-'"J5 "P 
inuunjii ^utJiup i^uif^;' x 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Armenia is the spot in which the three great 
powers of the East, the Russian, the Turkish, and the Persian, are brought into direct approximation, 
and it is now politically divided between them. Having been the theatre of many contests, its 
boundaries have varied at different epochs; but it may be said to extend from the river Kur on the 
north to the mountains of Kurdistan on the south, and from Diarbekir in the west to the Caspian on 
the east. The total number of the Armenian nation is estimated by Mr. Conder at 2,000,000, and by 
some authors at 3,000,000, but in their own country the Armenians form but one seventh part of the 
population, wliile in scattered colonies they are to be met with from Venice and Constantinople to 


Canton, and from St. Petersburgh to almost every part of Africa. In Constantinople and its 
adjacent villages there are computed to be 200,000 Armenians, and an equal number in the Eussian 
and Persian provinces. They are emphatically the merchants of the East, and a large proportion of 
the trade, foreign and internal, of Turkey, Southern Kussia, Persia, India, and of other countries, is 
conducted by them. The Armenians constitute a section of the ancient Monophysite Church, and 
believe that "the two natures (Divine and Human) of Christ are united in one nature;" they have four 
Patriarchs, the principal of whom bears the title of Catholicos of all the Armenians, and resides in 
Armenia ; their ecclesiastical establishment in Hindoostan vies with that of the English. About one 
hundred thousand Armenians have joined the Eomish Church, and are ruled by their own archbishops. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The ancient Armenian language, though no longer 
vernacular, is very generally studied by Armenian Christians as their national language of religion 
and literature. The roots of the Armenian are closely connected with those of the Persian dialects, 
and many Median words preserved by Herodotus can be explained by means of the Amicnian. Its 
elemental words, such as numerals, pronoims, particles, nouns indicative of objects of sense, and verbs 
indicative of the common actions of hfe, have their analogues in the Greek, Latin, and German lan- 
guages, and even in the Finnish dialects of Siberia, and in other idioms of Northern Asia. Several 
striking coincidences in structure have likewise been traced between the Armenian and the other 
branches of the Indo-European class ; the future tense of Armenian verbs is, for instance, formed by 
means of the syllables, tzitz, — stzyes, — size, where the characteristic sound of the Greek and Sanscrit 
future is distinctly recognized. On the other hand, some Armenian participles in al resemble the par- 
ticiples of the Sclavonic languages, and Schlegel has pointed out other analogies in inflection between 
this family and the Armenian.' In point of sound, the Armenian is extremely harsh, and overloaded 
with consonants. Its grammatical forms are complicated ; it has ten declensions of noims singular and 
plural, and a corresjaonding copiousness of inflection in the conjugation of verbs, although in certain 
tenses the aid of an auxiliary is required. In its system of grammatical inflections, this language pre- 
sents several phenomena almost pecidiar to itself, and which are thought by Professor Neumann to be 
attributable in some instances to the remarkable nature of its alphabet; tlie A, for instance, the pro- 
fessor remarks, which is habitually used in Armenian as a termination of the plural in substantives 
and numerals, is probably a transition of the s of cognate languages into k, an occurrence exactly the 
reverse of the change often observable in the Sclavonic languages of k into «. A further peculiarity in 
the Armenian idiom which distinguishes it from all other Indo-European languages is, that it takes no 
cognizance wliatever of gender; that is to say, the gender of the nomi has no influence whatever upon 
the form of the adjective by which it is qualified, and the grammatical distinction of gender even in 
the pronouns is unknown in Armenian. 

Alphabetical System. — Prior to the fifth century, the Armenians seem to have liad no 
alphabet of their own, but to have used the Persian, Greek, or Syriac characters in writing their lan- 
guage. About the beginning of that century, Miesrob, a learned Armenian, invented a set of charac- 
ters adapted to the language of his nation. Tradition relates that the forms of these characters were 
revealed to him from heaven in a vision. This style of writing was adopted in Armenia by a royal 
edict in a.D. 406, and has ever since continued in use among the Armenians. Its elements consist of 
many signs belonging to the alphabets previously used in writing Armenian, combined with other 
signs of more recent invention. This alphabet had originally only thirty-six characters, but f and o 
being subsequently added, increased the number to thirty-eight, of which thirty are consonants and 
eight are vowels. Armenian, like the languages of Europe, is written from left to right. 

Version of Scripture. — The ancient Armenian language possesses the treasure of an old and 
faithful version of Scripture, which, on account of its exactness and its eloquent simplicity, has been called 
by La Croze the " Queen of Versions." Our information concerning the early liistory of tlus invaluable 
translation is derived from two sources, an Armenian Biography of the Saints, including the Life of 
Miesrob, preserved in the Royal Library of Paris, and the History of Armenia by Moses Choronensis, 
printed with a Latin translation at Cambridge in 1736. From the combined testimony of these two 
sources, it would appear that the origin of tlie Armenian version is nearly contemporaneous with the 
invention of the Armenian alphabet. Miesrob (who was, as above stated, the inventor of this alpha- 

1 See Schlegel, Recherches sur la Langue et la Philosopliie des Indiens. 

Inuo-Eceopean Languages.] ARMENIAN. 63 

bet), after communicating his discovery to the king Uram Scavu, and to Isaac the patriarch of 
Armenia, travelled throughout the country in order to establish schools for disseminating instruction in 
reading and writing, and on his return he found tlie patriarch engaged in the application of the newly 
invented characters to a translation of the Scriptures from the Syriac into Armenian. Hy the joint eilbrts 
of ]\Iiesrob and Isaac, a version of the entire Scriptures was effected, but it was executed exclusively 
from the Sp-iac, because no Greek MSS. were then attainable in Armenia; Meruzan, a Persian general, 
had caused all Greek books to be burnt, and the Persians had prohibited the use of any language for 
religious purposes among the Armenians except the Syriac' At the meeting of the Council of 
Ephesus in 431, Miesrob and Isaac sent two of their pupils to that assembly, to recount the progress 
that had been made in the translation of the Scriptures. The members of the Council sent back the 
youths witli a complete copy of the Septuagint Bible and the Greek New Testament, for the use of the 
translators. On receiving this welcome gilt, Isaac and Miesrob, who had already produced two diller- 
ent translations from the Syriac, now addressed themselves for the third time to the formation of an 
Armenian version. They found themselves, however, impeded by their imperfect acquaintance with 
the Greek language, and accordingly sent some of their disciples to Alexandria, which was then the 
school of Greek learning and literature, to study the language. On the return of these young men, 
one of whom was Moses Choronensis the historian, the work of translation was recommenced from the 
Greek; and when the version was completed, if we may take the word of Bar Hebranxs, Miesrob and 
Isaac modified it according to the Syriac: on this subject, however, there arc differences of opinion.^ 
That it often agrees remarkably witla the Syriac is certain ; it appears as if the previous labours of the 
translators had some effect on the existing version. A resceusion of this version is said by some authors 
to have been made by Haitho, who reigned in Lesser Armenia from a.d. 1224 to 1270; he belonged 
to the Roman Catholic Church, and is charged with having introduced corrupt readings from the Latin 
Vulgate. But this statement is now very generally regarded as incorrect. 

Printed Editions of the Ancient Armenian Scriptures. — In the seventeenth century 
MS. copies of the Armenian Scriptures had become so scarce and so expensive, that a council of 
Armenian bishops assembled in 1662 to consult on the best means of calling in the aid of printing, of 
which art they had heard in Europe; and indeed it would appear, that as early as 1565 an Armenian 
Psalter had been printed at Rome. The Armenian bishops, it is supposed, applied in the first place 
to France for assistance in their design of procuring a printed edition of their Scriptures, but meeting 
with a refusal from that quarter, Usean, bishop of Eridau, proceeded to Amsterdam, where in 1666 
he published an edition of the entire Armenian Scriptures, followed in 1668 by a separate edition of 
the New Testament, which was reprinted in 1698. In these editions the bishop is accused, and 
apparently with justice, of having permitted alterations to be made from the Vulgate : the editions 
pubhshed at Constantinople in 1705 and at Venice in 1733, are in consequence more highly esteemed 
than those of Usean. In 1775 a new and corrected edition of the Armenian Scriptures, to be accom- 
panied with a Latin translation, was commenced at Paris by a body of learned men, one of whom was 
the Abbe ViUefroy, who had resided many years among the Armenians; but of this edition the book 
of the prophecy of Habakkuk alone appears to have been published.' In 1789 the New Testament 
was printed at Venice, under the editorship of Zohrab, a learned Armenian divine, from MS. autho- 
rities; and this edition, wliich was much esteemed for its correctness, was reprinted in 1816. A critical 
edition of the Old and New Testament was published under the care of the same editor at Venice in 
1805, at the expense of the monks of the Armenian convent of the Island of St. Lazarus, in the 
lagunes of Venice. This edition was printed from a MS. written in Cilicia in the fourteenth century, 
and with the aid of eight MSS. of the Old Testament, and twenty-five of the New. The various 
readings, elucidated by Armenian scholia, were placed in the margin, and the contested passage in 
1 John 5. 7 was expunged, because imsupported by the authority of ancient Armenian MSS. 

In 1814 a representation was made to the Calcutta Bible Committee, by Johannes Sarkies, on the 
necessity of supplying the numerous families of Armenians in Calcutta and other parts of Hindoo- 
stan with copies of the Scriptures, and in 1817 an edition was printed for the Society at Serampore, 
consisting of the entire Scriptures. During the same year 5000 copies of the New Testament, and a 
separate edition of the Bible, were printed" by the St. Petersburgh Bible Society for the use of the 
Armenians, who, to the number of 50,000, were settled in the South of Russia; every sheet of this 

1 Moses Chor. Hist. Ann. 1. Hi. c. 54. 3 Clement, Biblioth. Curicuse, vol. 3. p. 443. 

- Hug's introduction to the New Testament, vol. 1. p. 396. 


edition was examined by Joannes, the Armenian archbishop at Astracan. A previous edition of the 
Scriptures had been pubhshed by the same Society in 1814. In 1818 the British and Foreign Bible 
Society purchased 1500 copies of the New Testament of the Monks of St. Lazarus for distribution 
chiefly in Armenia, and in the following year they purchased 1000 Bibles. Further purchases were 
made by the Society at Venice until 1823, when they ordered an edition of 5000 copies of the New 
Testament, and 3000 copies of the Gospels alone, to be printed at Constantinople. This edition was 
earned through the press by the Rev. Henry Leeves, with the concurrence of the Armenian patriarch.' 
The copies were sent to Tocat, to Julfa near Ispahan, and into Armenia for distribution. About the 
year 1838 another edition of the ancient Armenian New Testament was printed at Smyrna, at the 
expense of. the American Bible Society. Editions of the ancient Armenian, printed in parallel 
columns with the modern Ai'menian versions, will be mentioned hereafter. The Old Testament in 
ancient Ai'menian being made not from tlie Hebrew text, but from the Greek version of the LXX, 
has never been printed by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — Although the ancient Armenian Scrip- 
tures are now only intelligible to those who have had the benefits of education and opportunities for 
the study of this ancient tongue, yet as this class of persons is rapidly increasing, there is a prospect 
that this version will soon become more generally imderstood, and more highly appreciated, than here- 
tofore. Dr. Dwiglit bears a fitting testimony to its value in a letter addressed in 1836 to the Board of 
the American Bible Society. " It is astonishing," he says, " to see the power of Scripture truth on 
the conscience when it comes to men from the pure fountain itself, without note or comment, and 
without the aid of a living teacher. I could point to two young men of the Armenian nation, of 
whom we have the hope that they have become true disciples of Christ, whose minds were first oj^ened 
by the simple reading of Scripture, before they even knew there was a missionary in the whole 
world." ^ And equally gratifying is the statement of the American Missionaries in 1847, when, after 
giving an account of the recent remarkable awakening among the Armenian people, they ascribe the 
change, in part at least, to the influence of the ancient version. " Some facts," they write, " have come 
to our knowledge, showing that the ancient Armenian Scriptures, printed many years since at Venice, 
and perhaps at other places by your Society during the first years of its operations, have had no small 
share, by the blessing of God, in awakening the Armenian mind everywhere, and in preparing the 
people to receive and maintain the doctrine of the sufficiency of the Scriptures as the rule of faith and 
practice. This is the testimony of Armenians themselves."' 

1 Twentieth Report of British and Forei^ Bible Society, p. "0. 3 Forty-third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society p. Ixxxvii. 

" Missionary Register for 1836, p. 80. 



(For Specimen of the Ararat Dialect, see page 61.) 

Geographical Extent and Chaeactekistics of the Language. — Ararat Armenian is 
the idiom now spoken in the whole of Armenia except the Pashalik of Erzeroom, and derives its name 
from the venerable mountain which occupies the centre of the country, forming, as it were, the nucleus 
of the adjacent table land. In the Hebrew Scriptures the whole kingdom of Armenia is called Ararat: 
the word is however rendered Armenia in our version, in 2 Kings 19. 37 and Isaiah 37. 38, while the 
original name (Ararat) is retained in Jeremiah 51. 27. The dialect of Ararat is spoken not only in 
Armenia, but in the Georgian provinces, and by the thousands of Armenians who are dispersed between 
the Black Sea and the sources of the Euphrates, and thence through Persia and part of Mesopotamia, 
down as far as the Persian Gulf This dialect approaches much nearer the purity of the ancient 
Armenian tongue than the dialect of Constantinople, but it is adulterated with Persian words. 

Version of Scripture in this Dialect. — No books appear to have been printed in this 
dialect prior to the efforts made by the German Missionaries at Shushi to supply the Armenians with 
the Scriptures in an intelligible form. In 1829 the Rev. Mr. Dittrich was authorised by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society to prepare a version of the Gospel of Matthew in this dialect. He was aided 
by some learned Armenian priests, and succeeded so well with the undertaking that, in accordance 
with the advice of Dr. Pinkerton, their agent in Russia, the Committee of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society requested him to proceed with the translation of the whole Testament. An edition of 
1000 copies of this version was ordered to be printed at Shushi, but owing to some difficulties which 
arose in carrying the work through the press, the printing was transferred to Moscow. In 1835 the 
proposed edition was completed, and the copies forwarded to Shushi for distribution. A second edition, 
to consist of 3000 copies, was soon found to be necessary, and was ordered by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. In the meantime the missionaries had been proceeding (with the encouragement of the 
Basle Missionary Society)'^ in the translation of the Psalter from the Hebrew; but this work was not 
published till the year 1844, when it was printed in parallel columns with the ancient Armenian. This 
edition was so much sought after and valued by the Armenians, that the Rev. ilessrs. Dwight and 
Homes, American missionaries, applied to the British and Foreign Bible Committee for authority to 
print an edition of the New Testament with the Ararat and ancient Armenian in parallel columns, and 
according to the last reports they were preparing to print the edition at Constantinople. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — For an account of the remarkable 
manner in which the Scriptm-es in both dialects of Modern Armenian have been used as the means of 
producing the late revival of religion among the Armenians, the reader is referred to page 67. 

• Twenty-slxth Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Vs.. 3 Fortj'-third Report of the British and For. Bible Society, p. Ixxxvii. 
- Twenty-sLxth Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ix. 



(For Specimen of the Modern Armenian Version, see page 61.) 

Geographical Extent and Characteristics op the Language. — The present verna- 
cular of the Armenians is distinguished from their ancient language by numerous local peculiarities and 
corruptions, varying more or less in every country in which the members of this scattered race are 
congregated. These local varieties are, however, all resolvable into one or other of the two predominant 
dialects of the modern Armenian language, called, from the regions in which they are respectively 
spoken, the dialect of Constantinople and the dialect of Ararat. The former has Constantinople for its 
centre, and is spoken in the neighbouring territories, through Asia Minor and in the Pashalik of 
Erzeroom. Its distinctive features consist in the frequent adoption of Turkish words, and in general 
conformity to the rules of Turkish syntax. The words of the ancient language are retained in both 
dialects of modern Armenian in almost an unaltered form, so far at least as respects orthography; but 
the signification now given to these words is so different from their original meaning that an unedu- 
cated Armenian of the present day is unable to comprehend even the general purport of a work written 
in the ancient Armenian language. ]\Iany changes also have been introduced in grammar and in the 
most common forms of expression, and the dialect of Constantinople is especially remarkable for its 
rejection of the concise, energetic style of the ancient Armenian, and its constant use of long, 
monotonous periods, all constructed upon one and the same model, according to the Turkish mode 
of writing.' 

Version of the Scriptures in this Dialect. — The first attempt on record to produce a 
version of Scripture in modern Armenian was made by the British and Foreign Bible Society. The 
subject^ was brought before the Committee by Professor Kieffer, who mentioned that Dr. Zohrab, an 
Armenian from Constantinople, the learned editor of the ancient Ai-menian Scriptures, was at Paris, 
and well qualified to undertake the translation. During the same year (1821) Dr. Pinkerton passed 
through Paris in his way to St. Petersburgh, and obtained from Dr. Zohrab, as a specimen, a translation 
of the Sermon on the Mount. This specimen was printed at St. Petersburgh and sent for inspection to 
various parts of Turkey.''^ Several Armenians who examined it approved of it highly, but the priests, 
who were probably prejudiced against a modern version of the Scriptures, found fault with the style, 
which they said was low, vulgar, and degrading to the subject, as compared with the ancient Armenian. 
Dr. Zohrab, however, continued to prosecute his labours at Paris ; he translated from the ancient 
Armenian version, and in 1824 completed a version of the New Testament in the modern Armenian 
dialect of Constantinople. It was revised by M. St. Martin, an Armenian scholar, and an edition of 
1000 copies, printed in parallel columns with the ancient Armenian, was pubhshed at Paris in 1825, 
at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society. It was afterwards objected to this version 
that, having been made directly from the ancient Armenian, it was not perfectly conformable to the 
Greek, and that, owing probably to Dr. Zohrab's prolonged absence from his native city, the style was 
not exactly in accordance with the idiomatic peculiarities of the modern tongue.' In 1837 a fount of 
Armenian type was forwarded to the American Missionaries at Smyrna, and a revised edition of this 
version of the New Testament was commenced at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society.'' 
This edition, revised by Mr. Adger, was carried carefully and slowly through the press, and it was not 
till 1842 that an impression of 5000 copies of the New Testament was issued.* These copies were in 
great demand, and were put into circulation as soon as they left the binder's hands. Mr. Adger then 
proposed to pubbsh an edition of this New Testament in parallel columns with the ancient version, in 
order that the suspicions of the Armenians might be removed as to the possibihty of the Scriptures 
having been vitiated in the modern translation:*^ the Committee of the British and Foreign Bible 

1 Klaproth, in Encyclopedic des Gens du Monde. < Thirty-tliird Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixv. 

- Nineteenth Report of the British and roreig:n Bible Society, p. .\xii. 5 Thirt>--eighth Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. It. 
■> Missionary Herald of American Board of Missions, vol. 33. p. 304. 6 Thirty-ninth Report of the British and For. Bible Society, p. Ixxxiv. 

Indo-European Languages.] ARMENIAN. 67 

Society liavo resolved to carry tliis proposal into execution. In the meantime, by the aid of the 
American Bible Society, the missionaries in Smyrna are proceeding with the translation of the Old 
Testament into modern Armenian. In 1844 they were deprived by death of one of their assistants in 
this work, a pious Armenian, who had laboured with them during five years, and who was employed 
in the translation of the Turkish Old Testament of Mr. Goodell into Modern Armenian. In 1847 the 
missionaries contemplated commencing the printing of the Pentateuch.' 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — The versions of Scripture in both the 
dialects of modern Armenian have received the manifest blessing of God, in a degree almost unprece- 
dented in the history of other versions. The following arc some of the accounts given by missionaries 
on the spot, concerning the remarkable effects wrought among the Armenians by the circulation of the 
modern version. " We might mention," they say, (writing in 1845,) " twenty towns in Turkey where 
Armenians are found who daily search the Scriptures for the purpose of guiding their lives according 
to its supreme teachings." In some of these places, this holy volume, owing to the fact of its being in 
modern language, is received as a fresh message from heaven ; and in these towns especial assemblies 
are held on the Sabbath for studying the Scriptures; and this occurs also in towns where no foreign 
missionary has ever been. The reading of the Scriptures in an intelligible language has been the 
means, by God's blessing, of curing many of their scepticism. They have become convinced that what- 
ever occasion they had had to doubt about the truth of Christianity, from what they were seeing 
around them, yet that here, in this book, they could see that there is a pure living Christianity. One 
individual, a banker among the Armenians, said, " Our nation owes, to those who have been the means 
of making us acquainted with the word of God in an Intelligible language, a great debt of gratitude. 
They have saved not only me, but many others, from Infidelity; for we have found that Christianity 
has deeper foundations than what we had supposed; and that there is in the word of God something 
upon which to anchor our faith."- The numerous cases of conversion to God which followed the 
diligent perusal of the Holy Scriptures In the modern tongue, did not escape the notice of the worldly 
and imbellevlng clergy at the head of the Armenian Church, and a cruel series of persecutions was com- 
menced against the " Bible," " Evangelical," or " Protestant" Armenians, as all were styled who read 
and obeyed the word of God. Many of these Protestants (by this name they are now commonly desig- 
nated) were solemnly excommunicated by the Arinenlan jjatrlarch, but to no purpose, as many more 
were daily added to their numbers. In a village near the town of Nicomedia, a congregation of Protes- 
tant Armenians had sprung up, having the Scriptures for their rule of faith; no missionary had ever 
been among them excepting the missionary of missionaries, the Bible : like their brethren elsewhere, 
they were called to endure persecution, and were at last driven to the necessity of meeting for worship 
In the fields. On one of these occasions they were attacked with stones, but Instead of resorting to 
violent means of defence against their enemies, they calmly took up the stones and deposited them at 
the governor's feet demanding his protection, which was accorded.' After enduring many similar out- 
rages in the same Christian spirit, the Protestant Armenians resolved to free themselves from the 
tyranny of their church, by forming themselves Into a separate church, founded on Scriptural principles. 
To effect this separation they were compelled to appeal to the Turkish Government. Their apphcatlon 
met with success, and their freedom from the oppressive jurisdiction of their patriarch Is now fully 
recognised. " An olficcrof the government, a Turk, (It is stated by ]\Ir. Barker In 1847,) Is appointed 
to look after all their civil relations, and they are to choose their own representative to confer with him." 
Their ecclesiastical affairs are entirely free, and all patriarchs and other ecclesiastics are forbidden to 
interfere in any way with them ; and all officers of government arc called upon to see that their rights 
are respected. Truly the king's heart Is In the hand of the Lord, and He turncth It withersoever He 
win."'' In Constantinople alone there are now no less than three hundred Protestant Armenians, of 
whom eighty -five are communicants ; and from the most recent accounts it appears, that by the blessing 
of God on the diligent perusal of his word, numbers of the Armenian nation are in various countries 
being daily added to the Church of Christ. 

' Forty-third Report of the British and For. Bible Society, p. btxxiv. 3 Forty-tliird Report of the British and For. Bible Society, p. Ixxxv. 

2 Forty-first Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. era. < Forty-fourth Report of the British and For. Bible Society, p. box. 

K U E D I S H . 

(For Specimen of the Kurdish Version, see Plate IV.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Kurdistan, tlie land of the Kurds, or Koords, is a 
mountainous region soutli-east of Armenia, extending about 300 miles in length by 150 in breadth, 
and forming a kind of descent from the high table land of Persia to the low alluvial plains of Mesopo- 
tamia. It is thought by Rennell and others to be the country mentioned under the name of Kir in 
2 Kings 16. 9, Isaiah 22. 6, and in Amos 1. 5 and 9. 7. The Kurds are the descendants of the 
Carduchi, who are said by Xenophou to have given him so much trouble during his retreat with the 
ten thousand Greeks through the mountainous passes of Kurdistan. The Kurds afterwards became 
again conspicuous in history under the name of Parthians; and Crassus, the Roman general, was slain 
with 20,000 of his troops in an expedition against them, B. c. 53. Saladin, tlie ojjponent of Richard 
CcBur de Lion in tlie Crusades, was a Kurd by birth. Notwithstanding all these historical reminis- 
cences, the Kurds are comparatively little known in Europe. From the time of Xenophon they have 
retained their wild and warlike habits ; and though the northern part of their country, as far as lat. 35°, 
is nominally subject to Turkey, and the southern portion to Persia, yet they virtually maintain their 
independence to this day. They are divided into numerous tribes, supposed to number altogether 
about 800,000 individuals. Some of these tribes have settled in the province of Luristan in Persia, 
and other hordes have wandered westward, as far as the pashahks of Aleppo and Damascus.' The 
Kurds are also in possession of a portion of the mountainous region of Khorassan in Persia, whither, 
according to Morier, 4000 Kurdish families were transplanted by Shah Ismael, for the protection of Persia 
against the incursions of the neighbouring Turkomans. The Yezides,^ a smgular religious sect, who 
are commonly supposed to worship the Devil, are Kurds, and speak a dialect of the Kurdish language : 
they inhabit different parts of Kurdistan, the hills of Sinjar near the river Chabur, and the plains round 
Nisibin and Orfu to the west of Mosul ; and they are also found in Arabia among the native tribes. 
With the exception of this remarkable people, the Kurds in general profess Mahommedanism ; but 
considerable numbers of them are Nestorian and Chaldean Christians. 

Characteeistics of the Language. — The Kurdish is in all probabihty a remnant of the Old 
Farsi or Parsi language, and notwithstanding the harshness of its sounds, it bears much resemblance to 
modern Persian. The Rev. H. Southgate relates that this similarity is great, that he could often under- 
stand something of the conversation of the Kurds by the great number of Persian words he heard in it. 
Like most dialects used merely for oral communication through a large extent of territory, the language 
of the Kurds, having no literature or written standard of appeal, undergoes very considerable alterations 
and modifications in different places by intermixture with the languages of neighbouring nations. 
Thus the Kurds who dwell in the Ottoman empire have adopted many Turkish words, while corrupted 
Syriac words have crept into the dialects of the tribes who live in the vicinity, or have embraced 
the religion, of the Nestorian Christians. 

Version of the Scriptures in this Language. — A proposal to obtain a version of Scrip- 
ture in Kurdish for the benefit of this ignorant and semlbarbarous people, was brought before the Com- 
mittee of the British and Forcygn Bible Society in 1822, by the Rev. Henry Leeves. He experienced 
some difiiculty in meeting with a person competent to undertake the translation, but at length the 
preparation of the version was entrusted to Bishop Schevrls at Tebrlz. The bishop accomphshed a 
portion of this translation in the midst of discouragement and even of personal risk;' and in 1827, 

1 Ritter, Erdkunde von Asien, be. C 
- Forbes' Visit to the Sinjar Hills, i 


Mr. Lceves announced to the Committee tl^at he had received from Tebriz the Four Gospels and the 
Apocalypse in Kurdish, written in Arabic characters. This MS. was subsequently forwarded by 
Mr. Lceves to the ('ommittce. In 1829, the missionaries at Shushi offered their services in correcting 
revising, printing, and distributing the portion of Scripture which had been translated into Kurdish at 
the expense of the Bible Society; and in 1832, the Committee in consequence forwarded the Four 
Gospels to Shushi, and authorised the engagement of a competent Kurdish teacher as an assistant in 
the work of revisal. In order to ascertain the critical value of this version of the Gospels, the Shushi 
missionaries prosecuted the most laborious enquiries at Tebriz; and in furtherance of the same object 
the Rev. Messrs. Hiirnle and Schneider undertook a journey into Kurdistan. The result of these 
investigations has been to prove that the version is not intelUgible to the Kurds. The dialect in which 
the version is written is called the Hakkari, and is spoken in a district of the same name near the 
Turkish government of Wan ; but the Kiu-dish language branches out into so many dialects, that it is 
by no means easy to decide which of the almost endless variety would be most likely to prove an 
intelligible medium in communicating the divine truths of Christianity to the whole Kurdish nation. 


(A Specimen of this Version will be given, if possible, in a future Part of the Work.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The Ossetes inliabit the central part of Caucasus, 
north of Georgia. la conjunction with several Circassian, Abassian, and other tribes, they occupy the 
whole of the hill country (called Kabardah and Little Abassia or Abazia) between the Upper Kouban 
and Lcsghistan to the summits of the Caucasus. They are unquestionably a Median colony : Klaproth 
supposes them to bo the Sarmato-Medians of the Ancient, and the Alani or Ases of the lliddle, Ages. 
According to Dr. Henderson, this tribe numbers about 16,000 indi\'iduals,' but this appears to be too low 
an estimate. A mission was established among them in 1 752 by the Russian priests, with the view 
of converting them from heathenism, and in 1821 upwards of 30,000 Ossetes had joined the Greek 

Characteristics op the Language. — The language of the Ossetes unquestionably belongs 
to the Indo-European stem. In a vocabulary of 800 Ossitinian words, one tenth have been traced to 
one or other of the Indo-European languages. The system of conjugation has some resemblance to 
that of the Persian and Armenian;- the tenses are numerous and varied, but auxiliaries are Kkewise 
employed. The pronimciation of the Ossitinian greatly resembles that of the low German and 
Sclavonic dialects; the English soimd th (Greek 6) occurs in it. The language is rendered harsh by 
the frequent concurrence of guttural letters and hissing consonants, such as kkli, its, dtch, etc' Yet 
this harshness is modified by the influence of certain laws of euphony, which require some of the con- 
sonants to be softened when brought in contact with otliers of a diiferent order. In Ossitinian there 
are six cases; the plural is formed by adding te, thi, or ton, to the nominative of the singular; and 
adjectives are formed from substantives by the addition of the syllables (hi and t/hin at the end of 
the word. This language is very rich in prepositions and postpositions, and has four different modes 
of negation. 

Version op the Scriptures in this Language. — At the period that so many of the 
Ossetes were joined to the Greek Church, Mr. Jalgusidse, an Ossitinian nobleman, who held an official 
appointment under the Russian Government, being anxious to provide his countrymen with a version 
of the Scriptures in tlieir own tongue, proposed to the Committee of the Russian Bible Society to 
prepare a translation of the Gospels in the Ossitinian dialect. Mr. Jalgusidse's services were accepted 
by the Committee, and a correspondence was entered into with the Exarch of Georgia, whose co- 
operation in so important an undertaking was considered desirable. The version was commenced 
without delay by Mr. Jalgusidse, but he confined it to the Gospels, which he translated chiefly from 
Armenian. His production was submitted to the inspection of competent persons, and after having 
been carefully compared with the original under the immediate superintendence of the Archbishop 
Jonas, it was presented for examination to the Synod. Its publication was strongly recommended by 
the Synod, and the Committee of the Russian Bible Society resolved, in consequence, to print an 
edition of 2000 copies at Moscow, under the inspection of the Branch Committee of that city."* The 
work was ordered to be put to press in 1824, but from the suspension of the Russian Bible Society, 
no further intelligence has been received concerning it, and it is doubtful whether it was ever printed. 
The Ossitinians are therefore, in all probability, stiU unprovided with a version of any part of Scripture 
In their own language. 

3 Klaproth, Voyage en Mont Caucase, p. 449- 

* Twenty-tirst Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 95. 




Church Missionary Society. 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

London Missionary Society. 

Wesleyan Missionary Society. 

Baptist Missionary Society. 

General Baptist Missions. 

Church of Scotland Missions. 

Free Church of Scotland Missions. 

Welsh Calvinistic Missions. 
Irish Preshyterian Missionary Society. 
American Board of Missions. 
American Baptist Missionary Society. 
American Episcopal Missionary Society. 

I Presbyterian Missionary Society. 

I Missionary Societies. 

I Presbyterian Mission. 


Diocese of Calcutta. 

2 Benares . 

3 Cliuiiar 

4 Agra 

5 Krishnaghur 

Solo . 
Kotgliur . 
Howra . 
Barripore . 
Nerbudda . 
Allahabad . 



Burisohl . 


Delhi . 


Jessore . 


Muttra . 




Cuttack . 


Pooree . 







- A. B. C. E, 
F. G. 
' A. C. E. H, 





iS '7 

83 I 

^5 6 

82 51 

27 II 

78 5 

^i 25 

88 37 

23 '5 

87 54 

25 43 

82 41 

26 45 

83 19 

28 58 

77 44 

31 17 

77 26 

31 6 

77 8 

22 38 

88 29 

22 Z3 

88 32 

26 29 

80 21 

22 30 

88 30 

22 18 

87 58 

24 4 

88 20 

25 8 

82 31 

25 24 

81 49 

22 21 

91 55 

23 44 

90 29 

28 40 

77 16 

25 35 

88 45 

25 27 

86 29 

25 36 

85 15 

22 45 

88 26 

20 25 

85 50 

19 20 

85 10 

19 47 

85 52 

22 27 

87 20 

27 22 

79 35 

30 54 

75 55 

29 58 

77 34 

Diocese of Madras. 
43 Madras 

T'mnevelly District. 

t Palanicottah 
Meignanapooram . 
Pavoor . 










Canandagoody . 


Chittoor and Vellore 


Coleroon District 


Nazareth . 

Poonamallee . 

Puthukotei & Ramnad 







Bangalore . 



82 Chicacole 

83 Cuddapah 

84 Belgaum 

85 Bellary . 

86 Salem . 

87 Coimbatoor 

88 Nagercoil 

\n. I. G. K. 

B. C. 
B. D. 
B. K. 

|c. D. 


13° 5' 

8 43 

8 43 

8 43 

8 43 

8 43 

8 43 

8 43 

8 43 

8 43 

8 43 

8 43 

9 35 

9 14 

9 16 

16 10 

10 56 

10 46 

9 55 

12 55 

17 26 

10 48 

>3 5 

10 49 

12 57 

17 40 

18 14 

14 28 

15 5" 

■5 7 

" 39 


77 45 
77 45 
77 45 
77 45 
77 45 
77 45 
77 45 
77 45 
77 45 
77 45 

77 45 

7'5 35 

76 37 
76 29 

81 13 

79 26 

79 54 

78 II 

78 30 

79 14 

80 21 

78 49 

77 38 
76 43 

83 29 

84 I 

78 52 
74 37 

76 58 
78 II 




Neyoor . 
Quilon . 


Goobbee . 





Mangalore . 
Darwhar . 


Fort Moolky . 


Hooblv . 


Catery . 
Tranquebar . 


Rajaniundry . 


TeUicherry . 
Cananore . 


Calicut . '. 



Diocese of Bombay 
111 Bombay . 



Jooneer . 







Seroor . 





■ A. B. G. K. 

B. C. H. 
B. H. 
B. C. H. 






8 i9 

77 I 

14 ::8 
li 5; 

80 3 
74 53 

13 5 

74 50 


79 55 

II 24 
" 45 
II 52 

" IS 
19 17 

81 50 
76 47 
75 3i 
75 26 
75 50 
85 I 

18 56 

72 51 

19 58 
19 16 

73 5' 


-3 I 
22 17 
18 30 

72 36 

73 '5 
73 56 

19 6 

74 49 

21 12 

72 S3 

6 53 

7 19 

80 3 
80 47 



Chundicully . 
Copay . 
Matura . 
Putlam . 
Newra Ellia . 
Mahara, &c. . 
Jatfua, &c. 
Point Pedro 
Trincomalee . 
Batticaloa . 
Pantura . 
Galle, &c. . 
Pittoompy . 
Gonawelle . 
Uatnapoora . 
Matelle . 
Utuan Kliandy 
Plantation Mission 
Batticotta . 
Panditeripo . 
Mauepy . 

Oodoopitty . 

B. D. E. 
B. D. 

B. E. 
D. E. 

6" 6' 
9 20 

5 58 

6 38 

7 59 

6 50 

S 59 
9 37 
9 46 

8 33 

7 43 
7 17 

6 48 
6 3 

80° 24' 
80 35 

80 39 
80 1 
80 4 
80 51 

79 55 

80 10 

80 14 

81 20 
81 48 
79 56 


Bangalore . 


Calicut . 
Cananore . 
Catery . 



Coleroon District 
Combaconum . 

Dohnavoor . 


Fort Moolky . 





Galle, &c. 



Gonawelle . 


Gorruckpore . 


Kalingoda . 




Mabara, &c. . 




Manepy . 


153 j 
























Nellore . 
Nerbudda . 
Newra Elha 

Oodooville • 




Panditeripo . 


Panneivilei . 

Point Pedro . 
Poonamallee . 

Puthukotei and 1 
Putlaiu . 
Rajaniundry . 


Ratnapoora . 
Sabathoo . 











Tally gunge 

Trincomalee . 
Utuan Khandy 




St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

1^ ^ vrf^ Kwr. Hi<md i ^% 7n?T i ^ ^ T:ii'^ H fi^pam ^rrjkw ^rmWn JrrnwT r<*.H>j<i- 
■Hd rj^PHMrf I ^n^^ HnnjjTnTiT ^a^w^jwiH 'sr'ijiy^mii Hi^ir«i 'ffw Hi^ii«i ^r^ pMrifcjuiiHW ^^'i 

•j* A Specimen of Dr. Carey's Version will be found at p. 74. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Sanscrit, the ancient and classical language of 
India, is still cultivated by the learned throughout a country comprising upwards of 1,250,000 English 
square miles, equal to about a third part of the entire area of Europe. Among the 130,000,000 in- 
habitants of this extensive region, Mahomctanism and various other forms of rehgion exist ; but the 
predominant creed is Brahminism, which is professed by seven-eighths of the people. The ancient 
Brahminical writings, called the Vedas, inculcate the existence of one Supreme Being ; but the 
government of the universe is said to be delegated to 333,000,000 subaltern deities, and the mass of 
the people are practically gross idolators. Brahminism is pre-eminently a religion of forms and cere- 
monies : fatiguing pilgrimages, rigorous fastings, and many cruel observances, amounting even to the 
wilful sacrifice of life, are frequently exacted from its votaries.' 

Characteristics of the Language. — The origin of this language is lost in remote anti- 
quity. We possess no authentic records concerning the peopling of India, nor the early liistory of its 
inhabitants. It Is, however, generally beUeved that, many centuries anterior to the Christian era, a 
people of Japhetic origin settled In India, and brought with them their own language, with which the 
language of the aborigines of the country, or at least of the northern provinces, became gradually 
blended. Tills language was the Sanscrit, and philological evidences have of late years been adduced 

1 Memoir of Dr. Carey, by Rev. E. Carey» p. 199- 


in abundance to prove its close connection, if not its original identity, with the Zend, the language of 
ancient Bactria, thus pointing pretty clearly to the origin of the early settlers. Sanscrit was a 
refined and polished tongue during many ages when Europe was plunged in barbarism ; and the philo- 
sophy, science, and erudition of the Brahmins, inscribed in their rich and flexible language on the 
&agile leaves of the palm-tree, were, from generation to generation, rehgiously concealed in temples 
from the gaze of the Western world. The successes of the British in India during the last century led 
to the examination of these monuments of ancient lore ; and the language in which they were written 
then began to be studied by Europeans. From this period a new era commenced m philological 
science. It was found that many hypotheses, which had long engaged the attention and baffled the 
penetration of philologists, could be conducted to a safe and triumphant issue by means of the impor- 
tant link in the chain of causes and eflects afforded by the Sanscrit language. The same grammatical 
prmciples upon which the Sanscrit is based were proved to pervade the Greek, the Latin, the German, 
the Icelandic, and in fact all the languages constituting what has been appropriately designated the Indo- 
European class ; while the fifteen hundred radical monosyllables, by means of which all Sanscrit words 
are constructed, were traced, with precisely similar significations, and to the amount of one thousand, 
among the elements of the Indo-European languages ; for these numerous languages, as Eichhorn has 
well remarked, exhibit the fragments of a grand edifice, of which the whole is to be seen entire only 
on the banks of the Ganges. The very name of the Sanscrit language (derived from the preposition 
sam, equivalent to the Greek trvv, s euphonic, and krita., passive participle of kri., to make) denotes its 
completeness ; and Sir William Jones in comparing it with the two learned languages of Europe 
attested its superiority over both, for it is, as he said, " more perfect than the Greek, more copious than 
the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either." Its nouns, like the Greek, admit of three num- 
bers (singular, dual, and plural), and of tliree genders ; the cases resemble those of the Latin and 
Greek in power, but including the vocative they reach the number of eight, the two additional cases 
not occurring in the sister languages being the Instrumental, which has the sense of hj or with, and the 
Locative, which conveys the meaning of in or on} In point of inflection, the Sanscrit cases of nouns 
present the type of the Greek and Latin declensions. So in the conjugation of Sanscrit verbs, affini- 
ties are everywhere to be traced with the Greek, Latin, and Germanic languages, but more especially 
with the Greek. The resemblance between Greek and Sanscrit is particidarly striking in the formation 
of the tenses, and in the use of the augment and reduplication. Like the Greek, the Sanscrit pos- 
sesses three voices, active, middle, and passive; but as in Greek, so in Sanscrit, the distinction between 
the active and middle forms is often lost sight of, and in many verbs can scarcely be said to exist. All 
traces of this middle voice have disappeared in Latin and in all the other languages of this class, except 
the Zend and the Gothic.'^ Sanscrit verbs have five moods — indicative, potential, imperative, precative, 
and conditional. The indicative has six tenses ; namely, three preterites (corresponding in form with 
the Greek imperfect, aorist, and perfect), two futures, which, like the two futures of the Greek verb, 
seem to be used indiscriminately; and one present. All the other moods in Zend and Sanscrit possess 
but one tense. In the Vedas, however, the most ancient documents of the Sanscrit language, there 
are indications that the other moods originally possessed more than one tense ; and hence Bopp infers, 
that " what the Indo-European languages in their development of the moods have in excess over the 
Sanscrit and Zend, dates, at least in its origin, from the period of the unity of the language." A 
remarkable analogy has been noticed by Bournouf and others between the Sanscrit infinitive and the 
Latin supine in turn ; and a great number of instances, in wliich this similarity is perfect, are adduced 
by Schlegel in the Indische Bibliotheck {e.g. Sans, sthdtum, Lat. statmn ; Sans, datum, Lat. datum); 
and the original identity of the two forms is proved by the fact, first remarked by Bopp, that, in the 
more ancient monuments of the Latin language, the supine in ttim is used where, according to later 
usage, the infinitive is employed.^ In Sanscrit, as in Greek, Latin, and all the Germanic languages, 
prepositions are extensively used in forming compound verbs. In all those languages the verbs thus 
compounded sometimes retain simply the signification of the original verbal root ; in other instances 
they express the combined sense of the two elements of which they are composed ; and in other cases 
they present a meaning differing widely from what their composition would have led us to expect.^ 

Without being so intimately connected with the Sanscrit as the Greek, Latin, and Germanic lan- 
guages, the Lithuanian, Lettish, Old Prussic, and Sclavonic dialects bear testimony in their words and 
structure of a common origin. One general and invariable characteristic which (with the exception 
of the Celtic family) runs through every language of the Indo-European class is, that in the first and 

' Professor Wilson's Sanscrit Grammar, p. 28. 

2 Bopp, Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, etc. vol. ii. p. 5. 

Indo-Eukopeax Languages.] SANSCRIT. 73 

second personal pronouns there is no distinction of gender, and that the nominative case singular of the 
first personal pronoun is derived from a root very different to that whence the oblique cases proceed.' 
One of the principal links of resemblance, according to Bopp, between the Lithuanian and the Sans- 
crit is the omission of the letter n in botii languages, whenever it occurs as the final radical of certain 
words : this he attributes to the inlluence of the laws of euphony. Klaproth, not content with recog- 
nising the astonishing affinities of the Indo-European languages, lias extended his rcseaiches over a yet 
wider field of survey, and has formed an extensive vocabulary, in which he exhibits a multitude of 
words which are found in Sanscrit, and wliich are also preserved in the Finnish, Samojede, and 
Turkish languages ; but aware of the difficulty of explaining this phenomenon, he confines himself to 
the mere statement of its existence.'' 

Alphabetical System. — The artificial system xipon which the Sanscrit alphabet is arranged 
is explained, page 7. The alphabetical characters usually employed in writing Sanscrit are called 
DevaiuKjari, signifying the alphabet of " the city of the gods," from nagara a city, and deva (deus) 
a god. No grammarians have ever equalled or even rivalled the Indian in the study of the laws of 
euphony. The permutations to which Sanscrit letters are subjected in conformity with these laws are 
particularly numerous. These permutations extend even to syntax, and words merely in sequence 
have an infiucnce over each other in the change of final, and sometimes even of initial, letters.^ Com- 
pared with the alphabetical sounds of other languages, it has been found that, taking articulation for 
articulation, and value for value, there are ten sounds less in Russian than in Sanscrit, twelve less in 
Greek, fifteen in German, and eighteen less in Latin.'' 

Sanscrit Versions of the Scriptures. — It seems to have been by the special interposition 
of Providence that the means of effecting a translation of the Scriptures into Sanscrit were provided 
at the precise period when the first attempt was made to commence this important work. Only a few 
years previous to tlie arrival of the venerable Carey in India, Sanscrit was almost inaccessible to Euro- 
peans. Sir William Jones, by large pecuniary payments which would liave been beyond the means of 
the missionary, secured the se^^'lces of a pundit in elucidating the principles of the language ; and the 
works afterwards prepared by this celebrated orientalist, and by others who followed in the same track, 
removed the apparently insuperable difficidties which had placed the Sanscrit language beyond the 
reach of ordinary students. The care of Providence in providing means for printing the Scriptures in 
the languages of India is also remarkable, for no Sanscrit work had ever been committed to the press 
until a few years prior to the translation of the Scriptures into that language, when Dr. Wilkins suc- 
ceeded in constructing a fount of types in Indian characters. A native, formerly in liis service, com- 
municated the invention to the Missionaries at Serampore, and with his aid t)^es were cast for printing 
the Scriptures in no less than twelve of the alphabets used in various parts of India.* The Sanscrit 
New Testament was commenced in 1803, and finished at press in 1808 ; the edition consisted of 600 
copies." The printing of this edition was commenced in 1806, and in the same year the Eev. David 
Brown, provost of the College of Fort William, sent a specimen of it to the Committee of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society in London. In his accompanying letter he remarked respecting tliis 
version, that " the Sanscrit answers to Greek as face answers to face in a glass ; the translation 'will be 
perfect while it is almost verbal. You 'will find the verb in the corresponding mood and tense, the 
noun and adjective in the corresponding case and gender. The idiom and government are the same : 
when the Greek is absolute, so is the Sanscrit ; and in many instances the primitives or roots are the 
same."' Dr. Carey tells us that he translated tliis version immediately from the Greek, and that he 
afterwards, in conjunction ■with Dr. Marshman, compared each sentence with the Greek text.' All 
his other translations were in the first place -written out roughly for him by native pundits, and then 
submitted to him for correction and re-visal, but he dictated the Sanscrit himself to an amanuensis.* 
Dr. Carey had made some progress in the translation of the Old Testament into Sanscrit, when the 
disastrous fire at Serampore in 1812 interrupted his labours. In this fire a dictionary of the Sans- 
scrit and various Indian dialects, laboriously compiled by Dr. Carey, was consumed, and likewise the 
Sanscrit MSS. of the Second Book of Samuel and of the First of Kings.'" In the year 1815 
Dr. Yates arrived in India, and was associated with Dr. Carey in the work of translating the Scrip- 

1 Bopp, Ver^leichende Grammatjk des Sanskrit, Zend, etc. vol. ii. p. 1. « Tenth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 58. 

2 Klaproth, Recherches en Asie, vol. i. pp. 422 — *41. " Third Report of the British and Foreig:n Bible Society, p. 36. 

' Adelunp's Historical Sketch of Sanscrit Literature, p. X6. 8 Cox's History of the Baptist Missionary Society, vol. i. p. 171. 

* Nouveau Journal .\siatique, vol. i. p. 429. 9 Memoir of Dr. Carey, by Rev. E. Carey, p. 527. 

* Twenty-fourth Report of British and Forei^ Bible Society, p. 152. i<* Memoir of Dr. Carey, by Rev. E. Carey, p. 527. 


tures. The proofs of tlie Sanscrit Old Testament, then passing through the press, were all examined 
by him, and conferred with the Hebrew, and he subsequently, in concert with Dr. Carey, subjected 
them to a second revisal.' The Old Testament was issued in portions at different periods in the 
following order : — 

A. D. 1811 — 600 copies of the Sanscrit Pentateuch. 

1815 — 1000 copies of the Historical Books in Sanscrit. 

1818 — 1000 copies of the Hagiographa. 

1822 — 1000 copies of the Prophetic Books.^ 
In 1820, a second edition of the New Testament was undertaken at Serampore, the former edition 
having been completely exhausted. As numerous applications for copies of the Sanscrit Scriptures 
had been made by the literati of India, especially by those in the western provinces, this edition was 
extended to 2000 copies.^ In 1827 a second edition of the Old Testament, to consist of 2000 
copies, was in the press, but various circumstances retarded its completion ; and in 1834, the date 
of the Tenth Memoir of Serampore Translations, the impression had been struck off only as far as 
the First Book of Kings.'' 

St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

■^ ^ ^T^ m? mwtit^ T( "^ -^ f^i^ mt^nrhr ^ gri^. ^whgt v^ i ti ^n^^ ^■«sw ^PEftw i 

In determining the value of Dr. Carey's Sanscrit version, it must be remembered that it was 
undertaken at a period when the language had been little studied by Europeans, and when no printed 
copies of the standard works were in existence. Yet, not%vithstandnig the disadvantages under which 
he laboured. Dr. Carey seldom fails in point of fidelity or correctness. His defects, it has been well 
remarked, are mainly to be attributed to " the principle which appears to have influenced all the 
Serampore versions — that of translating as closely to the letter of the text as possible ; a rigour of 
fidelity that cannot fail to cramp and distort the stylo of the translator."' The inelegance and harsh- 
ness of Dr. Carey's diction rendered his version unpopular with the learned men of India, and the 
desirableness of obtaining a new and more polished translation of the Scriptures soon became apparent. 
In 1835 a statement to tliis effect was laid before the Committee of the Society for the Promotion of 
Christian Knowledge. The Committee entered into communication on the subject with the Bishop of 
Calcutta, and with Dr. Mill, then principal of Bishop's College, and authorised them to take such 
measures as they might deem proper for effecting a new version of the Scriptures into Sanscrit." 

1 Memoir of Dr. Yates, by Dr. Hoby, p. 81. 5 Professor WUson's Remarks in Memoir of Dr. Carey, p. 606. 

, lentn Memoir of Serampore Transladoiis, p. 58. 6 Report of the Foreig:n Translation Committee of the Society for 

I SCTeiith Memoir of Serampore Translations, p. 4. Promoting Christian Knowledge for 1835, p. 81. 

* Tenth Memoir of Serampore Translations, p. 58. 

Indo-European Languages.] SANSCRIT. 75 

Dr. Mill luid previously paved the way for this important undertaking by publishing a Sanscrit 
Glossary of theological terms ; yet, with the exception of a truly classical work prepared by that eminent 
scholar, and entitled the Christa-Sangitii, or the Sacred History of our Lord Jesus Christ, no attempt 
appears to have been made under the ])atronage of the Society to carry the proposed version into 
execution. Two editions of the Sermon on the IMount in Sanscrit verse, which originally ap]joared as 
the twelfth canto of the second book of the Christa-Sangitii, were afterwards published, the one in 
Devanagari, and the other in Bengalee letters. Eventually, the translation was undertaken by 
Dr. Yates, formerly the associate of Dr. Carey, and upon whom the mantle of the venerable translator 
seemed to have fallen. Yielding to the entreaties of missionaries in Calcutta and Northern India, and 
to the appeals of the people, he began the work in 1840 by the publication of 2.500 copies of the 
Psalms ' in Sanscrit verse. It is said of this work that each stanza, and sometimes each line, contains 
a complete sense ; and that the jiadas, or half lines, are like so many steps, leading the mind forward, 
and alFording resting-places, till the whole is comprehended.'^ In 1843 the Bible Translation Society 
granted £500 towards the translation of the entire Scriptures into Sanscrit under the superintendence 
of Dr. Yates, and a similar sum was contributed for the same purpose by the Ameiican and Foreign 
Bi" ~ " ~" - - - -^ 


copies of the JNcw Testament was in the pr 
rendering is given of the quotations from the practical parts of the Old Testament, by which means they 
arc more readily distinguished from the other parts of the text. ■* Dr. Yates was successfully prosecuting 
the translation of the Old Testament, when his career of usefuhiess was suddenly interrupted by death. 
A short time previous to his decease, foreseeing his approaching end, he had expressed himself in the 
following terms in a letter addressed to his assistant, the Kev. Mr. Wenger : — " I think I may, in 
reference to your life and mine, use the language of John, — ' You must increase, but I must decrease.' 
May I only live to see you as far advanced in the Sanscrit as you now are in the Bengalee, and I shall 
die in peace, rejoicing in the goodness of God in raising up one after another to carry on his work."'' 
Immediately after the removal of tliis devoted translator (1845), on examining the state of the version, 
it was found that the books of Genesis, Psalms, Proverbs, and Isaiah, had all passed through the press, 
and that the rest of the Pentateuch and the books of Job, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, and Daniel had been 
prepared in MS. The Missionaries then agreed that " the pundit who had long been engaged in 
writing the rough draft of the version should proceed in his work, and that Mr. Wenger should, by 
studying the language, prepare himself for revising and publishing the work."'^ This plan, according 
to the last accounts, is now being pursued at Calcutta. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — It is written that the wisdom of this 
world is foolishness with God, and that " not many wise men after the flesh " are called. The Sanscrit 
Scriptures are designed for a learned class who are entrenched behind the subtleties of a specious 
metaphysical system, and few indeed are those who have been willing to lay aside their boasted 
wisdom, falsely so called, that as little children they might learn of God. Yet undeniable evidences of 
interest in the Sanscrit version have from time to time been aiTorded. On the pubhcation of the Psalms, 
for instance, in 1840, it is related that the pundits of Agra received copies of the work with intense 
avidity, and that each man walked away with his book as joyfully as if he had obtained a diamond.' 
Wlien it is considered that the influence of the Brahminical priesthood in India is at least equal to that 
of the Romish in Europe, and moreover that the Brahmins in general are too proud to read the Scrip- 
tures in any of the vernacular dialects of the country, it becomes evident that the dissemination of the 
Sanscrit version is the channel at present indicated by the Providence of God for conveying the light 
of truth to the minds of the priests, and through them to their deluded followers. 

The beneficial results of the publication of the Sanscrit version are likewise to be traced in its 
influence on other versions. Most of, if not all, the current dialects of India are founded upon the 
Sanscrit, and are dependent upon that language for words to express metaphysical ideas. The Sanscrit 
is, therefore, a standard version, whence the translators of the Scriptures into the petty dialects of the 
country can draw their abstract and doctrinal terms, and by means of which uniformity in the numerous 
vernacular versions is secured. 

1 Fourth Report of the Bible Translation Society. * Memoir of Dr. Yates, by Dr. Hoby, p. 350. 

2 Memoir of Dr. Yates, by Dr. Hoby, p. 328. " Baptist Record for 1846, p. 338. 

3 Annual Report of the Baptist Missionary Society for 1847, p. 3. ' Fourth Report of the Bible Translation Society. 
* Cox's History of the Baptist Missionary Society, p. 300. 


(For Specimen of the Pali Version, see Plate IV.) 

Geographical Extent. — Pali, though no longer a vernacular language in any country, has 
for ages been established as the religious and learned language of the Buddhists in the Island of 
Ceylon, in the Barman Empire, in Siam, Laos, Pegu, Ava, and throughout almost the whole of the 
Eastern Peninsula of India. It cannot, however, be said that the influence of the PaH language is 
co-extensive with the predominance of Buddhism, for the sacred books of the Buddhists of Japan, 
Thibet, and the Chinese Empire are written in a language which is called Fan by the Chinese, rdjagar 
by the Tibetans, encdheh and cndhek by the Monguls.' By the examination of some of these writings 
which have fallen into the hands of Europeans, it has been ascertained that the language passing 
imder these several denominations is no other than pure Sanscrit : and the fact of the sacred books of 
the same religion being written partly in Sanscrit and partly in Pah, is to be accounted for by sup- 
posing that, at the very remote period of history when the language and religion of Buddhism were 
conveyed into the countries north of India, Pali, wliich is a derivative and comparatively a modem 
dialect, had not been formed. The first Buddhists were sectaries from Brahminism, of which ancient 
creed Sanscrit seems ever to have been the depositary ; and having thus been habituated to the use of 
a lancuage admirably adapted for the embodiment of the liighest metaphysical abstractions, they 
naturally employed it as the fittest exponent of the philosophical system which they originated. 

ChaeactekistiCS of the Language. — Pali is a language immediately derived from San- 
scrit, and its whole history is intimately connected with that of Buddliism. On the rise of Buddlrism 
in India, the rigid enactments of the Brahminical law concerning the distinction of castes or classes of 
society ceased to be respected among the votaries of the new rehgion. Men of the lowest and most 
despised caste were admitted by them into the priesthood ; and it is conjectured that the arcana of 
religion, hitherto confined to the sacerdotal class, being thus thrown open to the people, the abstruse 
technicalities of the language became popularised, so to speak, in the mouth of the multitude. Among 
other changes thus induced, difficult grammatical inflections disappeared, or were greatly simplified, 
and such combinations of letters in words as were not easy of articulation, were softened down in pro- 
nunciation.^ These pecidiaritics form, to this day, the distinctive characteristics of the Pali language. 
In its declensions it has preserved all the cases of the Sanscrit ; but the original inflections, both of 
nouns and verbs, have undergone more or less alteration according to the special rules of PaU enun- 
ciation. The middle voice of verbs is not found in Pali, and the passive form is comparatively of rare 
occurrence. Among the three numbers of Sanscrit verbs and nouns (singular, dual, and plural), the 
dual has disappeared in Pali, in the same way that it has disappeared in the modern Germanic lan- 
guages and in modern Greek, although it existed in Gothic and in ancient Greek. And in the laws 
regulating the assimilation of consonants in Pali, may be clearly traced the operation of the same 
principles which have been instrumental in the transmutation of Latin into Italian, and of ancient into 
modern Greek. The euphonic law, for instance, which requires the change of the Latin word lectus 
into letto, of scriptus into scritto, has equal weight in the formation of Pah words from Sanscrit, as of 
Italian from Latin.' It is probable that Pali, like other derivative languages, would ultimately have 
deviated widely from the type of the mother tongue, had not its further elaboration been repressed, by 
its becoming suddenly fixed as a dead language. The Buddhists appear from the first to have been 
always persecuted by the Brahmins ; but about the beginning of the fifth century the persecution 
burst forth with renewed violence, and the Buddhists were forcibly ejected from the continent of 
India. They sought refuge in Ceylon, where Buddhism has been promulgated as early as the fourth 
century prior to the Christian era. From Ceylon, many of the Buddhists passed over into the eastern 
peninsula, and adopting as their vernacular the languages of the various nations among whom they 
settled, Pali, their native dialect, in which the books of their religion were written, was set apart as a 
sacred and classic tongue. In this state it has subsisted from generation to generation, unmodified in 

1 Remusat, Recherches snr les Lanprues Tartares, vol. i. p. 375. ' Boumouf et Lassen, Essai sur le PaU, p. 141. 

- Bouniouf et Lassen, Essai sur le Pali, p. 146. 

Indo-Eueopeak Languages.] PALI. 77 

any degree by the various languages and dialects of the people by wbom it is venerated. In com- 
paring Pali with the other languages of the Sanscrit family, it will be found that it approaches nearer 
than any other dialect to the purity of the parent stock. Leyden imagined that Pah is identical with 
the modern Magadha, chiefly because the latter dialect is vernacular in a part of Bahar, supposed to 
have been the birthplace of Buddhism. It has since been proved by an analytical comparison of Pali 
and Magadha that, though similar in origin, they are essentially dillerunt in structure. A close resem- 
blance has been, however, traced between the Pali and the Pracrit dialect spoken by the Jains, a 
peculiar religious sect of Hindustan; and the evident connection between the two dialects has led to 
the sujjjiosition, that the Jains are the descendants of a few Buddhists who contrived to secrete them- 
selves in their own country during the persecutions which caused the banishment of their brethren. 

ALrHABETiCAL SYSTEM. — There are several different Pali aljjhabets ; but it is beheved that 
they are all derived from an ancient Buddhistic alj^habet formed on the model of the Devanagari. 
The classification of the letters is the same as that of the Sanscrit, yet they vary greatly in form, and 
the shape of the characters is considerably modified in each country where Pali is adopted as the lan- 
guage of books. Thus the PaU character used by the Burmans is square, while that employed by the 
Siamese is a more rounded or circular form, and in other places the Pali affects a more angular 

Version of the Scriptures in this Language. — A version of the Scriptures into Pali 
was commenced in 1813, under the auspices of the Colombo Bible Society, by Mr. Tolfrey, assisted by 
two learned Buddhist priests,' and by Don Abraham de Thomas, mohandiram of the governor's gate. 
The plan upon which this translation was conducted was the following: — Mr. Tolfrey, in the first 
place, read a certain number of verses from Dr. Carey's Sanscrit New Testament to Don Abraham de 
Thomas, and the latter rendered the passage into Pali as closely as the idiom of the language would 
admit. This translation was then compared verse by verse with the Sanscrit, and such alterations 
were introduced as were deemed requisite. Wliere any difllculty occurred in rendering the Sanscrit 
expressions into Pali, the Bengalee version was consulted. The time devoted to this translation was 
three hom's of the day, regularly six times in the course of the month.^ The progi-ess of the work 
was interrupted in 1817 by the death of Mr. Tolfrey, who was suddenly cut off in the prime of life. 
The version, which he had carried as far as the end of the Epistle to Philemon, seems to have been 
laid aside till 1825, when the Rev. Benjamin Clough submitted it to the examination of the most 
learned Pali scholars in Ceylon ; and the opinion which they passed upon it was, that it had been 
executed " with a high degree of beauty and perfection."' Efforts were, therefore, made for its pub- 
lication; and in 1826, a fount of Bm-man types cast for the purpose was sent to Ceylon at the expense 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society. In the course of the following year, the Gospel of Matthew 
was struck olF, and copies were sent to the Burman Empire for examination by competent judges.*" 
It was not, however, till 1835 that the whole Testament was printed in Pali. One of the Buddliist 
pi'iests who assisted Mr. Tolfrey in the translation of this Testament, became a sincere convert to 
Christianity, and subsequently devoted his whole attention to the completion and revision of tliis 
important work." 

' Owen's History of British and Foreign Bible Society, vol. U. p. 459. < Twentj'-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p.lxxiii. 

2 Twelfth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 229. s Twentj-.first Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xli.\. 

^ Twenty-first Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xlviii. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

d ^J^ e;r^ ^'^^ ^^. * lf>' 1a^ ^ jjl V ^L J_ \j^ u^ j^\ l^' <uK ^^^ \^\ 

jr ji" * ^ jy ^ J^\ J^j ^i ji\ ^ ^* ^\ J^j * J i^ ^^ -yrj^ }^ 
\s~^ ^ y ^Ui ^^ ^\ * \j, <u c^iv.j'^ J^ ^ J^. J^ J ^ ux^ ^, j^_ j\3 
Ls^^/ J jy ^ ^:i J ^ ^1/ ^^ * l^' ^^^. ^i; ULci l^- 1/ Ujj^ ^ ^^^ ^^ 

11 ^:J ^1/ ^ ^.^ y^ [^ <G ^y c_;i .J * ^>J J^A ^^o^ ^\ ,_. ^ b- "^j 

<^^^ Ji" J ^^'j-<- ^^ ^ ^ ^]j jj] ^^ jur ^\ _jj\ ly, ^^^^ ^j^ ^^^ * ^^ 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — To those who visit India in an official capacity, 
or for mercantile purposes, Hindustani is more practically useful than all the other languages of the 
country, for it is understood and spoken by persons of different nations in the larger towns and villages, 
from Madi'as to Bombay, and from the Ganges to Cape Comorin. It is, in fact, the prevaihng medium 
of colloquial intercourse among a hundred milhons of British subjects.' Yet this language, although 
so extensively diffused throughout India, can claim predominance in no particular locaHty. It is the 
vernacular of a class of persons who, on account of their professing the Mahommedan religion, are called 
Mussulmans : they are natives of India, but chiefly derive their descent from the Mahommedan con- 
querors of the country. In number, they were said some years ago to amoimt to 6,000,000 in- 
dividuals,^ but more recent accounts represent them as constituting one ninth part of the entire popula- 
tion of India. They reside chiefly in the upper provinces of Hindustan ; but so far from confining 
themselves to any particular province, they are to be met with in almost every part of the country, 
and particularly in the cities of Delhi, Lucknow, Allahabad, Patna, and Moorshedabad. 

Characteristics of the Language. — Hindustani Is a mixed language, and owes its forma- 
tion to the Intercourse of the Mahommedan invaders with the conquered natives of India. At the 
time of the first Mahommedan invasions, which date from the tenth centuiy, Hinduwee, or Hindi, was 
the prevaihng dialect in Northern India. On tlieir permanent settlement in India, the Mahommedans 
adopted this dialect as the medium of communication with the natives, but they greatly altered it by 

1 Grammar of the Hindustani Language, by Aniot and Forbes, Pref. - Twenty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixvi. 

Indo-European Lanouages.] HINDUSTANI. 79 

the introtluction of words and idioms from the Persic and Arabic, their own vernacular and liturgic 
languages. The new dialect thence arising was called Urdu {camp), or Urdu Zaban {camp lumjuafjr), 
because the language of the Mahommcdan camp and court : it was also called Hindustani from the 
geographical region through whicli it rdtiinately became diiliised. Though so intimately connected 
with Hinduwee, which is essentially a Sanscrit language, Hindustani deviates greatly in grammatical 
structure from the original Sanscrit type. Its nouns have but two genders and two numbers, and 
although they admit of declension, yet the six cases are chiefly distinguished by the aid of post- 
positive particles. Nouns denoting neuter and inanimate objects are classed under the masculine or 
feminine genders, according to their terminations ; but the rules regulating this classification are ex- 
tremely arbitrary, and admit of many exceptions. The just application of these rides forms one of 
the principal difficulties of the language ; but, in other respects, Hindustani is comparatively easy of 
attainment, on account of the extreme simplicity of its structure. The verb, which in most languages 
occasions fhore or less perplexity to the learner, is in Hindustani distinguished by extreme regularity. 
There is only one conjugation, and not more than five or six words slightly irregular. Most of the 
tenses are formed by means of participles and auxiliaries, the rest by inseparable affixes.' Neuter 
verbs have no passive form, but transitive verbs are said to possess a passive, although it is seldom 
used : natives, especially those in the presidency of Bombay, purposely refrain from resorting to this 
form, and prefer the use of a periphrasis. '■^ Hindustani is spoken in different provinces with various 
local pecuharities of idiom. The dialect of Hindustani current in the Madras presidency is called 
Dakhani. Another variety of Hindustani is a species of jargon called Moors, spoken by the servants 
of Europeans in Calcutta and Bombay, and characterised by the absence of all grammatical inflection, 
and the frequent introduction of Enghsh and Portuguese words. 

Alphabetical System. — The alphabetical characters properly belonging to the Hindustani lan- 
guage arc the Arabic, or rather the Persic modification of the Arabic letters called Tajlik; that is to say, 
haiKjimi or sloping. This latter mode of writing differs from the Nashki, or regular Arabic, about as 
much as our ordinary style of manuscript writing diliers from that in print. To the Persic characters 
(which exceed the Arabic by four) the Mussulmans in writing their language add three other letters, 
to represent the harsh cerebral sounds t, d, and r of the Hinduwee.^ The Scriptures and several works 
in Hindustani have been printed in the Devanagari, or regular Sanscrit characters, for the use of the 
natives of the Upper Provinces, especially of Delhi. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. i\ 1 to 14. 

5 S ^iFi Tin * ?ni ^ ^^ w tr^ ^ wn; It^t?^ h f^ ^ ^ ^^ ^t^ ^" ?t * Hy^iil 

M ^W H Tift #TT; fil fy S^ ^^ =ST TIT ^ * ^R ^T 'FTR'Nrt H '^oinn t ^K TTrcWt ^ 3Tr ^CTI^ ^ 

% s f^m * ^ ^-^ inffi: 1^ ^ 1^ ^ tTT? i HiiT JTUT Tin 7F oRT ^rm tr^m tjtt * ft? ^m^ 

t % f^ ^TOT fop f T iTc Tm^ ^m f^ w^ -^^rar ^rw^ $ ^»tr ^rry * .^? ^ ^r«n 'R ^ xn; 

«i «)o ^nrrt ^% ^mn t^ * ^t ^ ffsnf\ ^^ f^ -^ ^n^-^-^ ^^rm "¥ mm t d^ wun t * .^ 

<i«) ifi^T^ ^' Tin #n: ^t?m ■awt i Jn^ jm #r ^tfr ^ ■?% ^^r^n * ^ '^nr^ vr^ m^r %t ^nr^ 

«i^ ^ 3^ ^^ H f^inrr * ^w^ fwir^ ^ ^ or^ foinn T?r^ -^ f^idkii -^w^ fm t^ ^ F'^^ 

''^ t ? ?^^ ^ ^^ TR ^r^ ^TH %■ * wK H TTt ^ H €tTC Ti ftnm ^ ?^Tf?^ i ^R ^ ^n^ 

s« % ?^ ^ *nR ^ ^ %r |i^^ * tR w^ finm ^ ^ g^ % sm^ f^^ tR ^reft t ^i?"^ 

' Grammar of tbe Hindustani Language, by Amot and Forbes, p. 39. ^ Grammar of the Uiiidustani Langua=rc, by .\mot and Forbes, p. 15. 

2 Journal Asiatique, fourth series, vol. v. p. 92. i' 

* 1-.' 


It was, however, afterwards ascertained that the natives who employ these characters are, in 
general, more habituated to the use of the Hinduwee than of the Hindustani dialect. Roman letters 
have, likewise, been used of late years in printing Hindustani. 

St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to U. 

' SHURU men kalam tha, aur wuh kalara Khuda ke pas tlia, aur wuh kalam Khuda 
tha. " Wuhi shurii men Khuda ke pas tha. ^ Sab kuchh us se paida hua, aur baghair 
us ke ek chiz paida na hui, jo paida hui. ' Us men zindagi thi, aur wuh zindagi 
admion ki roshni thi. ^ Aur wuh roshni tariki men chamakti hai, par tariki ne use 
daryaft na kiya. 

* Yuhanna nam ek admi Khuda ki taraf se bheja gaya. '' Wuh gawahi ke waste aya, 
ki roshni par gawahi de, taki us ke wasile se sab iman lawen. * Wuh ap wuh roshni 
na thd, balki us roshni par gawahi dene ko aya. " Wuh sachi roshni, jo har admi ko 
roshan karti hai, dunya men anewali thi. '" Wuh dunya men thi, aur dunya us se paida 
hiii, par dunyti ne use nahin pahchana. " Wuh apnon ke pas aya, par apnon ne use 
qabul na kiya ; '^ lekin jitne use qabiil karke us ke nam par iman lae, us ne unhen Khuda 
ke farzand hone ka martaba diyii ; '^ we !ahu se nahin na insan ki khwahish, ua mard 
ki khwahish se, balki Khuda se paida hiie hain. 

'^ Aur wuh kalam mujassam hiia, aur fazl aur sachai se bharpur hoke hamare darmiyan 
sakiinat kar raha ; aur ham ne us ka jalal aisa, jaisa bap ke iklaute ka jalal dekha. 

Veesions of the Scriptures in this Language. — The first translation of any portion 
of Scripture into Hindustani, seems to have been made by Schultze, a Danish missionary. Although 
fully occupied in the cultivation of Tamil and Telinga, dialects of Southern India, the scene of his 
labours, this indefatigable man undertook the translation of the New Testament into Hindustani in 
1739, and completed it in 1741. He likewise entered upon the translation of the Old Testament, but 
only Hved to finish the four first chapters of Genesis, the book of Psalms, the prophecies of Daniel, 
and some parts of the Apocryphal writings. These various translations were pubUshed at the Oriental 
Institution of the University at Halle, in separate portions : the chapters of Genesis, the book of 
Daniel, and portions of the Apocrypha in 1745 ; the Psalter in 1747, and the New Testament in 1748 
to 1758.' Copies were at various times transmitted to India, but the hopes and expectations of the 
zealous translator were never realised, for the translation proved to be by no means a happy one, and 
the Psalms, in particular, were found so defective in idiom and orthography as to be nearly unintelligible. 
No other version of the Scriptures, however, was prepared for the benefit of the Mussulmans of India 
till the year 1804, when the Gospels, wliich had been translated by natives, and revised and collated 
with the Greek by William Hunter, Esq., were published at the College of Fort William in Calcutta.^ 
But the most important translation that has been ever made into this language is the version of the 
New Testament by the Rev. Henry Martyn, for which, as his biographer remarks, " myriads in the 
ages to come will gratefully remember and revere his name." Mr. ilartyn entered upon the 
work of translation shortly after his arrival in India, and commenced with the Acts. In 1807 he 
was joined by Mirza Fitrut, a learned Hindustani scholar, whose services were found invaluable on 
account of his surprising acquaintance with the English language.^ Sabat was also consulted respect- 
ing the use of Persic and Arabic words, but his evil temper greatly detracted from his usefulness.' By 
means of the most indefatigable exertions, the translation of tlie entire Testament was completed in 
1808. Mr. Martyn remarked, that it often cost him and his coadjutors whole days to make one chapter 
intelligible in Hindustani.'^ Of the feeUngs and personal experience of the trajislator during the pro- 

1 Le Long, part ii. vol. i. p. 208. * Journal and Letters of Rev. H. Martyn, Wilberforce, vol. ii. p. 184. 

2 Bishop Marsh's History of Translations. ^ Journal and Letters of Rev. H. Martyn, Wilberforce, vol. ii. p. '2H5. 

3 Journal and Letters of Rev. H. Martyn, Wilberforce, vol. ii. p. 184. 

Indo-Eukopean Languages.] HINDUSTANI. 81 

gress of this work, wc have happily the moans of judging. In a letter addressed to the Associated 
Clergy, and dated January 1808, Mr. Martyn expresses himself in the following terms: — "If the 
work should fail, which however 1 am lar from expecting, my labour will have been richly repaid bv 
the profit and pleasure derived from considering the word of God m the original with more attention 
than 1 had ever done. Often have I been filled with admiration, after some hours' detention about one 
or two verses, at the beauty and wisdom of God's words and works ; and often rejoiced at meeting a 
difficult passage, in order to have the pleasure of seeing some new truth emerge. It has been 
frequently a matter of delight to me that we shall never be separated from the contemplation of these 
divine oracles, or the wondrous things about which they are written. Knowledge shall vanish away, 
but it shall be only because the perfection of it shall come."' The philological difficulties which 
Mr. ]\Iartyn had to encounter in the prosecution of liis work, were by no means few or inconsiderable. 
No prose compositions of acknowledged purity at that period existed in Hindustani, so that he had no 
model upon which to form his style, and no recognised standard of appeal. The higher Maliom- 
mcdans and men of learning were then, as they still are, disdainful of all works in which the Persian 
liad not lent its aid to adorn the style ; while to the illiterate classes a larger proportion of Hindustani 
has always been more acceptable. To meet the conflicting views of these two parties has ever been 
found a task of no ordinary difficulty ; and hence, notwithstanding the labour expended on his version 
of the New Testament, Mr. Martyn addressed himself, immediately on its 'completion, to a diHgent and 
careful revision. The pubUcation of the work was further tlelayed by the fire which occurred at 
Serampore at the time that it was passing through the press. The printing had advanced to the 
eighteenth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, of which the first thirteen chapters were preserved ; and 
as there was then a general demand for the Hindustani Scriptiu-es, the Calcutta Committee ordered the 
completion of Matthew at one of the presses in Calcutta.'^ The fount of Persic types which had been 
used in printing was completely destroyed ; but new and handsomer types were prepared in the course 
of a few months, and the work was a second time put to press at Serampore ; and at length, in the 
year 1814, this invaluable version appeared, in an edition of 2000 copies of the Testament on English 
paper ; besides 3000 copies of the Gospels and Acts on Patna paper, which were printed ofl" for im- 
mediate use.' The whole was printed at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society, by 
their Corresponding Committee in Calcutta. 

The high reputation which tliis version speedily attained, and the success with which it was used 
in native schools at Agra and other places, led to a demand for an edition in the Devanagari character, 
for the benefit of the Hindoos in the Upper Provinces, who universally read and write in this cha- 
racter. The Calcutta Committee yielded to the wishes of these people by furnishing them, in 1817, 
with an edition of 2000 copies of Martyn 's Testament, printed in the Devanagari character. No sub- 
sequent editions of the Hindustani Scriptures were, however, issued in this dress, for it was found by 
experience that the Scriptures in the Hinduwee dialect are far more acceptable than in the Hindustani 
to the numerous class of natives who employ the Devanagari characters. For their use, as we shall 
hereafter have occasion to mention, Martyn's New Testament was eventually divested of its Persic and 
Arabic terms, and transferred into the Hinduwee idiom by Mr. Bowley. An edition of the Gospel of 
Matthew in Hindustani and English was published by the Calcutta Committee in 1820, and was found to 
be very acceptable to natives, who were desirous of acquiring the knowledge of the EngHsli language.'' 

Wiile these editions were being issued by the Calcutta AuxlHary, the pubhcation of an edition 
in London had been contemplated by the Parent Society since the year 1815 : the design was not 
carried into execution till 1819, when an impression of 5000 copies was struck oS' with some Persic 
types, lent for the purpose by the Church Missionary Society. This edition was pubhshed vmder the 
able superintendence of the Rev. Professor Lee. Four thousand of the copies were forwarded to 
Calcutta, where they arrived most opportunely, and just at the period when the Calcutta Committee 
were projecting the publication of another edition, on account of the almost entire exliaustion of the 
copies of previous editions. The urgent necessity for fresh supplies of the New Testament having 
been thus met, the Calcutta Committee turned their attention to the publication of a Hindustani 
version of the Old Testament, which had been for some time contemplated. The preparation of tills 
version had been almost completed prior to the decease of Mr. I\Iartyn, by MIrza Fitrut, who had, on 
his first engagement as an assistant to Mr. Martyn, promised to learn the JHebrew language in order to 
qualify himself for translating the Old Testament from the original text.'^ A copy of the book of 

' Journal and Letters of Rev. H. Martyn, Wilberforce, vol. ii. p. U3. « Seventeenth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ivii. 

= Ninth Report of the British and Foreign BiWc Society, p. 86. 5 Journal and Letters of Rev. H. Martyn, vol. ii. p. 133. 

5 Eleventh Report of the British and Foreign Bible Societj-, p. U5. 


Genesis belonging to this version had passed into the hands of the Church ]\Iissionary Society ; they 
lent it in 1817 for publication to the British and Foreign Bible Society, and it was printed in London 
under the care of Dr. Lee. The Calcutta Society had, since the year 1816, been in possession of a 
rough draft of the entire version, and in 1819 their Committee resolved to have it revised and com- 
pleted ; the Rev. Messrs. Thomason and Corrie, with the aid of suitable native assistants, charged 
themselves with the execution. The first portion of the work published was an edition of 2000 copies 
of the Pentateuch, which appeared in 1823, and was in great request among the Mahommedans.' 
The peculiar difficulties which impeded the progress of the learned men engaged in the preparation 
and revision of this version are thus described by the Committee : — -"It will be readily perceived by 
those who understand the language, that it is far from being easy to invest the Scriptures in an Urdu 
dress. Such an attempt is, perhaps, more difiicult in this than In any other language, because of its 
being so generally and familiarly spoken. The habit of using certain words and phrases in the inter- 
course of common life, with the lowest domestics, on the most trivial occasions, attaches to them a sort 
of grovelling character, which in many instances does not really belong to them. It is not easy in 
such circumstances to separate the base from the pure metal, to distinguish what is precious in the 
currency from what is vile. It should also be considered, that where there is a great paucity of 
standard works on subjects peculiarly sacred, or rather no such work at all, many terms must be 
borrowed from sister dialects, many new words introduced, and phrases invented in describing things 
unknown, which must of necessity give an air of imcouthness to the style, with whatever care the 
labour be conducted."^ On the completion of the Pentateuch, the editors found it desirable to delay 
the publication of the succeeding books, in order that the MS. might first be subjected to a more 
thorough revision and collation with the original Hebrew. In the meantime, however, that the press 
might not remain unemployed, they passed on to the printing of another edition of the New Testa- 
ment. The proofs of the Gospels were revised by the Rev. Principal Mill ;' but in 1824, when the 
work had advanced as far as the Acts of the Apostles, its superintendence appears to have devolved on 
other gentlemen, probably from the pressing nature of his college duties and avocations. The revision 
was carried on to the 2nd Corintliians by the lamented Mr. Thomason, and afterwards by Mr. Da Costa 
to the close, under tlie superintendence of the venerable Archdeacon Corrie.'' The edition, consisting 
of 2000 copies, left the press in 1830. The following year another edition of the New Testament, 
consisting of 2000 copies, was commenced at Serampore, under the superintendence of Archdeacon 
Corrie : it was completed in 1834.'^ 

During the pubhcatlon of these two editions of the New Testament, the revision of the Old 
Testament version was gradually proceeding. It continued to advance in regular order from the 
Pentateuch to the end of the 2nd Book of Kings, when it was brought to a stand, on account of the 
ill health of Mr. Thomason, and his consequent removal to Europe. His anxiety to complete a version 
which he considered of the first importance, and which he was most peculiarly qualified to execute, 
induced him to return to India, but his valuable life was shortly afterwards terminated. After the 
decease of Mr. Thomason, this version was carried forward by the Missionaries at Benares ; and the 
Committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society made a grant of £1000 to the London Missionary 
Society, for time and services rendered by their missionaries in prosecuting the work.^ In 1844 the 
Committee announced that the Old Testament was at length completed ; and that editions, both in 
Arabic and Roman characters, were in course of distribution. It was brought to its conclusion and 
revised by Messrs. Shurman and Kennedy of Benares, assisted by the Rev. J. Wilson of Allahabad, 
and J. A. F. Hawkins, Esq.^ 

In 1839 the Calcutta Committee pubHshed 2000 copies of the New Testament in Roman characters, 
and 1000 copies of Anglo-Hindustani, in the same characters ; the English and Hindustani texts 
arranged in opposite columns on the same page. Several missionaries had expressed a desire for such 
a version, as one adapted to the wants of native Christians, drummers, etc. acquainted with the 
English letters.** 

In addition to their labours in the revision of the Old Testament, the Missionaries at Benares 
were, in 1838, preparing for the Calcutta Committee a new or revised version of the Gospels and 
Acts, to be printed in Persic characters.^ In 1842 the Calcutta Committee announced the completion 
of a thorough revision of the entire New Testament, for which they acknowledged their obhgation to 

1 Eighteenth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 64. * Fortieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xcvi. 

- Twentieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 107. ' Fortieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xcvi. 

' TH-entieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 107. ' Thirty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ix. 

4 Twenty-seventh Report of British and For. Bible Society, p. xlviii. 9 Thirty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ix. 

5 Thirty-first Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. lix. 


the joint labours of the missionaries of the London and of the Church Missionary Society, who had 
for five years devoted all their spare time to this important work.' During the same year, the Com- 
mittee of tlic Britisli and Foreign ]5iblo Society, on the application of tlie Directors of the London 
Missionary Society, paid the expenses of printing, in London, 5000 copies of the Hindustaru New 
Testament, prepareil by Mr. Buyers and oilier missionaries at Benares.^ This edition was printed in 
Roman characters. When the edition of the Old Testament in Roman characters was passing through 
the press, this version was selected by the Calcutta Committee to accompany it, as it was deemed 
desirable to have the Old and New Testaments in an uniform translation. An edition of 1500 copies 
of the New Testament was therefore determined upon ; but the work was previously revised by the 
Rev. Mr. Shurman in communication with Mr. Hawkins ; and in the course of the revision, Mr. Shur- 
man saw reason to revert, in a great measure, to the translation of Henry Martyn, especially in the 
latter half of the version.^ The edition had left the press in 1844. 

It appears, therefore, that besides the version by the Rev. Henry Martyn, there are now three dif- 
ferent versions of the Hindustani New Testament in existence ; namely, the version of a Committee at 
Benares, the version of Mr. Buyers above noticed, and a version prepared by the Baptist Missionaries 
of Calcutta in 1841.'' Among these new translations, the idiomatic and faithful version of Henry 
JLartyn still maintains its ground, although from the lofty elegance of its style it is better understood 
by educated than by illiterate Mahommedans. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — One of the earliest evidences that 
occurred in testimony that the blessing of God rested upon this version. Is afforded In the case of 
Abdool Messee. This devoted native missionary was originally a bigoted Mahommedan. \^^len 
Mr. Martyn's version of the New Testament was completed, some copies were given to Abdool to bind. 
He was led to look into the books, and found there, to his astonishment, a description of his own 
heart, and of his state as a sinner. Conviction was followed by conversion, he devoted himself to the 
service of God, and was made eminently useful as a preacher of the Gospel among his countrymen.'^ 
The general effect produced on the Mussulmans of India by the distribution of their vernacular Scrip- 
tures is more favourable than could have been expected from the known bigotry of the sect. In 1844 
the Rev. W. Robinson of Dacca thus describes their condition: — "It is a pleasing feature," says he, 
" In the present state of things, that the followers of Mahommed, so long remarkable for their deter- 
mined opposition to the Gospel, do now, in great numbers, read the word of God. Their prejudices 
are much diminished ; they hear us almost in silence ; and some are, we hope, searching the Scriptures 
in order to discover the truth. There is a very marked change in the Hindoos and the Mahommedans; 
the result, wc believe, of a very liberal dispersion of the sacred Scrlptui'es. We cannot speak of con- 
version ; but we do hope that the public mind Is preparing for a great revolution in favour of the 

' Thirty-eishth Report of BriKsh and Foreign Bible Society, p. Iviii. * Annvial Report of Baptist Missionary Society for 1847, P- *9- 

2 Thirty-eighth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. lix. s Christian Missions (Religious Tract Society), p. 82. 

3 Fortieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xcviL 6 Fortieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xcix. 



St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

<< 5 ^'RR ^TTW ^, =n^ t^*y<.c(i ^ ^. 'T^ ^T^ ^^ ^^ I ^ 'SIT?! "4 5"j<<* im ^1 </«1*i ^^i^ 

% * tm^ ^TT^ W^ 'HT*r5ir TTss ■;nT «^ jpn I 'tn: v^ ^TTi^ ftT^ra <*<t^* f^q ^ wrfir ^ 
t f^^nr opT iRTO ^^■sft ?trB}^ ^^r ft ^tot i ^ ^smr?^ ^t^ ^^rfii f ^ ^^" ; titj ^;?rt iqTfTrort 

<»:^ wfwr^ ^mn, fcs^ inn^ d«c<ri ^jj ^i^" 'Nr'n i i^ >ft ftrw^ <ra rx^ f^rm, ^-qitr ^rr^ 
s? ^TR TTT r-Mmm foirirr ■a'TRrr ^"ser^ 3^ frw ^ '^rftrarn; f^ 1 % -g^tfcirr 5n»? 7;^i ^ ^rrrHr^ 

^pHcjimy ^ HHm<*1 ^<gri^ ^t^* swr, tci t^f^ ^ ^ ^^^ 1 
Id wf ^T^ «H«i'*i 'M=(HK ?t '^^^ '^T ^mmm ^5& ^ ?»n^ im Tfr, ^ ^^ fvm* <j»)<^ i fi j^^rt 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Hinduwee, with its various dialects, is spoken in 
all the upjser provinces of India. The population of these provinces in 1826, according to the par- 
liamentary returns, amounted to 32,000,000 ; the more probable estimates of Maltebrun and 
of Mr. Hamilton, however, represent the amount of population at 25,700,000. In these pro\dnces the 
Mahommedans, as before stated, speak Hindustani ; but the Hindoos, properly so called, who profess 
Brahminism, speak Hinduwee, or one of its numerous dialects. The knowledge of Hinduwee seems 
to extend beyond the provinces to which it is vernacular, and the Rev. Mr. Buyers of Benares mentions, 
as the result of his own experience and observation, that the Hinduwee, such as is used at Benares, is 
imderstood by the Rajpoots of Central India, and even by the Sikhs, the Nepalese, tlie Guzerattees, 
and the Mahrattas, who have distinct dialects of their own.' 

Characteristics of the Language. — Hinduwee was the language of the ancient and 
extensive empire of the Canyacubjas in Upper India, of which Canyacubja, or Canoj, was the capital.' 
Its aflinity to the Sanscrit is very remarkable, and about nine-tenths of its words may be traced to that 
language ; but that Sanscrit is the root, says Col. Colebrooke, " from which the Hinduwee has sprung, 
not Hinduwee the dialect upon which Sanscrit has refined, may be proved from etymology, the analogy 

* Buyers' Letters on India, p. 95. 'J Prichaid's Researches, vol. iv. p. 135. 

Indo-Eueopean Languages.] H I N D U W E E. 86 

of wliicli has been lost in Hinduwec but preserved in the Sanscrit." ' Many Hinduwee words arc pure 
and unaltered Sanscrit, and others diller only from Sanscrit vocables by tlie regular permutation of 
certain letters. There is a small proportion of words in this language, however, of which the origin 
is not Sanscrit, and all attempts to trace these words to some other language have hitherto proved 
unsatisfactory. In idiom and construction Hinduwee resembles Hindustani, of which, as before 
mentioned, it in fact forms the groimdvvork ; the chief difTcrencc between the two dialects consisting 
in the predominance of Persic and Arabic words and phrases in Hindustani, and the almost total 
exclusion of foreign admixture in Hinduwee. There is a difference, likewise, between the written 
characters belonging to these dialects ; the Persic or Arabic characters appertain properly to the Hin- 
dustani, while the Devanagari are the proper characters of the Hinduwee. The Kyt'liee or writers' 
character, which is an imperfect imitation of the Devanagari, is also used in writing and printing 
Hinduwee, particularly by the trading community; and it is said, that of the lower class of natives 
there are ten who read and write in the Kyt'hee for one who transacts business in the Devanagari.^ 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — At the period when a translation of 
the Scriptures into tJiis language was first attempted, some little confusion existed in respect to the 
right appUcation of the terms Hinduwee and Hindustani. The Serampore Missionaries, in their First 
Memoir, speak of a Hindustani which draws principally on the Persic and Arabic for its supplies ; and 
of another wliich has recourse in the same manner to the Sanscrit : of the one, as quite unintelligible 
to Sanscrit pundits born and brought up in Hindustan ; and of the other, as equally unintelligible to 
their Mussulman moonshees. By the latter of these dialects they evidently meant the Hinduwee ; 
and to their translation of the Scriptures into this dialect they afterwards correctly apphed the name 
Hindee. This version was commenced in 1802 ; and in 1807 the whole of the New, and portions of 
the Old, Testament were completed and ready for revision. It is one of the versions which the Rev. 
Dr. Carey translated with his own hand, and of which the Xew Testament was rendered immediately 
from the Greek. The Gospels were printed in 1809, and in 1811 an edition of 1000 copies of the 
entire New Testament was published at Serampore. This edition was received with so much avidity 
by the people, that, in 1812, almost every copy had been distributed, and it was found requisite to 
issue another edition, consisting of 4000 copies, which was completed at press in 1813. These copies 
were speedily exhausted, and on a third edition being urgently demanded, the Serampore Missionaries 
determined to publish a version executed by the Rev. John Chamberlain, in preference to their own ; 
assigning as a reason for tliis measure that a comparison of independent versions, made by persons long 
and intimately acquainted with the language, is the means most likely to tend to the ultimate forma- 
tion of an idiomatic and standard version.' The publication of Mr. Chamberlain's version was com- 
menced with an edition of 4000 copies of the Gospels in 1819. This edition was printed in the 
Devanagari character ; and in the following year another edition of the Gospels, consisting of 3000 
copies, appeared in the Kyt'hee character. The further pubHcation of this version was interrupted by 
the lamented decease of Mr. Chamberlain. The Rev. J. T. Thompson, a Baptist missionary long 
resident at Delhi, then undertook the revision of the entire version of the New Testament and of the 
Psalms, and an edition of 3000 copies of the Gospels was printed in 1824 under his superintendence. 
Of the Old Testament, the only version printed at Serampore appears to have been that of Dr. Carey. 
It was published in successive portions; the Pentateuch appeared in 1813, and in 1818, 1000 copies 
of the entire Old Testament were completed. 

Another version of the Hinduwee New Testament was published by the Calcutta Bible Society ; 
the Gospel of Matthew in 1819, and the other books at successive intervals, until the completion of 
the entire Testament in 1826. This version is not a new or independent translation, but is through- 
out substantially the same as Martyn's Hindustani version, from which it differs chiefly in the sub- 
stitution of Sanscrit for Persic and Arabic terms.^ Martyn's Testament was thus adapted to the use 
of persons speaking the Hinduwee dialect by the Rev. W. Bowley, agent of the Chm-ch Missionary 
Society at Chunar. Being unacquainted with the original languages of Scripture, he consulted the 
English authorised version in all passages where the Hinduwee idiom required him to alter Martyn's 
admirable renderings, referring at the same time to the best commentators on Scripture.' Mr. Corrie 
revised the first edition of the work. New editions of the Gospels of Matthew and Mark were pub- 
Ushed in 1827 ; and in 1833 a third edition of these Gospels, to the extent of 4000 copies, was issued. 

■ Asiatic Researches, vol. ra. p. 220. • Fifteenth Calcutta Report, p. 10. 

- Thirt}--seconii Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 33. ' Long's Handbook of Bengal Missions, p. 138. 

3 Seventh Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 4. 


Mr. Bowley also undertook the transference of the Hindustani version of tlie Old Testament into the 
Hindu wee dialect, and in 1827 the books of Psalms, Proverbs, and Isaiah had been pubHslied, and 
the whole work was announced as ready for the press as far as the 2ud Book of Kings, at which 
point the labours of Mr. Thomason in the parent version had been arrested. In 1828 or 29, 4000 
copies of Genesis were printed, followed in 1831 by similar editions of Exodus and Leviticus, and a 
second edition of 2000 copies of Isaiah. In 1835 a revision of the New Testament was undertaken 
by Dr. Mill of Bishop's College ; and in 1838 an edition of 1000 New Testaments, besides about 
4000 extra copies of the Gospels and Acts, was published at the expense of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, in Devanagari characters. Another edition of the Gospels and Acts, of similar extent, 
and printed in the Kyt'hee character, was published during the same year by the same society. In 
1847 an edition, consisting of 2500 copies of the New Testament, and of 1000 extra copies of the 
Gospels and Acts, was published in the Kyt'hee character at the American ]\Iission press at Allahabad ; 
and about the same period 2500 copies of the Psalms, printed in the Devanagari character, were issued 
from the Bible Society's press at Agra.' According to the last accounts received from India, two 
separate revisions of tlie Hinduwee versions are now in progress : the one conducted by a Sub-com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose by the Avixiliary Bible Society at Agra ; and the other hy ilr. Leslie, 
a Baptist JMissionary at Calcutta.^ The Agra Sub-committee have so far completed their revision of the 
New Testament as to allow it to go to press, and the printing has proceeded as far as the twelfth chap- 
ter of Luke. Three thousand extra copies of the Gospel of Matthew liave been struck off for separate 
distribution, which are now ready for circulation. The edition of the New Testament now in the 
press consists of 5000 copies. This Sub-committee have also made some progress in the revision of 
the Old Testament, and expect that it wiU soon be ready for the press.^ 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — The following instance, related by 
Mr. Thompson of Delhi, proves that Dr. Carey's Hindee version was really understood, studied, and 
valued by those among whom it was distributed. In 1816, Mr. Thompson visited an aged Gosaee, 
residing at Patna, and found him well acquainted with the words of Christ and the great truths of 
revelation, which knowledge he had obtained by a simple perusal of the Hindoo New Testament, with- 
out consulting a single Christian on the subject. As he was very grave and reserved, it was not, says 
Mr. Thompson, till the third or fourth visit that I obtamed a sight of the book to wliich he owed all 
his light, and the separation from idolatry he was proud to confess : he related that, about four years 
previously, one of his disciples, having obtained a New Testament from the missionaries, brought it to 
him for approval. The old man had for thirty years entertained doubts relative to the Hindoo system ; 
and this book came to his help, and he received it even as the gift of God, and read it through. 
Then, wishing to teach his disciples a more perfect way, he regularly read it to from ten to seventy of 
them. Some of them said after a time, " Babajee (father), you wish to wean our minds from our 
shasters : we cannot regard what you say, or we shall be turned out of our caste." Unhappily this hint 
had some effect on the old man's mind, for he was loathe to forego the world's applause.'' We are not 
told any thing further respecting him, but his case, while it illustrates the force of the divine words, 
" how can ye believe which receive honour one of another," proves likewise that this version of Scrip- 
ture is adapted to the comprehension and to the intellectual wants of the Hindoo. The following 
instance shows that Mr. Bowley 's adaptation of Martyn's admirable version has been equally acceptable 
to the natives. About the year 1833 he left a case of books for distribution at Lucknow, and shortly 
afterwards received letters from several different individuals wlio had obtained copies, soliciting 
baptism. But the best testimony to the power of the word of God was, that in these communications 
they distinctly acknowledged their hope of salvation in " the crucified Lord."' 

' Forty-fourth Report of the British and F. Bible Societ)-, p. Uxxiv. t Periodical Accounts of the Baptist Missionary Society, vol. vi. p. 207. 

■- Cliristian Witness for 1847, No. 42, p. 278. 5 Thirtieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixix. 

^ Forty. fourth Report of British and For. Bible Society, p. Ixx.woii. 


The Hinduwec comprcliends many dialects, strictly local and provincial, whicli difler from each 
other cliiefly in the dilierent proportions of Sanscrit, Arabic, or Persic terms (either pure or slightly 
corrupted) which enter into their composition.' In point of grammatical inflections, these dialects in 
some instances vary considerably from the Hinduwee ; the Serampore Missionaries, in their Sixth 
Memoir, remark, " we have ascertained that there are more than twenty languages composed of nearly 
the same words, and all equally related to the common parent the Sanscrit, but each possessing a dis- 
tinct set of terminations." Translations of the Scriptures into several of these dialects have been 
executed at Serampore ; and though it has of late years been found that the Hinduwee version is 
intelligible in districts where local or vulgar dialects are commonly spoken, and is therefore likely to 
supersede the Serampore versions, yet the zeal of the admirable men who devoted themselves to the 
multiplication of so many diifcrent versions of the Word of God is not the less to be commended. 

Bruj, or Brij-bhasa. 

The Bruj, or Brij-bhasa, is entitled to the first place in the enumeration of Hinduwee dialects, on 
account of its very close affinity to the Hinduwee. It has been called the purest of the Hinduwee 
dialects, because it contains the greatest number of Sanscrit words. It is spoken throughout a con- 
siderable portion of the province of Agra. In the year 1811 the Rev. John Chamberlain, then 
stationed at Agra, commenced a version of the New Testament in this dialect, and in 1813 he had 
completed the translation of the Gospels.' The prosecution of this work was suspended during some 
years, while Mr. Chamberlain was engaged in the preparation of the Hinduwee version. At length 
however, in 1822, an edition of 3000 copies of the Gospels was published ; and the whole of the New 
Testament had been completed at press prior to 1832, the date of the Tenth Memoir respecting their 
translations, issued by the Serampore brethren. The character used in printing this and aU the other 
Hinduwee dialects was the Devanagari. 

An instance of the usefuhiess of this version occurred even previous to its publication. Anand 
Masili, a native employed in translating the New Testament into this dialect from the Urdu, was a 
Brahmin, and gained much money by officiating as priest. He had inquired into the nature of 
Mahommedanism, but had felt dissatisfied with it. He had then undertaken several long pilgrimages, 
and had submitted to much bodily suflTering, in the vain hope of finding rest to his soul. Sub- 
sequently, while engaged in this translation of the Bible, light flashed on his mind ; he became a 
teacher of Christianity at Mirat, under the Kev. Mr. Fisher, and was baptized in 1816. He was 
ordained by the Bishop of Calcutta in 1836, and was, in fact, the first Brahmin who received 

Canoj, or Cantacubja. 

The Canoj dialect is spoken in the Doab of the Ganges and Jumna, which latter river forms a 
line of demarcation between it and the Bruj dialect. Some accounts represent the Canoj as pre- 
dominant throughout the Delhi districts of Cawnpore, Etawah, Furruckhabad, Allyghiu-, Bareilly, and 
Moradabad. It is closely connected with the Bruj, or Brij-bhasa, and both dialects are thought to 
have been originally one and the same : the local causes which gave rise to the slight diflerences in 
structure now existing between them are not kno-^vn. The notices of a version of the Scriptures in 
the Canoj dialect are few and brief We are only informed that the Serampore translators commenced 
a version of the New Testament in 1815 ; that it was printed as far as the Gospel of St. John in 1820; 
and completed in 1822 in an edition of 1000 copies."* In the impossibility of obtaining any better 
testimony, we are assured by four Canoj pundits, that " the language of this Testament is such as 
is spoken by the people of Canoj, and that such as have read the book, have identified the lan- 
guage to be that of their country." 

I Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 199. 3 Long's Handbook of Christian Missions, p. 216. 

■ Eleventh Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 30. < Ninth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. J. 



This dialect is spoken in the west of Oudc, or rather in what is now called the reserved territory 
of the IQng of Oude. In the specimen of the Lord's Prayer in this dialect, given by the Seramporc 
Missionaries, twenty-seven of the words belong to the Bengalee and Hinduwee languages, and nearly 
all the rest are pure Sanscrit. In the year 1820, the Gospel of Matthew had been translated into 
Kousulu, and was in the press.' But at this point the translation seems to have been dropped, and we 
are told no more respecting it. The want of funds, the pressm-e of other engagements, or the dis- 
covery that the Hinduwee version is intelligible to those who speak this dialect, may have occasioned 
the discontinuance of the work. 


Bhojepoora is the dialect in use throughout the districts of Benares, Juanpore, Ghazipore, 
Azinghur, and Gorruckpore, which together comprises an area of 16,780 square miles. No translation 
of the Scriptures has been attempted into this dialect, nor is one requisite, for Mr. Bowley's Hinduwee 
version has been freely circulated among the natives of these districts. 


HuRRiANA, in which this dialect is spoken, is a large division of the Delhi province, situated 
chiefly between 28 and 29 degrees north latitude, and comprising, according to the latest parliamentary 
returns, an area of 3,500 square miles. Its name is derived from " Hurya," signifying green ; for 
although situated on the verge of the Great Desert, it is celebrated for its verdure, yet probably only 
as compared with the neighbouring region.- From the country having been so long the seat of the 
Mogul empire, this dialect is much corrupted with Persic and Arabic words ; it neither possesses nor 
requires a distinct translation of the Scriptures, the Hinduwee version being in use, as before stated, 
throughout Dellii. 


BuNDELCUND forms a large division of the Allahabad province, south-east of Agra, and is 
included between 24° 3' and 26° 26' north latitude ; and between 77° 48' and 81° 33' east longitude.^ 
It contains 23,680 square miles, and a population of 2,400,000. From the specimen of tlie Lord's 
Prayer in Bundelcundee, given by the Serampore Missionaries, we may judge that this dialect 
approaches as near as possible to the Brij-bhasa. It possesses no translation of the Scriptures; and 
from the labours of Mr. Bowley at Ghunar, and other coadjutors in the neighbourhood, we have no 
reason to suppose that any other version will be required in this country beyond the general Hinduwee 


BOGHELA, or Baghelcund, in which this dialect is vernacular, lies east, or rather south-east, of 
Bundelcund, and extends as far southward as the sources of the Nerbudda. No calculation has been 
fiirnished of its exact extent, but it is supposed to contain abbut 25,000 square miles : it is, however, 
very tliinly populated. Bughelcundce is probably a corrupt dialect of the Hinduwee, but very little 
is known concerning it. A translation ot the New Testament exists in this dialect, which was com- 
menced in 1814, and of which an edition of 1000 copies was struck o3"by the Serampore Missionaries 
in 1821.^ But it appears probable that this version will eventually be superseded by the Hinduwee, 
as has already been the case with other translations in the Hinduwee dialects. The devoted zeal and 
untiring industry exhibited by the Serampore Missionaries, in striving to bestow on every tribe and 
province of India a version of the Word of God, must ever be regarded with admiration by all 
Christians ; yet it is now but too evident that their talents and energies were most lamentably mis- 
applied, for a more extended acquaintance with the country and its inhabitants has led to the con- 
viction that fewer distinct versions of the Scriptures are required by the millions of India, than were at 
first deemed necessary by the pioneers of Christianity in that extensive region. 

1 Ninth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, pp. 16, 17. 

2 Elphinstone, Caubul, p. 3. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

<» ^ %f^ ^fht wi ^sR ^fis ^»j<.r<* mi 'aft ^tt ^¥tt i;^ ^ i ^ ^fcj^ii J^'^jlH* m^ 'srt i wttot 

t wiBjl »tt! % ft'idbr ^ <iri»ci< cst I ■a' j>(i« 7 ^ % TTFrftK "^ ■^jTrafsif ^wjm ^rraff h?:^ ^^i 
<»^ ^ I ^T^ftr^ wf^ ^ ^^ ^n ^ra "j% ^iu<*i 'iM'Wi ^Hifcir jrt f^f«T *'^ ^rnr^ ^twt ^ttwtt 

<n1c!i| ^oK ^^«^mi HH-Wlchl ^j<oh ^Uill *?T^ Tcirr ^jT ril<HI I 

This Specimen is giveu as a sample of these comparatively little used dialectic Versions. 

In addition to the Hinduwee dialects, strictly so called, tliere are several other Indian dialects 
supposed to be corruptions of the general HLnduwee stock. These dialects may be classed together 
under the appellation of " Dialects of Central India," in allusion to the region where they are spoken, 
which comprises Malwah and the Rajpoot states, and embraces an area of about 193,000 square miles, 
with a population of about 12,601,000. Comparatively little attention has hitherto been paid to these 
dialects by philologists, but it is evident from such observations as have been made from time to tmie 
on their stracture, that they are closely alhed to the Hinduwee ; and it is probable that with the 
multiplication of missionary schools, and the increase of education among the natives, the Hinduwee 
version of the Scriptures will eventually supersede all versions that have been made in these petty 
local dialects. It is, therefore, deeply to be regretted that the Serampore Missionaries did not con- 
c<:>ntrate their attention on the improvement of tliose versions that are really essential to India, instead 
of fruitlessly expending their time and labour on the production of translations in mere provincial 
dialects. Still, it may not be iminteresting to trace their general mode of procedure in forming these 
versions, an account of which we have, as follows, in their own words : — " On engaging a pundit in 
one of these cognate languages, after having examined aud ascertained his qualifications, we gave him 
an approved version of the Scriptures in a language with which he is well acquainted ; for most of the 
pundits we employ, while good Sungskrit scholars, are also acquainted with at least one or two of the 
cognate languages of India, besides their own vernacular tongue, and some of them with three or four. 
Then placing him among two or three other pundits who have been for years employed with us, we 
direct him to express the ideas he finds there in his own vernacular idiom, with the utiuost care and ex- 
actness, and to ask questions wherever he finds it necessary. Meantime the grammatical terminations, 
and the peculiarities of the language, are acquired possibly by the time he has finished the first 


Gospel. The wort of revision is then begun with the pundit. This, at first, proceeds very slowly, 
as nothing is suiFered to go to press till fully understood and approved ; and in some instances the 
alterations made are so numerous, as to leave little of the first copy standing. Tliis re-vision is, how- 
ever, of the highest value, as the discussions which it originates both lay open the language to us, 
and the sense of the original to the pundit. As we advance, we proceed with increased ease and 
pleasure, and seldom go through the fourth Gospel without feeling ourselves on firm ground, relative 
to the faithfulness and accuracy of the version. Thus a first version of the New Testament is pro- 
duced not inferior in accuracy, and far superior in point of style and idiom, to the first version of the 
Beno-alee New Testament, the product of seven years' severe labour and study." ' 


OoJEiN Is vernacular in Malwah, an extensive province of Central India, lying chiefly between 
22 and 26 degrees north latitude, and 74 and 80 degrees of east longitude,^ and including an area of 
about 67,360 square miles. The Oojein, although the vernacular of more than six millions of people, 
has never been subjected to philological analysis ; yet all the accoimts we possess respecting it concur 
in representino- it as a corrupt and mixed dialect of the Hinduwee. A version of the New Testament 
in Oojein had been half carried through the press at Serampore in 1820 ;* and the edition, which con- 
sisted of 1000 copies, was completed in 1824.* 


The province of Harrotee lies on the north-east extremity of Malwah ; It is generally reckoned 
among the Rajpoot states, and Is governed by Eajpoot chiefs. Its area has been estimated at 9000 
square miles, and Its population at one million. The Harrotee Is evidently a con-upt dialect of the 
Hinduwee, but possesses many Persic words. In the Lord's Prayer In Harrotee, twenty-two of the 
words are found radically the same as those of the Serampore specimens in Bengali and Hinduwee, 
with others of direct Persic origin. The Serampore translators commenced a version of the New 
Testament in this dialect in 1815, and an edition of 1000 copies was printed in 1822. With respect 
to the purity of the translation, we are left to the single testimony of Bhowanee Ram, overseer to 
Rajah Goverdhun, of Harrotee, the best possibly that co\dd at the time be obtained, who says, " The 
book shown to me In the Harrotee is correct Harrotee, and will be understood by all the people of 
that country."* 


OODEYPOOR, or ]\Iewar, Hes westward of the Chittore range from Malwah and Harrotee, having 
Jeypoor on the north, Guzerat on the south, and Jondpoor on the west. No satisfactory estimate of 
its extent, nor even of the amount of its population, has been formed. Its Inhabitants may, perhaps, 
be said to number more than half a million. The specimen of the Lord's Prayer In this dialect, 
furnished by the Serampore Missionaries, contains twenty-eight of the roots found in Hinduwee, with 
some others apparently of Persic origin. A version of the Gospel of St. Matthew In Oodeypoora was 
printed at Serampore In 1815,° but we are not told of how many copies the edition consisted, nor 
from what cause the fui-ther prosecution of the translation was relinquished. 


Jondpoor, or Marwar, the province In which this dialect is spoken, lies between 25 and 27 
degrees of north latitude, and extends from Oodeypoor in the east to the dominions of Sclndc in the 
west ; but its precise boundaries and its area are still imdefined. That the Marwar dialect contains 
many words of Hinduwee origin is well known, but we possess few details concerning its idioms or 
structure. The New Testament has been translated into Marwar by the Serampore Missionaries ; they 
commenced the version In 1814, and published an edition of 1000 copies In 1821. The testimony of 
a native as to its correctness, procured about the period of Its pubhcatlon, was to the following effect : 

1 Fourteenth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 32. < Annual Report of Baptist Missionary Society for 1847, p. 4g. 

2 M'Culloch's Geographical Dictionary, in mce. 5 Ninth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 18. 

3 Seventh Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 8. ' Annual Report of the Baptist Missionary Society for 1847, p. 49. 


— " The book shown me, translated into the Marwar dialect, is in very good Marwar, with here and 
there a phrase of the Doond'harcc f J eypoor) dialect; but this is the case with the language now sjjoken 
in Marwar, and the book will be understood by all." ' 


JUYAPOORA is spoken in Joypoor or Jeypoor, a pro^dnce which lies east of Marwar and west of 
Agra, principally between 26 and 28 degrees of north latitude. It extends from north to south about 
150 mdes in its greatest length, and about 70 miles from east to west, covering probably a surface 
of 9000 square miles." The population may amount to half a million.^ In the Lord's I'rayer, as 
given by the Scrampore translators in this dialect, twenty-nine words may be traced to their Hinduwee 
and Bengalee specimens. A version of St. Matthew in Juyapoora was printed at Serampore in 1815; 
but no inlbrmation has been preserved relative to the number of copies, and the translation appears 
subsequently to have been dropped. 


The little province of Shekawutty lies south of Delhi, about the 28th degree of north latitude, 
and extends about 80 miles from north to south, and rather less from east to west. The Serampore 
translators have furnished neither specimen nor description of this dialect, and no attempt to translate 
any portion of the Scriptures appears to have been made. 


The province of Bikaneera lies north of Marwar, and may be said to be situated chiefly between 
the 27th and 29th degrees of north latitude ; but, like all other principalities of the Eajpoot states, its 
limits are extremely difficult to define. The Lord's Prayer, as given in this dialect, contains twenty- 
nine words which may be identified with those in the Hinduwee and Bengali specimens, with some 
others more directly from the Sanscrit. A Bikaneera version of the New Testament was commenced 
in 1813, and an edition of 1000 copies was printed at Serampore in 1823.'' Concerning the purity 
of this version, several satisfactory testimonies have been afforded by natives. Like other versions 
in Hinduwee dialects, it had been printed in Devanagari characters, and it was not discovered till too 
late that these characters are used only by the Jains ^ in Bikaneer: the majority of the people employ, 
it is supposed, some corrupted or cursive form of Devanagari. 


BuTTANEER, the country of the Bhatties, is situated in the north-eastern quarter of the Kaj- 
pootana or Ajmere territory, about the 30th degree of north latitude ; and though it is almost impossible 
to define the precise boundaries of so wild a district, it may be conjectured to occupy a space of about 
a hundred, or a himdred and twenty, square miles. If Buttaneer is to be classed among the number 
of Hinduwee dialects, it is probably extremely corrupted with words from the Persic and Arabic, for 
Mahommedanism is the religion of the Bhatties. In 1821 a Buttaneer New Testament was com- 
menced at Serampore, and an edition of 1000 copies was printed in 1824. We have the testimony of 
a native as to the intelbgibility of this version, but no details relative to its circulation have been 

1 Ninth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 18. < Annual Report of Baptist Missionary Society for 1817, p. *9. 

• Malcolm's Central India, vol. ii. p. 498. 5 Ninth Memoir of Serampore Translations, p. 14. 

3 Hamilton's East India Gazeteer, vol. ii. p. 11 . 


(For Specimen of the Bengalee Version, see Plate VI.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Bengal, the richest and most important province 
of India, lies between 21 and 27 degrees north latitude, and is bounded north by Nepaul and Bootan, 
south by the Bay of Bengal, east by Assam and the Burmese territories, and west by Bahar and 
Orissa.' It extends 350 miles in length, and its average breadth is 300 miles, enclosing an area of 
nearly 100,000 square miles ; while the population, in round nuinbers, may be conjectured to amount 
to nearly 30,000,000. The Persic and Hindustani are spoken to some extent in Bengal, but the pre- 
dominant dialect is unquestionably the Bengalee.^ 

Characteristics of the Language. — Among the Indian daughters of the Sanscrit, none, 
except the Pali, approach so nearly the parent stock as the Bengalee. Yet it is rather a singular cir- 
cumstance that the derivative languages, which have arisen in India itself from the very tomb of the 
Sanscrit, exhibit, in many respects, less analogy to that ancient language than its sister languages in 
Europe. The Bengalee, for instance, in several of its grammatical inflections, has departed further 
from the original Sanscrit tjrpe than the Greek and some of the Germanic languages ; and even in its 
lexicon we meet with the mutilated and corrupted fragments of Sanscrit words, of which the cor- 
relatives have been preserved in a far purer state in the languages of Europe. In attempting to 
account for this phenomenon, Bopp remarks that, in warm regions, when languages have once burst 
the old grammatical chain, they in general hasten to their downfall with a more rapid step than under 
our milder European clime. It must, however, be observed, that although Bengalee, in its simple and 
colloquial form, displays many deviations from the Sanscrit, yet that in proportion to the abstruseness 
of the subjects which it may be employed in discussing, it rises in approximation to the Sanscrit ; and 
that in all dignified compositions it borrows grammatical forms, words, and idioms freely from its 
parent. Tlie system of inflection in Bengalee is inartificial, and easily acquired. Nouns have in this 
dialect seven cases, discriminated by differences of termination. The intricacies of gender which 
encumber the Hindustani are unknown in Bengalee ; for in this latter dialect the threefold distinction 
of gender into masculine, feminine, and neuter, is used with respect to animate and inanimate objects 
in the same way as in our own language. The two numbers (singular and plural) apply in Bengalee 
only to mascuUne and feminine nouns. Neuter nouns cannot receive a plural termination ; but a 
numeral, or some word expressive of quantity, is added to indicate plurality.' Adjectives have no 
distinction of number or case, and the gender of feminine adjectives only can be denoted by the ter- 
mination, mascuUne and neuter adjectives being entirely uninflected as in English. Pronouns do not 
admit of the distinction of gender ; and in translating from Bengalee into other languages, the context 
alone can determine whether the pronoun ought to be rendered he, she, it, or that.* In Bengalee, as 
in other Indian dialects, there are two kinds of personal pronouns, the honorific and the contemptuous. 
The habit, says Mr. Havighton, of self-abasement before a superior, and the assumption of self-impor- 
tance in speaking to an inferior, have established this use of two personal pronouns ; and in accordance 
with this custom, there are likewise two sorts of terminations appended to verbs, the one conveying a 
respectful, and the other a contemptuous meaning. There is but one conjugation of verbs In Bengalee, 
and it is remarkably simple and regular. Many of the tenses are formed by the aid of auxiliaries, and 
there are in all but three Irregular verbs. The Bengalee style of writing is merely a cursive method 
of forming the Devanagari characters, adopted for the sake of ease and expedition. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Dialect. — The commencement of the first 
Bengalee version of Scripture may be dated from the year 1793, when Dr. Carey and his coadjutors 
quitted England to enter upon their labours in India. During the voyage, Mr. ThoiTias, a surgeon of 
Bengal, who was returning thither in company with the nnsslonaries, employed himself in translating 

1 Hamilton's East India Gazeteer, vol. i. p. 17.3. 

2 Halhed's Grammar of Bengalee, Preface. 

iNDo-EuRorEAN Languages.] BENGALEE. 93 

part of the book of Genesis into Bengalee.' The otlier portions of Scripture translated by Mr. Tliomas 
were the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, part of Luke, and the Epistle of James f but these versions 
were executed very incorrectly; and when Dr. Carey, a twelvemonth after his arrival in India, had 
mastered the language, and addressed himself to the work of translation, he found the MSS. prepared 
by Air. Thomas of little or no assistance. Dr. Carey executed his version of the New Testament im- 
mediately from the Greek text ; he made great use of Doddridge's Family Expositor in the transla- 
tion.' After seven years severe labour and study, he completed and published the New Testament at 
Serampore in 180L The edition consisted of 2000 copies of the Testament, besides 500 copies of the 
Gospel of Matthew, which had been struck off the preceding year for immediate distribution. A 
testimony as to the estimation in which this version was held was speedily afforded by the appointment 
of Dr. (Jarey to the Professorship of the Bengalee, Sanscrit, and Mahratta languages in the College of 
Fort William, then recently established. This truly providential circumstance greatly augmented his 
means of usefulness as a translator of the Scriptures ; for learned natives crowded from all parts of 
India to the College for literary employment, and through their instrumentality. Dr. Carey saw all the 
learning and almost all the languages of India placed within his reach. An edition of the Bengalee 
Old Testament, consisting of 1000 copies, was carried through the press in successive portions, between 
the years 1802 and 1809. Mr. Fountain, one of the Serampore Missionaries, assisted in the pre- 
paration of the books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1st and 2nd of Kings, and the 2nd of Chronicles ; 
the remaining books were translated by Dr. Carey, but whether he had recourse to the EngUsh version, 
or executed the work direct from the original, we are not informed. In 1806 a .second edition of the 
New Testament, consisting of 1500 copies, was printed. The sheets were previously subjected to the 
most careful revision ; every proof was critically examined and compared with the Greek by Dr. Carey 
and Dr. Marshman; and their increased familiarity with the language enabled them to make several 
important alterations in the idioms and phraseology. This edition was followed by large issues of 
various portions of the Scriptures, printed for separate distribution; and in 1811 a third edition of 
the New Testament was pubKshed in folio, which being designed for the purposes of public worslup in 
native congregations, consisted only of 100 copies. The progress of the next edition was interrupted 
by the fire which occurred in the printing office at Serampore in 1812 ; but by the zeal of fiiends and 
the energy of the missionaries, new types and printing materials were quickly procured, and in the 
following year the second edition of the Pentateuch, to the extent of 1000 copies, was published. A 
fourth and revised edition of the New Testament, consisting of 5000 copies, appeared in 1816 ; and 
the increased desire manifested by the natives for copies of the Scriptures in Bengalee, led to the pub- 
lication of several large editions of the New Testament and of various portions of Scripture which 
appeared in successive years ; and in 1832, the eighth edition of the New Testament, carefully revised 
and corrected, was committed to the press. It is rather remarkable that the labours of Dr. Carey as a 
translator commenced with the Bengalee New Testament, and closed, after the long interval of forty 
years, with its revision. He completed his last edition of tliis Testament but a very short period prior 
to his death ; and in allusion to its completion, he remarked at the time to his friends, that " his work 
was done, and that he had nothing more to do than to wait the will of his Lord."'' 

Another version of the Bengalee New Testament was undertaken by Mr. EUerton of the Church 
Missionary Society, who had long been stationed at Malda, near the ruins of the ancient Gaura. His 
first production was a version of the Gospel of John, wliicli was printed at the expense of the Countess 
of Loudoun, principally for the use of a school which she had established at Barrackpore. This 
version obtained so many strong testimonials in its favour, that the Calcutta Bible Society caused 
an edition of 2000 copies of the Gospels to be printed in 1817 ; and in the following year, an edition 
of the entire Testament, translated by Mr. Ellcrton, and consisting of 2000 copies, was issued by the 
same Society, together with a large impression of the Gospels, which were distributed singly to the 
amount of seven or eight thousand copies. In 1818 the Baptist Missionaries settled at Calcutta pub- 
lished for the same Society an edition of 5000 copies of Mr. EUerton's version of the Gosjiel of John, 
with the English on the opposite pagcs.^ In 1823 the Calcutta Committee printed another large 
edition of Mr. EUerton's version of the Gospels and Acts, chiefly for the use of the schools estabhshed 
by the missionary societies throughout Bengal ; and as this edition was speedily exhausted, another 
edition to the same extent of 4000 copies was put to press in 1829.*^ \\liile this edition was in the 
course of publication, the attention of the Calcutta Committee was drawn to the great improvements 

1 Cox's History of the Baptist Missionary Society, vol. i. p. 25. » Memoir of Dr. Carey, by Rev. E. Carey, p. 585. 

2 Memoir of Dr. Carey, by Rev. E. Carey, p. 323 s Memoir of Dr. Yates, by Dr. Hoby, p. 398. 

3 Memoir of Dr. Carey, by Rev. E. Carey, p. 2/6. • Twentv-sixth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. bdii. 


wMch had been made iu the Serampore version of the Bengalee New Testament by the critical 
revisions to which each successive edition had been subjected ; and on a careful examination of Mr. 
Ellerton's version, it was determined by the Committee either to subject it to a very minute and 
accurate revision, or to substitute some other version in its place. This led to the important measure 
of endeavouring to obtain what might be accounted a standard version of the Scriptures in Bengalee. 
With this view, a Sub-committee was formed in 1830, composed of the best scholars of the different 
denominations of Christians friendly to the Bible Society in Bengal. They were appointed to execute 
a version of the entire Scriptures, and agreed to submit their labours to the suggestions of other dis- 
tinguished scholars.' They began with the book of Genesis, and published it in 1833 ; the accoimt 
which they gave as to their mode of procedure was as follows : — " We have," they said, "paid par- 
ticular regard to the connective links of the history, and we have throughout consulted the Hebrew 
original, and the best authorities on Scripture criticism : as to the language employed, we have been 
careful in selecting pure Bengalee words only, such as derive their origin from the Sanscrit, avoiding 
all Hindustani vocables, and all low expressions."^ As further supplies of the New Testament were 
imperatively requisite to meet the immediate wants of the people, another edition of 4000 copies of 
the Gospels and Acts of Mr. Ellerton's version was printed in 1831 ; and in 1835, as the revision of 
the New Testament by the Sub-committee had not been accomplished, the Calcutta Society was autho- 
rised by the Parent Society to print an edition of 5000 copies of Mr. Ellerton's version as a temporary 
supply.^ Some amendments had been made in the version by the Rev. Mr. Eeichardt, which were in 
part adopted by a Sub-committee appointed to conduct tliis edition through the press. 

A third version of the Bengalee Scriptures has been executed by Dr. Yates, a Baptist missionary, 
whom we have before mentioned as a translator of the Scriptures into Sanscrit. The first portion of 
Dr. Yates's Bengalee version that was committed to the press appears to have been the Psalter, pub- 
lislied by the Calcutta Society in 1827. The part of the Bengalee Bible containing the Psalms had 
been out of print for more than eight years, although repeated appHcations had been made for it. On 
publishing this new translation of the Psalms, t\\e Calcutta Committee presented every native Christian, 
in full communion with a church of any denomination, with a copy, not only because most of them 
were too poor to purchase, but principally as a token of brotherly affection, and of concern for their 
spiritual prosperity. It was hoped by the Committee that this proceeding would " contribute in some 
measure to the promotion of that love and union between Christians of different nations and com- 
munions, which our common Lord and Saviour so earnestly implored in his mediatorial prayer 
(John xvii.); and which will, doubtless, be one of the principal means of convincing the world that 
the Father has sent the Son to be the Saviour of men."* 

The first edition of Dr. Yates's New Testament appears to have been pubhshed in 1833. In the 
preparation of this version he derived much assistance from liis friend and coUeague, Mr. Pearce, who 
had a very accurate acquaintance with the Bengalee dialect, and also with the Greek original, from 
which the translation was made.^ Dr. Yates remarks concerning him, that " he had the eye of a 
Christian, a critic, and a printer." This version was pronounced by competent judges " an able and 
excellent translation;'"' and as the Baptist Missionaries Hberally permitted the Bible Society to use 
their version with alterations for the word baptism (they being considered in no way parties 
to such alterations), the Calcutta Committee undertook in 1836 to publish an edition of 5000 
copies of the entire Testament.' This edition of Dr. Yates's version was completed at the expense of 
the Parent Society in 1837. Other editions of the same version appear to have been printed, from 
time to time, by the Baptist Missionaries. In 1840 a fourth, and very beautiful, edition was issued by 
them, and in 1844 it underwent an entire and very severe revision ; and references and marginal read- 
ings were added.* An edition of the Bengalee New Testament, in Roman letters, was pubhshed 
in London by the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1839 : the text adopted was that 
of Dr. Yates. In the translation of the Old Testament, Dr. Yates was aided by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society : the sum of £400 was voted in 1836 in aid of the version, and further 
assistance was promised.' The version was completed in 1844 : the translation of the entire Bible 
had occupied Dr. Yates during the space of five years, and five more were employed in printing it.'" 

With the exception of a version of the book of Proverbs by the Rev. W. Morton, of which an 
edition of 5000 copies was printed by the Calcutta Society in 1842, no other translation of any portion 

• Tweuty-sevcnth Report of British and For. Bible Society, p. .xlviii. « Tliirty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. lix. 

2 Twenty .second Calcutta Reiiort. p. 30. " Thirty-second Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xlix. 

3 Thirty-first Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixi. s Memoir of Dr. Yates, by Dr. Hoby, p. 355. 

t Twenty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixyiil. 9 Thirty-second Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Iv. 

5 Dr. Yates's Memoir of Rev. W. Pearce, p. J2-1. i» Memoir of Dr. Yates, by Dr. Hoby, p. 330. 


of the Scriptures into Bengalee seems to have been made in addition to the above mentioned versions 
until 1845, wlicn a new version of the entire Bengalee New Testament, prepared by Dr. HsBberliii, 
was offered to the Calcutta Society: 250 copies of the Gospel according to Mark, and the same number 
of the Epistle to the Ephesians, have since been printed as specimens of Dr. Hfcberlin's version,' in 
order that its value may be tested. 

In 1845 an inquiry was instituted by the Calcutta Society respecting the state of the Bengalee 
versions, and the practicability of obtaining a version which they might consider their own. A 
circular letter was addressed to the various missionaries in Bengal for their advice and help. From the 
answers received, it appeared that "none of the existing versions, in their present state, fully answered 
the actual wants of the country ; and that cither an entirely new version, or a revised and improved 
edition, of some one or other of the existing versions was absolutely required."^ As it had, however, 
been long acknowledged that the version by Dr. Yates possessed the principal characteristics deemed 
requisite in a standard version, the Calcutta Society determined to reprint his New Testament, and an 
edition of 2500 copies was published in 1847, imder the care of the Kev. J. Paterson, of the London 
Missionary Society. During the same year the Society likewise printed 5000 copies of Genesis with 
the first twenty chapters of Exodus, from Dr. Yates's version. About the same time 1000 copies of 
the Prophecies of Isaiah were printed by Mr. L. Mendes at his own expense, the Society supplying the 
paper : this work was carried through the press by the Rev. Dr. Duff and the Rev. A. F. Lacroix.^ 

Another edition of 4000 copies of Dr. Yates's version of the New Testament was pubHshed by the 
Baptist Missionaries in 1846 : there were also printed, for separate distribution, 15,000 copies of each of 
the Four Gospels, besides other separate portions of Scripture.'* 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version of the Scriptures. — Examples 
might easily be multij^lled of the blessed effects that at various periods have resulted from the study of 
the Bengalee Scriptures ; but let the following facts, related by Dr. Marshman in Illustration of the 
subject, suffice. About the year 1818, a nmnber of persons were found inhabiting certain villages near 
Dacca, who had forsaken idolatry, and who constantly refused to Brahmins the usual honours paid to 
them beyond the other classes of the community. Tliey were also said to be remarkable for the cor- 
rectness of their conduct, and particularly for their adliei-ence to truth. They were occasionally visited 
by several Christian brethren, both native and European, and were said to be scattered through ten or 
twelve villages. They were, however, the followers of no particular leader, as is the case with many 
sects among the Hindoos ; but from their professing to be in search of a true gooroo, or teacher, they 
were termed sufija-fiooroos. Some native Christians being exceedingly desirous of knowing whence 
they have derived all their ideas, were at length told that they had imbibed them from a book which 
was carefully preserved in one of their villages. On arriving at this village, they were shown a book 
much worn, kept in a case ; the book was stated to have been there many years, although none of 
those present could say from whence it came. On examination this book was found to be a copy of 
the first edition of the Bengalee New Testament, printed at Serampore in 1800. After this, numbers 
of these suti/a-r/ooroos went to Dacca, and conversed with the native brethren there concerning many 
subjects mentioned in the New Testament. This ended in three of them being baptized on a pro- 
fession of faith in Christ, and they afterwards returned to their own villages. Krlshnoo, a native 
Christian (who had also been converted by means of the perusal of the Bengalee version, and who had 
been baptized in 1800) went among them shortly afterwards, and found in their possession a copy of 
the second edition of the Bengalee New Testament, which they prized very highly, although they had 
not, as a body, made an open profession of Christianity.'' Other similar instances of the efiects 
resulting under the blessing of God from the distribution of this version, will be seen by reference to 
the Reports of the Church and London Missionary Societies ; but the best evidence of the satisfactory 
result of this dissemination of the Bengalee Scriptures is exhibited in the numerous congregations and 
schools that are rising in every part of the Bengal Presidency. 

1 Forty-third Report of British and Foreigri Bible Society, p. xc. * Annual Report of the Baptist Missionary Society for 1847, p. a. 

- Korty-second Report of British and Foreigri Bible Society, p. Lvxxiv. s Eighteenth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 62. 

■* Forty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixxxiv. 


Magadha, or ]\Iagudha. 

Magadha is spoken in the province of South Bahar, wliich comprises an area of 32,982 square 
miles, and a population of 4,758,150. South Bahar is now included in the Presidency of Bengal, but 
it was anciently the seat of an independent sovereignty. Gaya, a town in this province, is said to have 
been the birthplace of Buddha, the great prophet and legislator of Eastern Asia. From this and other 
circumstances it was once currently behoved, though without sufiicient data, that the dialect now 
spoken in South Bahar is identical with Pah, the sacred language of Buddhism. But, whatever may 
be the diversity of opinion concerning the origin of the Magadha dialect, it is now generally admitted 
that, in its present state, it can only be regarded as a gross corruption of the Bengalee.' According 
to Mr. Colebrooke's representation, it appears to be more corrupt than any of the other Indian dialects ; 
but, perhaps, this may partly arise from the large proportion of Mahommedans found in this province, 
speakino- another language, and using a different character, and who are said to form at least one third 
of the entire population. A version of the New Testament in Magadha was commenced at Serampore 
in 1814, and in 1824 an edition of 1000 copies left the press.^ More recently, some portions of the 
Gospels have been translated by the Kev. E. Start of Patna ; but it appears that his version is still 
unfinished and in manuscript : he is of opinion that it is through the Magadha alone that " access can 
be had to one milhon of Hindoos who now hve in the birthplace of Buddhism."' Other missionaries, 
however, have stated that it is questionable whether any version of the Scriptures except the Bengalee 
is strictly requisite in South Bahar. 

Tirhitiya, or Mithili. 

The Sircar of Tirhut, or Tirhoot, sometimes called MithiU, and sometimes North Bahar, is 
separated from South Bahar by the river Ganges, and hes principally between the 27th and 28th 
degrees of north latitude. In the parhamentary reports of 1822, its area was represented at 13,492, 
and its population at 3,181,775. The Tirhitiya dialect never appears to have been at any period in 
extensive use, or to have been much employed in Uterary compositions. In its present form it greatly 
resembles the Bengalee, and its written characters differ but little from those used in writing Bengalee.'* 
In the Lord's Prayer, as given in this dialect by the Serampore Missionaries, may be traced twenty 
words radically the same as those in the Bengalee and Hinduwee specimens ; but some of the words 
are more purely Sanscrit.' A version of the Scriptures in this dialect was projected at Serampore, but 
apparently never carried into execution. It is now conjectm-ed that the Bengalee version is Hkely to 
answer all the purposes of a separate translation in Tirhitiya. 

1 Versions of Scripture required for India, p. 3. * Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 220. 

2 Annual Report of Baptist Missionary Society for 1847, p. 49. 5 Sixth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 13. 

3 Fortieth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xcii. 


(A Specimen of tliis Version could not be procured at the time of publication.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Assam was one of the provinces ceded to ttc 
British in 1826 by the Burmese, and now forms part of the eastern frontier of our Indian possessions. 
It is inchided in tlie valley of the Brahmaputra, and extends from the north-east corner of the pro- 
vince of 15engal, about longitude 91 degrees east, in an easterly direction, to an extent not yet very 
clearly dellncd; but it is firobablc that from about the 96th degree of east longitude, the territory is 
inhabited by several independent tribes, who occupy the intervening sf)ace from thence to the province 
of Yunan in China, and who speak dialects belonging to the Monosyllabic stock. The total popu- 
lation of Assam in 1835, according to Pemberton, was 602,500. Brahminism has been the general 
religion of the people since the seventeenth century, yet many among them profess Mahometanism. 

Chaeacteristics of the Language. — The original language of the Assamese nation was 
the Ahom, a branch of tlie Siamese family of languages. The Ahom appears to have been formerly 
vernacular on the borders of China, whence these people are said to have emigrated prior to their 
settlement in Assam. On their adoption of the rehgion of Bengal, in the middle of the seventeenth 
century, they also gradually habituated themselves to the use of its language, till at length the ancient 
Aliom tongue became extinct. The language now spoken in Assam has, during the lapse of years, 
contracted several peculiarities of its own, distinguisliing it from the Bengalee. The Serampore 
Missionaries diligently compared it with the Bengalee, and found that though the two dialects stiU 
correspond with each other exactly, so far as words are concerned, yet that the inflections of nouns 
and verbs difier so greatly, that the natives of the two countries are unintelligible to each other. The 
letters of the Assamese dialect have in general the same name and power as the Bengalee, but several 
of the characters vary a little in form ; and though these variations are but trifling, yet in printing the 
Scriptures it was found impracticable to use the Bengalee types, and the Missionaries were obliged to 
cast a new fount of types for the purpose. 

Versions of Scripture in this Dialect. — A translation of the Scriptures into Assamese 
was commenced at Serampore in 1811, and completed in 1815, when the first two Gospels were 
printed. The whole New Testament was finished at press in 1819, the edition consisting of a 
thousand copies:' the British and Foreign Bible Society aided the publication by the grant of £500. 
In 1822, one thousand copies of the Pentateuch left the press ; and in 1832 the printing of the Old 
Testament was almost completed.^ The American Baptist Missionary Society has three stations in this 
province, and, according to the last reports, Mr. Nathan Brown, one of their agents, is occupied in pre- 
paring another translation of the New Testament into Assamese. In 1843 he had proceeded as far as 
the close of the Epistle to the Romans.' 

Eesults of the Dissemination of this Version. — -Comparatively few details have been 
received in Europe concerning the progress of the Gospel in this province, or the results that may 
have followed the Christian efforts oi the American Baptist Missionaries, the only labourers employed 
on tlris field. These missionaries, however, have stated that " the truth appears to be slowly and 
surely working its way in Assam ; that the people are eager to receive books ; and that a number of 
interesting young men do not hesitate to denounce Hindooism as false, and to acknowledge the 
Scriptures as true." 

I Eighth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 3. 3 Hoole's Year-Book of Missions, p. 170. 

- Tenth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 7. 


(For a Specimen of this Version, see Plate TV.) 

GEOGRAPniCAL ExTENT AND STATISTICS. — Uiiya is the vernacular dialect of Orissa, a narrow 
strip of country stretching along the shores of the Bay of Bengal, from the provinces of Bengal and 
Bahar on the north to the Carnatic on the south ; it has an average breadth of about seventy miles 
inland, wliere it borders upon Gundwana, and is said to comprise a territory of about 28,000 square 
miles. The amount of population is uncertain ; but in 1836 it was stated that from three to four 
millions of people are conversant with the Uriya dialects.' Orissa has been under foreign sway since 
the year 1558, when it was conquered by the AiFghans. In 1578 it was annexed to the Mogul 
empire; in 1756 it was transferred to the Mahrattas; and since 1803-4 it has formed a part of the 
Bengal Presidency.^ The national religion of Orissa is Brahminism, and the celebrated temple and 
town of Juggernaut are situated in this province. 

Characteristics of this Dialect. — Uriya is a tolerably pure dialect of the Sanscrit, but 
possesses some Persian and Arabic terms, borrowed through the medium of the Hindustani, with 
others of doubtful origin. It is closely connected with Bengalee, nine-tenths of the same words being 
in use in both dialects : the pronmiciation, however, differs greatly; for an effeminate style of articula- 
tion is prevalent in Bengal, while the inhabitants of Orissa have a broad and almost a rustic accent.* 
The Uriya has a written character peculiar to itself, but evidently derived from the Devanagari ; and 
the Brahmins of this province use the Uriya character in writing Sanscrit. The deviations of this 
character from the Devanagari have been ascribed to the practice of writing on palm leaves with an 
iron style, or on paper with a pen cut from a porcupine's quill.'' 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Dialect. — The first version of the Scriptures in 
this dialect was commenced by the Serampore Missionaries in 1803. The native pundit employed in 
preparing the rough draft of the translation was almost as well acquainted with the Bengalee as with 
his own dialect, and therefore translated from the Bengalee version ; his work, according to the method 
pursued in other versions, was afterwards compared verse by verse with the original text, and corrected 
by the missionaries. An edition consisting of 1000 copies of the New Testament was printed In 1811. 
The first edition of the Old Testament, which also consisted of 1000 copies, was finLshed at press in 
1819.^ So great was the demand for this version that. In 1820, the first edition of the New Testament 
was exhausted, and an edition, consisting of 4000 copies, was put to press, and completed Irt 1822. 
The publication of this large edition was simultaneous with the establishment of a mission by the 
General Baptist Society at Cuttack, the capital of Orissa.^ In 1832 a second edition of tlie Old Testa- 
ment was passing through the press ; and likewise a large separate edition of the Psalms.' In 1838, 
In consequence of inquiries that had been instituted relative to the particular versions of Scripture 
chiefly required In India, the Eev. Messrs. Sutton and Noyes were requested by the Sub-committee of 
translations at Calcutta, to prepare a new version of the Scriptures in Uriya.' Mr. Sutton commenced 
with the book of Genesis, and when the translation was completed, he carried on both the printing 
and binding at Cuttack, where he was stationed.^ An edition of the Old Testament was accomplished 
by him for the Bible Society in 1844; the edition consisted of 2000 copies of the New Testament, and 
of 3000 separate copies of the books of Genesis, Psalms, and Proverbs.'" 

' Thirty-second Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 37. 6 Ninth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 29. 

- Hamilton's East India Gazeteer, in voce. ? Tenth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 10. 

' Sutton's Narrative of the Rise and Progress of the Mission at Orissa, p. 18. s Tliirty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ix. 

' Colebrooke in Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 225. 9 Fortieth Report of British and Foreign Bihle Society, p. xcvii. 

* Eighth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 24. 10 Forty-first Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. ex. 


CUTCH, a small state of north-western Hlndoostan, lies between latitude 22° 45' and 23° 45' north. 
The Eunn, a salt morass of immense extent, divides it from Sinde, Rajpootana, and Gujcrat. The 
greatest extent of Cutch from east to west is 165 miles, and its average breadth is 45 miles. The land 
IS in general poor and indifferently cultivated, and the number of inhabitants does not exceed half a 
million.' Brahminism and Mahometanism prevail in about equal proportions. Cutch is subsidiary 
to the British ; the government is in the hands of the Jarejahs, a race of Sindian origin. Very little 
is known respecting the Cutchee dialect, but it is supposed to be intimately connected with the 

A translation of the Gospel of St. Matthew into Cutchee was executed by the late Eev. James 
Gray, one of the chaplains at Bombay; and in 1835 a smaU. edition, consisting of 500 copies, was 
printed.^ This edition was, however, found to be of little or no service, from the circumstance of its 
being issued in the Balboreh character, with which the people of Cutch arc unacquainted. In 1843, 
the attention of the Bombay Auxiliary Bible Society Avas directed to the duty of disseminating the 
Scriptures in the countries on each side of the Indus, which had, through recent political events, be- 
come accessible to missionary efforts. It was determined by the Society to print an edition of Mr. 
Gray's version of St. Matthew in Guzerattee characters, which are commonly employed in Cutch. It 
was anticipated that this edition would be useful in Sinde, particularly in the parts of Sinde bordering 
upon Cutch, as well as in Cutch itself^ The later Reports of the Society, however, furnish us with no 
further information concerning the pubheation or circulation of this edition. 


Sinde is an extensive country of Western India, and apparently derives its name from the river 
Sinde, or Indus, by which it is traversed. It lies between 23 and 29 degrees of north latitude, and 
67 and 71 degrees of east longitude. It was governed by military chieftains called Ameers ; but since 
the year 1839, has been classed among the states subject to Britain. The inhabitants are a mixed race, 
chiefly Hindoos, Juts, and Beloochees, and may in number amount to about 1,000,000. Maho- 
metanism is perhaps the predominant religion, though many of the people are followers of 

The Sindhee dialect has a written character peculiar to itself ; otherwise it merely differs in spell- 
ing and inflection from the pure Hinduwee of Upper India ;'' and, indeed, it is by some regarded as 
the elder dialect of the two, because it is more elaborate and regular in the inflection of nouns 
and verbs. 

The Serampore Missionaries had commenced a translation of the Scriptures into \his dialect as 
early as 1815 ;■'' but various circumstances impeded the progress of the work, and it was not till 1825 
that the first part of the version, consisting of the Gospel of St. Matthew, was committed to the press.^ 
We are not informed of how many copies this edition consisted, and it does not appear that any other 
portion of this version was afterwards pubhshed. 

I Lieutenant.Colonel Toil's Travels in Western India, p. 484. < Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal for 183", p. 348. 

■-■ ■I'tiirtyfirst Report of Uiitish and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixv. s Twelfth Report of British and Foreign Bible Societj', p. 224. 

J Fortieth Report of Brilish and Foreign Bible Society, p. cvi. = Annual Report of Baptist Society for 1847, j). 50. 


The district of Moultan, in wliicli this dialect is vernacular, is enclosed by the rivers Indus, 
Chenab, and Gliarra ; it has the Punjab on the north, Sinde on the west and south, and the Sandy 
Desert on the east. Although Moultan was formerly an extensive territory, yet owing to political 
changes it does not now exceed 110 miles in length, by 70 in breadth. The amount of population is 
uncertain, but does not probably exceed three or four hundred thousand. Brahminism and JMahomet- 
anism are the two predominant rehgions. 

The dialect is called Wuch, or Ooch, from a town of that name in the southern extremity of 
Moultan. It differs little from the Sindhee, and the character in which it is written is nearly the same 
as that used in wi-iting Sindhee.' A translation of the Scriptures into this dialect was commenced at 
Serampore in 1812, and 1000 copies of the New Testament were printed in 1819.^ But as no mis- 
sionary station has yet been formed in Moultan, it is not probable that tliis edition has obtained much 
circulation. The Serampore Missionaries afterwards recognised their error in providing translations 
of the Scriptm-es for countries where there were no missionaries to undertake the distribution, and they 
accordingly renounced the design they had contemplated of procuring a version of tlie Old Testament 
for Moultan, and dismissed the pimdit whom they had employed in the translation of the New 


(A Specimen of the Translation now in progress will, if possible, be given before the close of the work.) 

Thk Punjab is an extensive and hitherto independent country of north-west Hindoostan, situated 
chiefly between the 29th and 34th degrees of north latitude, and the 70th and 77th degrees of east longi- 
tude. It derives its name from two Persian words signifying jive waters, in allusion to the five great 
streams, arms of the Indus, by which it is intersected. It was the scene of the last campaign of Alex- 
ander the Great. Its superficial extent has been estimated at 60,000 square miles, and its population at 
4,000,000.'' Jats, Eajpoots, Hindoos of low caste, various hill tribes, and Mussulmans constitute part 
of this population ; but the Sikhs, or disciples (as the name signifies in Sanscrit), are the predominant 
race. Burnes says he conjectm-es the Sikhs number but 500,000 individuals : this, however, is a 
subject involved in much uncertainty. The Sikhs were originally Hindoos, and their incorporation as a 
sect, with the assumption of a distinctive appellation, dates from the close of the fifteenth, or beginning of 
the sixteenth, century. Their founder, Nanac, a native of the Punjab, was born in 1469: he professed 
a desire to reform, not to destroy, the Hindoo religion, and sought to reconcile the jarring faiths of 
Brahma and Mahomet, so as to unite the followers of each system into one body.^ The creed wliich 
he Inculcated was one of pure deism, founded on the most sublime general truths, and breathing a 
spirit of peace and toleration ; yet his followers speedily lost sight of the purity of his doctrines, 
retainino' only the remembrance of the Hindoo and Mahommedan fables which had found a place in 
his system. Guru Govind, the tenth guru or teacher in succession from Nanac, impressed a new 
character on the religion of his followers, by recognising the equality of all men, thus finally abolish- 
ing the distinction of caste, and enforcing the bearing of arms as a reUgious duty incumbent on all. 
He was the founder of the temporal power of the Sikhs : he was killed A.D. 1708. 

Characteristics of the Dialect. — The Sareswati, one of the dialects altered from the 
Sanscrit for colloquial purposes, and hence called Pracrit, or derived, appears to have been anciently 

1 Twelfth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 22-1. < M'CuUoch's Geographical Dictionary, vol. ii. p. 359. 

s Ninth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 4. s General Malcolm in Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 267. 

3 Seventh Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 7. 

Indo-European Languages.] PUNJABEE. 101 

the vernacular of the Punjab ; but it underwent many alterations, owing to the invasions of the 
Mahomniedans, and numerous foreign words were by degrees engrafted on it. The Punjabec, or 
modem dialect of the Sikhs, possesses many terms of Persic and Arabic origin, yet it still retains 
clear traces of its Sanscrit origin, and cxliibits a close resemblance to the Hmduwee. In the 
specimen of the Lord's Prayer in Punjabce, given by the Serampore Missionaries, no less than 
thirty words were found nearly identical with the corresponding terms in the Hinduwee and Bengalee 
specimens. The Punjabee characters, thougli peculiar to that dialect, present comparatively few points 
of difference from the Devanagari, being the same m number, order, and power, though slightly vary- 
ing in form. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Dialect. — A version of the New Testament in 
Punjabec was commenced at Serampore in 1807, but the fount of types which had been prepared for 
printing it, was one of those which were so unfortunately. destroyed by fire. The loss, however, was 
speedily replaced, and in 1813 the Gospels and Acts were announced as finished. The entire New 
Testament, in an edition of 1000 copies, was completed in 1815. In 1832, a second edition was 
undertaken. The translation of the Old Testament into Punjabee has only been partially accom- 
plished. In 1820 an edition of the Pentateuch and Historical Books was issued, followed during the 
ensuing year by an edition of the Hagiographa ; and a small portion of the Prophetical Books was 
afterwards printed. But the pundit who assisted Dr. Carey in the preparation of this version was 
seized with a complaint which terminated in death ;' and as no pundit could be met with capable of 
suppl3ang his place, the work was entirely suspended. The translation had been conducted as far as 
the close of Ezekiel's Prophecy, at which point it still remains. Efforts are now being made to furnish 
the Siklis with a new version of the Scriptures. The missionaries in the neighbourhood of the Punjab 
are at present employed in translating tlie New Testament, and it is the intention of the Agra Bible 
Society to appoint a regular Sub-committee to superintend this important undertaking." Arrange- 
ments have lately been made by that Society with the missionaries at Loodiana for the printing of 
5000 copies of the Gospel of John in Pimjabee. 

Eesults of the Dissemination of this Version. — In the year 1820, five years after the 
completion of the Punjabee New Testament, the following account was given of the Sikhs and of the 
readiness they had manifested to receive the Scriptures: — " So strong has been the desire of this 
nation for the New Testament, that the whole edition is nearly distributed, and a second edition will 
probably be called for before the Old Testament is wholly published. Besides the Mughs, on the 
borders of Arracan, no one of the nations of India has discovered a stronger desire for the Scriptures 
than this hardy race ; and the distribution of ahnost every copy has been accompanied with the 
pleasing hope of its being read and valued."^ About two years subsequently, the following statement 
was made by one of the missionaries to the translators : — " Of the faithfulness and utihty of the 
Punjabee Scriptures, you have had abimdant proof in the warm reception given to them, and in the 
spirit of inquiry raised in the minds of multitudes of the free and independent people using the 
Punjabee language. At Umritsar, at Lahore, at the fountain head of the Sikh religion, the book of 
Jesus is spoken of, is read, and has caused a considerable stir in the minds of the people."* The 
Serampore Missionaries, under the date of their last Memoir (1832), furnish equally gratifying details 
concerning the Siklis ; but of late years little has been known respecting the further distribution of 
the Scriptures among this interesting nation. 

1 Tenth Memoir of the Serampore TrEinslations, p. 7- 3 Seventh Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 6, 

2 Forty- third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xciii. ; 4 Eighth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 48. 

and Forty-fourth Report, p. Ixxxviii. 



The Dogura, or Jumboo, dialect Is spoken in the hilly country on the north of the Punjab, and 
east of the river Chenab and of Cashmere. Much confusion prevails in the accounts of the Seram- 
pore Missionaries respecting the extent of territory in which this dialect is predominant ; and the 
number of inhabitants to whom it is vernacular has never yet been ascertained. 

The Dogura dialect deviates in many respects from the Punjabee, and approximates pretty closely 
to the Cashmerian dialect. It has several permutations of letters and inflections pecuHar to itself, but 
preserves indubitable indications of its Sanscrit origin. In the specimen of the Lord's Prayer in 
Dogura, given by the Serampore Missionaries, twenty-five words were similar to those of the Hindu- 
wee and Bengalee specimens, wliile the remaining words were foimd to be more immediately connected 
with the Sanscrit. 

A version of the New Testament in Dogura was undertaken at Serampore in 1814 ; in 1820 the 
first three Gospels left the press, and in 1826 an edition of the entire New Testament, consisting of 
1000 copies, was completed. Opportunities for the circulation of the version seem to have been 
wholly wanting. In 1832 it was stated that a few copies had been given to some natives who had 
visited Calcutta,' but no further accounts have since been furnished relative to the distribution of this 


(For Specimen of tliis Version, see Plate V.) 

Cashmere is an elevated and fertile tract, enclosed by very lofty mountains, situated north of 
the Punjab. It is about 120 miles long by 70 broad. In superficial extent it comprises 4500 square 
miles, being a little less than four-fifths of the size of Yorkshire.- The total amount of population is 
about 600,000; the majority of the inhabitants are Mahommedans. After having been successively 
subject to the Mogul empire and to the Afighans, Cashmere fell in 1819 under the dominion of the 
Sikhs, by whom it is at present governed. 

The Cashmerian dialect is derived from the Sanscrit, and the written character resembles the 
Devanagari. The business of the government is transacted m Persian, and a number of Persian words 
have hence become engrafted on the Cashmerian dialect. The pronunciation of the Cashmerians is 
said to be remarkably broad, coarse, and uncouth. 

An edition of 1000 copies of the New Testament was printed at Serampore in 1820, after having 
been ten years in course of preparation.^ An edition of the Pentateuch was commenced in 1822; but 
as the types used in printing it were afterwards exchanged for smaller ones, the completion of the 
edition was retarded, and in 1832 the Old Testament had only been printed as far as the Second Book 
of Kings. It does not appear that any further efibrts have since been made to continue the work. 
Probably the version was eventually discovered to be comparatively useless, on account of there being 
no missionaries in Cashmere to undertake the distribution. 

3 Eighth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 3. 



St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 
q :( TT^TO ^Tt "'Thn "3^ ftT ^ "j j.fti ri ■sfhjT 7 ^ t.^^ ^tNt ^ "^ \*H.'*l ^TiT ^ ?J^ T^f^ ^T 

^ d >WT I ^^ ^R ^^ HUT THJW ^^t^Rt T^f^T ^^T ■«fhn ^ I "a^HT »rNr ^T ^RR «T W^T 

4 nTf^ lif^ -a^nfcs ■'ft I "3?^ TsncST^ ^vrom ^n^ ^mn ■^ ^jvrt% th^tt^ Tt^ ^it 'r t 

t ^^ ^^ ftp w^ "5^^ f^^^ n^'H I iT-j^n^TBT'q^'m^rR'^^^^cn^n^^im mFejfi^^r^MT'srrmi 

SI ^rai: ^ftrm ^rref^ ^Iht >nn ■? ?ffiw ^'t W\ ^^ ^^. ' ^ ^tt^ '^tfv^iRciri ^ min -^ 
1^ ^T?RT cTt^T^ jt j cjir^ "^1^ IK ^ I ■ar 5ns% ■^^n^ ur^ n^n ■jtrgyr^ ^^ ^t^t^ %m -^^ 

S? ^^ ^TC^ f^^ '3T^ "SITTpn ^TRm f^m 'h"<<1$1 cST^ f% % <«liri<ns ^ *lO ■•!.*! ^Td.1^ ^ JTlfqti 

sd ^ ?;^n^^^'t ^^ •q'hi •JT nT t^^R^f^ ^i^T •q'Hn i ^r^r^ fn kt mft^ im ^rt ^^n "? ^t^t^ 
*irhiT: "U=fiTi ^THti 5RTirfi»n m^ ^i^t ^^mt ■^rrm ircs ^^T>nn^ %to^t mfih* l'^^. ftfti% "to^ 


Nepaul, one of the largest independent sovereignties of India, comprises a great portion of the 
southern declivity of the Himalaya chain, and lies between the 27th and 31st degrees of north 
latitude,' and the 80th and 88th degrees of east longitude. It is bounded on three sides by the British 
territories, and on the north, the lofty ridges of the Himalayas divide it from the table land of Thibet. 
Its superficial extent is 53,000 square miles, and its amount of population 2,000,000. Nepaul was 
formerly divided among numerous petty independent princes, but since the middle of the last century 
it has been united into one kingdom, under the sway of the Rajah of Goorkha, a small state situated 
north of Nepaul Proper. The aborigines of the country apparently belong to the Mongohan race, 
but great numbers of the present inhabitants are of Hindoo descent. Brahminism is the predominant 
religion, though Buddhism has still many votaries in Nepaul. 

Various dialects prevail in different parts of this extensive territory, but the principal of these is 
unquestionably the Nepalese or Khaspoora, which is exclusively used by the reigning family and by 
the higher castes. It is now continually becoming more and more prevalent throughout the whole 
country, and is rapidly superseding the dialects of the aboriginal tribes ; but originally it was merely 
the vernacular of a Hindoo tribe, whom tradition represents as having sought refuge among the 
mountains of Nepaul during an invasion of the Mahommedans, about the fourteenth century of our 
era. These Hindoos are still distinguished by the name of Parabatiya, or Parabutties; and hence their 
dialect is frequently designatcd"thc Parbutti, or momitain Hinduwee. It has a very close afiinity with 
the pure Hinduwee of Upper India, yet at the same time has so much in common with the Thibetan, 
that some writers have not hesitated to suggest the probabihty of its having been originally an inferior 

1 Hamilton's East India Gazeteer, vol. ii. p. 302. 


dialect of the latter language, compelled by tlie poverty of its structure to borrow largely from the 
Sanscrit.' Several different alphabets are in use in Xepaul, all apparently based on the Devanagari. 

The only version of the Scriptures that has been attempted in tliis dialect was commenced at 
Serampore in 1812; and an edition, consisting of 1000 copies, of the New Testament was issued in 
1821.''' A few copies were placed, soon after pubHcation, in the hands of the Goorkhas, but as there 
are no missionaries stationed in Nepaul, opportunities for general distribution of this Testament in that 
country have not yet been found. 


Palpa is a division of Northern Hindustan, subject to the Nepalese. It is situated below the 
Himalayas, north of Oude and cast of Kumaon. No accurate estimate appears to have been made of 
the amount of population to whom the Palpa dialect is vernacular, and little is known even respecting 
the distinctive pccuharities of the dialect itself; for although the Serampore Missionaries have 
furnished a version of the New Testament in Palpa, they have given us no details illustrative of the 
structure of this dialect, or of its points of divergence from the other members of the Sanscrit stem. 

Tlie Serampore version was commenced in 1817, and part of the Gospel of Matthew was printed 
in 1822;^ an edition of 1000 copies of the New Testament was completed prior to 1832. This work 
has hitherto been comparatively useless, for although a few copies have been presented to natives who 
have occasionally visited Calcutta, no opportunities for general distribution of the Scriptures in Palpa 
have yet occurred. 


Kumaon, a province now subject to Britain, comprises the whole tract of country between the 
Ganges and the Cab, and includes a large portion of the principality of Gurwhal. On the north, its 
frontier line along the Himalayas extends from longitude 79° 15', latitude 31° 4', to longitude 80° 45', 
latitude 30° 10', giving a line of about a hundred Enghsh miles.'' The entire area of the province 
includes 7000 square miles ;■' but Kumaon, properly so called, lies between the Cah, or Gogra, and the 
Ramganga rivers. Like other parts of Northern Hindustan, this territory is thinly populated ; it is 
calculated, however, that about 6000 Brahmiu famihes are settled in different parts of the province. 

The Kumaon dialect is closely alhed to the Hinduwee. A version of the New Testament was 
commenced at Serampore in 1815, but appears to have been printed only as far as the Epistle to the 
Golossians. The death of the Kumaon pundit employed in the translation, about the year 1826, put a 
stop to its further progress through the press.^ As there are no missionaries in Kimiaon, and con- 
sequently no means of distributing the word of God in that province, the suspension of the undertak- 
ing is the less to be regretted. 


Gurwhal is situated between 30 and 31 degrees of north latitude, and extends from the river 
Eamo-anga, which separates it from Kumaon, to the Jumna : on the north it is bounded by the 
Himalayas, and its superficial extent is estimated at 9000 square miles. 

The Gurwhal dialect has been little studied, but it is supposed to bear a considerable resemblance 
to the Hinduwee : it is sometimes called (from the name of the capital of Gurwhal) the Schrcenagur 
dialect. A translation of the New Testament was undertaken at Serampore in 1816 ; the Gospel of 
Matthew was printed in 1820, and the entire New Testament at some period prior to 1832 ;' but 
means for the circulation of this edition have hitherto been utterly wantmg. 

1 Asiatic Researches, vol. xvi. p. 410. ' HamUton's East India Gazeteer, vol. ii. p. 101. 

2 Ninth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 4. « Tenth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 3. 

3 Ninth Memoir ofthe Serampore Translations, p. 21. ' Tenth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 3. 
^Asiatic Researches, vol. xvi. p. 137. 


(For Specimen of this Version, see Plate V.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The Gujerattee dialect takes its name from 
Gujerat, the principal province in which it is spoken, and which lies on the western side of Hindustan, 
between 21 and 24 degrees of north latitude. Gujerattee is the prevailing dialect at Surat, and along 
the whole coast from Cambay to Dainaun. It is said by the Serampore Jlissionaries to be the 
vernacular of a territory equal in point of extent to England. It has been calculated that in this 
territory there are more than five millions of inhabitants ; but of these the Mahommedans form one- 
tenth part, and the number of Jains is not inconsiderable. Gujerattee, as a language of trade and 
commerce, is extensively spoken beyond the limits above described; and it has been appropriately 
designated, on account of its wide ilifFusion, " the grand mercantile language of foreign Indian marts." ' 

Characteristics of this Dialect. — Gujerattee is very closely allied to the Hinduwee, 
and its alphabet, though pecidiar to itself, is evidently derived from the Devanagari.^ The gram- 
matical principles offer few points of variation from those of the other Sanscrit dialects. The verbs 
may be reduced to one conjugation, and strictly speaking there are no irregular verbs. The simple 
tenses arc formed by means of terminations affixed to the root, which is always the second person 
singular of the imperative ; and the other tenses are conjugated by the aid of auxiliaries.^ 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Dialect. — The Serampore Missionaries were the 
first to undertake a Gujerattee version of the Scriptures. When commencing the study of this 
dialect, they remarked that the Gujeratee words, which had become familiar to them through the 
medium of the Sanscrit, the Bengalee, and the Hinduwee, were in the proportion of about six in 
seven. In 1807 they commenced printing the Gospel of St. Matthew in the Devanagari character, 
but owing to pecuniary and other circumstances the work was afterwards relinquished. It was, 
however, resumed in 1813, and the printing of the work was commenced anew, Gujerattee cha- 
racters being substituted for the Sanscrit as more intelligible to the mass of the people.'' An 
edition of 1000 copies of the New Testament was completed in 1820. The prosecution of this 
version was, however, resigned about this period by the Serampore Missionaries to the agents of the 
London Missionary Society stationed at Surat, and from the proximity of this district to Bombay, it 
was deemed advisable that fixture eilitions should be published imder the care of the Bombay Bible 
Society. Some steps had been taken by this Society towards the preparation of a Gujerattee version 
of the New Testament, several years before the publication of the Serampore version. Dr. John 
Taylor, who had originally been sent to Surat as agent of the London Missionary Society, and who 
afterwards accepted a medical appointment under the Bombay Government, offered his services in 1816 
to the Bombay Bible Society to superintend the translation of any portion of the Scriptures into the 
Gujerattee and Mahratta dialects. His proposal was accepted by the Society, and he was requested to 
commence with the Gospel of St. Matthew. He completed the translation of tMs Gospel m 1816, but 
he died soon afterwards ; and although a sum of money was voted by the Calcutta Auxiliary Society 
in aid of the publication of this version, it does not appear whether an edition of this Gospel was 
issued. The translation of the New Testament was then carried on by the Eev. Messrs. Skinner and 
Fyvie of the London Missionary Society. They were stationed at Surat in 1815, and such was their 
diligence in the study of the Gujerattee dialect, that in 1817 they had finished a translation both of 
tlie New Testament and of the Pentateuch, and had in part prepared it for the press. In 1821, 
assisted by the supply of Gujerattee tyjjes and by other grants from the Parent and Auxiliary Bible 
Societies, they printed an edition of 1000 copies of the New Testament.' In this version they appear 
to have incorporated Dr. Taylor's translation of St. ilatthew. JNIr. Skinner died shortly after the pub- 
lication of the New Testament, but the translation of the Old Testament was prosecuted by Mr. Fyvie, 
and in 1823 an edition was carried through the press, printed with a view to wider distribution in 
separate portions, of which the average number of copies was 600.^ In 1825 a second and carefidly 

1 Hamilton's East India Gazcteer, vol. i. p. 6p;. < Eleventh Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 32. 

' Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 229. 5 Nineteenth Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 123. 

3 Grammar of the Goojratee Language, by William Forbes. s London Missionary Report for 1826, p. 4". 


revised edition of the Gospels was published by Mr. Fyvie, under the patronage of the Bombay Society, 
and by the aid of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Of this edition 1000 copies were given 
away in Surat, and 3000 in the interior of the country in the space of little more than twelve months. 
An edition of the entire Scriptures was then commenced in larger types, and the New Testament was 
finished at press in 1827. The second edition of the Old Testament was completed the following 
year : it consisted of 1000 copies of Genesis and the Psalter, and of 500 copies of the other books ; 
and it is gratifying to know that half of this edition was circulated within a fortnight after its publica- 
tion. The demand increased so rapidly that it was found requisite to print forthwith another edition 
of the New Testament, to consist of 3000 copies. From the spring of 1830, the period at which this 
edition was commenced, to the day on which the prlntiug of it was finished, Mr. Fy^ie devoted his 
time to the revision and correction of the work. He compared every passage with the Greek, and 
consulted the best critical works on the original text, while at the same time he endeavoured to render 
the style more conformable to the Gujerattee idiom.' This edition left the press in 1832. In 1842 
another edition of the New Testament was undertaken, to consist of 6000 copies of the Gospels and 
Acts, and 3000 copies of the remaining portions : paper and other materials were transmitted by the 
Parent Society for the purpose.^ About the same period an edition was issued of 1000 copies of the 
Acts, printed in English and Gujerattee in alternate verses. 

Another version of the New Testament in Gujerattee has recently been executed by the Eev. 
Messrs. Clarkson and Flower, and an edition of 2000 copies has been sanctioned, and will be printed 
with all possible speed.^ A separate edition of the New Testament in the Balboodli, or Devanagari 
character, for the benefit of the better educated among the natives of Gujerat, and also for the people 
in the north of the province, has been in contemplation since the year 1828,'' and according to the 
latest accounts it appears likely that this design will now be soon carried into execution. 

Results of the Dissemination or this Version. — The readiness with which the natives 
of Gujerat have received the Scriptures may be inferred from the repeated editions through which 
this version has passed. Mr. Fyvie, one of the translators, estimated the number of copies (in whole 
or in part) that had been distributed by the agency of the mission to which he is attached, during 
the first eight years after the publication of the New Testament, at upwards of 50,000. The happy 
results of this distribution are thus described by the same gentleman: — "Much real good is doing 
among the people by the circidation of the Scriptures. Many begin to see the folly of idolatry, 
and are earnestly desirovis of receiving Christian instruction. Some have openly renounced Hindooism, 
have professed attachment to the God of Israel, and have put on Christ by Christian baptism. The 
attention which these manifest to the Scriptures is truly delightful ; and the readiness with which 
they can refer to circumstances and passages in the Bible is very interesting." 

■ 1 Thirtieth Report of British and Foreif^n Bible Society, p. Ixxv. 3 Forty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xcv, 

2 Thirty-eighth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixviii. ' Twentj'-fifth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixi. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

^^TsnsB txirr II 5 wi<*i^ ^Pi3B^' ^i<^' I ?n!i^ ^ ?n^, If «*1^T^ wNi-j[H sTTcj tt^' n d nmui ftf 
1^ ^ ^nfti ff ftn^ HH!j«i"-^i '3'%? trin ii m ^t ftn ^t t^ winrjiT ucm^ht i vitif ^tvuj^ inTwt v 
fti^W^** ^ ^^T»R^ ^rof^^^ »n^ tnrri WT "^ ^ ^T^ra II s itr^\ '^ m \ f*i 'i gtrq^ P^vj i fi 
V tr^ I ?roR TTT ^^^rf^^T w^ st^ttt'h ^«fl«i3Y vhi^i u b kt^ ft "3^? h^hi i ^tyr wt ^^rrf^ 
ift* -m-^ nunwi [^Tc5T ii] <i ^ rm'^ *rro^ iPTtir thtt i wt^ ^t nohif^i^i i wt^ ^n -j^ ?tkt h 
so ^ iPTtiT tnn I 'snfti ^rn Trrafr^ ^n^ i 'innfi ^ti^ uncyr ^ttocS "Tt^T ii '\'\ ih ^rnrcTf wt* ^riinrsE 
Ki\(f,\ I ^Tftrr '«)m$ ^ «i«i1 itTcyr ^n^ft^ ^rr^T ii i^ trt it fiiri<«Hl (mcrr ^^^ i ^ro^ wr^ li^r^ 
frigro jfwf I wtrr WT^ ^^r^' ^t ^wr^ ^rftrarn; f^ ^ ii <i^ W xr^Khrnpr i fi<wi H\m^i i^^ma^ i 

g^ ^^fi I ^tftr AT Y^% ^ ^CMUIH ^ [^Filt l] TUT^ nnr^ l ^TTTjRB^^ 'T^cTrTRn ^IMIMlfc^ I ^T?ft 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The extensive country in which the Maliratta 
dialect is vernacular is situated between the 16th and 22nd degrees of north latitude, and the 73rd and 
79th degrees of east longitude, and is estimated to enclose a space of 102,000 square miles. It com- 
prehends the whole of Candeish and Aurungabad, and part of the provinces of Berar, Beeder, and 
Bejapoor : the Concan, in which the Maliratta dialect is continually becoming more and more preva- 
lent, is also included in this territory. In consequence of the Maliratta conquests, the dialect is rather 
widely diffused in other parts of India; it is the court language of Tanjore, and of several places in 
the Carnatic. The Maliratta population is supposed to amount to about eight, or even ten, millions : a 
correct census appears to have been taken only of the portions of this country subject to the Bombay 
Presidency; and, according to the last parliamentary retui-ns, the population of the Alahratta districts 
xmder British government amounted to 3,479,668. 

Characteristics of the Dialect. — The Mahratta may be regarded as a kind of link 
between the Sanscrit dialects of Northern India and the languages of the Deccau. Some of its words 
and idioms are obviously of cognate origin with the Bengalee, while in others a notable approximation 
may be detected to the Tamil, Telinga, and other languages of the South.' About 50,000 words in 
a Maliratta dictionary have been examined as to their origin and etymology by Dr. Stevenson, and the 
result of his analysis is as follows : — Of the 50,000 words he found that 10,000 only were primitives, 
the rest being merely derivative terms. One half of these primitives he proved to be pure Sanscrit 
words; and of the remaining 5000 primitives, he showed that 2000 were likewise of Sanscrit origin, 
but considerably modified or coiTupted in form; 1000 were ascertained to have been introduced from 

1 Prichard's Researches, vol. iv. p. 142. 


the Persic and Araliic; and the remaining 2000, equal to one fifth of the whole, were found to exhibit 
more or less resemblance to correlative words in the Tamil, Telinga, and Canarese languages, and in 
the un-Sanscrit portion of the Hinduwee and Gujerattee dialects. In point of grammatical con- 
struction the Mahratta in general corresponds pretty nearly with Bengalee and Hinduwee. The nouns 
are possessed of two nmnbers, three genders, and seven cases. There is but one form of conjugation 
for all regular verbs, and auxiliaries are employed in the formation of some of the tenses. JMost of the 
past tenses have separate forms for the different genders. The gender of these tenses in intransitive 
verbs is regvdated by that of the nominative case, but in transitive verbs the past tenses agree in gender 
with the objective case, and the agent is thrown into the instrumental case.' In the arrangement of 
words in a sentence, the construction generally observed is to commence with the agent, and to end 
with the verb.^ Two different characters are used in writing Mahratta, the Modi or Alodlie, which is 
derived from, and still retains a strong resemblance to, the Devanagari; and the Balboodh, which appears 
to be almost, if not quite, the same as the Devanagari itself. The former, vulgarly termed Morhee, 
is most generally luiderstood, being employed in all transactions of business; but the latter is preferred 
for printing, because it possesses several letters in which the Modi is deficient : it is, besides, uniform 
and regular in appearance, while the Modi varies as much in style as the handwriting of different 
individuals in Europe. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Dialect. — A version of the Scriptures in Mahratta 
was commenced at Serampore in 1804, and in 1807 considerable progress had been made in the transla- 
tion, both of the Old and of the New Testament, and part of the Gospel of Matthew had been com- 
mitted to the press. The first few copies of this Gospel were printed in the Devanagari character, but 
on its being ascertained that the Modi was more generally intelligible to the natives, this latter cha- 
racter was employed in all the subsequent Serampore editions. In 1811 an edition consisting of 1000 
copies of the New Testament was completed, and in 1820 a similar edition of the Old Testament left 
the press. A second and revised edition, consisting of 3000 copies of the New Testament, apj)eared 
about the year 1825. This version gave rise, for a time, to considerable controversy, numerous objec- 
tions being raised against it ; which were, however, successfully repelled by the late lamented Mr. 
William Greenfield.' No further editions of this version were, however, issued at Serampore, probably 
because the two chief dialects of the Bombay Presidency, Jlahratta and Gujerattee, appeared to be 
more particularly within the reach of the Bombay Bible Society, instituted in 1813 at Bombay. 
Application was made, as before stated, to this Society by Dr. John Taylor, for their sanction in pre- 
paring a new version of any portion of the Scriptures in Mahratta and Gujerattee. Dr. Taylor only 
lived to complete the Gospel of Matthew, which was printed in 1819. Another version of the 
Mahratta Scriptures was commenced in the year 1817 by the American Missionaries, and various parts 
of the New Testament were successively issued from the press; till, in the year 1826, an entire edition 
of the whole New Testament was printed by them, with the aid of the Bombay Auxiliary, and of the 
Parent Society in London. This edition consisted of a larger number of some books than of others, 
the whole edition being about equal to 5000 copies. An improved and carefully revised edition of 
this Testament, also consisting of 5000 copies, was printed in 1830'' by the American Missionaries. 
In 1834 the Bombay Bible Society undertook another revisal of the Mahratta New Testament, and 
determined upon issuing an edition of 8000 copies, to be printed in the Balboodh character.^ The 
printing of this edition was commenced in 1835;^ and during the same year, the Society found it 
necessary to resolve on a separate edition of the Gospels in the Modi, or current character, for the use 
of the lower classes of natives. AVliile these editions of the New Testament were in course of prepara- 
tion, the translation of the Old Testament into Mahratta was zealously prosecuted by the American 
]\Iissionaries, and by the Rev. J. Dixon of the Church Mission at Nassuck. An edition of Mr. Dixon's 
version of the Psalms, consisting of 1000 copies, was printed for the use of the Bombay Bible Society 
in 1835:' other portions of the Old Testament were issued at successive intervals, and in 1839, the 
printing of the Prophetical Books, translated by Mr. Dixon, was completed. During the same year 
another edition of 2000 copies of the Psalms, revised by Messrs. Dixon and Graves, passed through 
the pi-ess.^ In 1841 a thousand copies of the First and Second Books of Kings, translated by the Rev. 
A. Graves, had been printed; and an edition of 1000 copies of Mr. Dixon's version of the Pentateuch 

1 Ballantyne's Grammar of the Mahratta Language, p. 28, 34. 5 Thirty-first Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixv. 

2 Ballantyne's Grammar of the Mahratta Language, p. 36. 6 Thirty-second Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. lix. 
^ See a Pamphlet published by Mr. Bagster, entitled *' A Defence of the " Thirty-second Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. lix. 

Serampore Mahratta Version of the New Testament." s Tliirtj'-sixth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ivii. 

i Oriental Christian Spectator, for May, 1847. 

Indo-Eukopean Languages.] M A H R A T T A. 109 

was in the press, besides extra copies of some detached portions.' About the same period another 
version of the Psahns, executed by the Rev. C. P. Farrer, was publislied, and appears to have been 
received with peculiar avidity by the Jews of Bombay. The last report of tlie British and Forcim 
Bible Society contains the gratifying intelligence, that the whole Bible is now accessible to the 
Mahratta popidation, an edition of' the Old Testament having been just completed at the American 
Mission press, on account of the Bible Society.'^ Mr. Dixon, by whom the greater part of this 
important version was executed, did not live to witness the completion of the edition at press: he was 
one of the first Mahratta scholars in India; and it is stated in a recent Report of the Society, that "wide 
testimony has been afforded of the value of his translation, which has been characterised by able 
judges as containing the groundwork and foundation of a standard version." 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — Among the numerous evidences 
adduced by missionaries in proof of the beneficial effects resulting from the extensive distribution of 
the Mahratta Scriptures, no instauccs are perhaps so deeply interesting as those which have reference 
to the Jews. Some of these singular people are said to have been established in the West of India 
from time immemorial. They have almost lost the knowledge of their original language, although 
they repeat their prayers in Hebrew, and their vernacular dialect is now the Mahratta. When they 
first attracted the notice of Europeans, it was found that they possessed none of the Prophetical Books 
of the Old Testament, and that they were ignorant of the history of their people subsequent to the 
first captivity ; they did not keep the feast of Purim, and had never even heard of the destruction of 
Jerusalem. They call themselves " Beni-Israel," and are knovm under that appellation to their 
Mahratta neighbours : they dislike being called " Yahoodi " (Jews), the common name of the Hebrew 
race in the luist; and they disclaim all connection, except that of community of faith, both with the 
black Jews of Malabar, and their fair brethren of Arabia and Persia. They are described as retaining 
the marked features of their race, and as being distinguished from the Hindoo and Mahommedan 
natives by superior intelligence and an integrity of character ; recommending them, not unfrequently, 
to offices of trust and responsibility, particularly in the army."^ The desire of these descendants of 
Israel to obtain the Scriptures in their vernacular dialect has been frequently referred to by mis- 
sionaries, as the following extracts will show : — Mr. Layson writes, " Every Saturday my house is 
frequented by Beni-Israel, anxious to obtain the Scriptures. The desire of the word of life is very 
great among them ; and they consider that in possessing the sacred volume they have an inestimable 
treasure. How Inuch do I wish," he continues, " that it were in my power to describe the anxiety of 
these poor people to possess the Scriptures, especially in the Marathi language. The last supply which 
I received, 150 copies of the First and Second Books of Kings, are almost all distributed ; and another 
supply of the same number will not be sufficient to meet the incessant demand."'' The statements of 
other missionaries arc much to the same effect. " During the past year," writes Mr. Mitchell, " the 
applications for copies of the Scriptures made to me by the Beni-Israel have been numerous. We 
may say that every Israelite of this class desires to possess a copy of the Old Testament, both in 
Hebrew, and his vernacular language, Marathi. Their anxiety to possess the latter is cheering, as it 
proves that they seek to understand the meaning of the word of God, and do not rest satisfied with a 
mere utterance of the sound of the venerable Hebrew Scripture. A knowledge of the Old Testament, 
gained through the Marathi Scriptures, is rapidly spreading among the Beni-Israel ; and to this they 
themselves attl'ibute the discontinuance of many semi-idolatrous practices that had crept in among 
them in former days of ignorance. Some of them read the New Testament in Marathi. On the 
whole," continues this missionary, " my experience during the last twelve months has impressed me 
with a higher idea than ever of the importance of the field opened up in this part of India to the 
Bible Society, of the good its labours have already done, and the still greater good they may yet 
accomplish."' The testimony of missionaries as to the influence of the ]\Iahratta version on converts 
of the Mahratta race, is equally favourable. The Rev. 0. French of Seroor, in the last report received 
from India, expresses himself to the following effect : — " In my labours among the Hindoos of tliis 
vicinity, I find that the sacred Scriptures are in demand just in proportion to the degree of gospel 
light enjoyed ; a fact shewing that the labours of the Bible Society are destined to become more and 
more important as the truth advances. The people often ask for portions of the Bible in preference to 
other books, and on their reception a peculiar satisfaction is generally manifested." 

1 Thirty-eighth Report of British and Forei^ Bible Society, p. Ixvii. 2 Forty-fourth Report of British and ForeigTi Bible Society, p. xciv. 

3 Report of the KnreiKn Translation Committee of the Society for * Thirty-eiprhth Report of British and Foreign Bible Societ>', p. Ixviii. 

Promoting Christian Kjuowledge, for 1845, p. 43. s Thirty-eighth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Lxii. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

M ^H ^ 'sfbT HHu;i^i 5iTTt| ^?nftT%T I 'snftr st^ ^h^h ^irraB^rj ti^^ ^jt^t ^nftr .iiiiabcMH 

t f^^nitff ?nf^ f^ foF ^naS wmvr f^igra ^rrfir i ^t s^m^ kt ^ ^sifatjl Kft ^ a^nKT 

c to m ^ s^T^i ^Tfticrr ftir^TO ^'irirrt ^^ ^i^ »Tgw^ s'snti ^irffT i ^ innrtj ^iftr^ ^rfn 

s^ (jiichirri ■trrarr iih^t •?! i ytft ifjmi ^lohifn aT=sT ^^t TrioifT ttt^ ^"^rT^ ^ »n^T mijh-f f^^ 
«)5 '3i%TT ^snxurr TrMg ft^ ^wss i ftp ^ro vm 'm^ ^tt^t ^rU i ^ ^^a:^^ in^ ig^m% ^ 
sd <4i*3fti T^ii^ ^rfk Trft ^^Tiin^ ■^^mw i ^TftT% "^^t ^^rk ^t| Jir^ ^iftr ^ "^rrftr °)^M4t i i''<i<*vt 

H#T iTTT^ ^T*ri)% fHirft JJTR^ ^TlftT ^ri^T^ ^f ^»I% Wr% ^^1^ 1 ^ »TO^ mifk rTR^ #«8r^ 


KuNKDNA is the proper language of the Concan, a long narrow tract of land, the continuation of 
Malabar and Canara, extending north and south of Bombay. The area of this maritime district has 
been estimated at 12,270 square miles, and its population at 1,044,120.' 

Kunkuna is intimately connected with the other Sanscrit dialects. In the Lord's Prayer, which, 
when translated into Kiuiliuna, consists of thirty-two words, twenty-five words have been proved to be 
radically the same as the corresponding words in the Bengalee and Hinduwee versions of the Prayer ; 
and, of the remaining six words, several have been found to be almost pure Sanscrit.'^ 

A version of the New Testament exists in Kunkima, which was executed at Serampore between 
the years 1808 and 1819:' the edition consisted of 1000 copies, and was printed in the Devanagari 
character. An edition of the Pentateuch, consisting of an equal number of copies, left the press in 
1821. The translation was afterwards relinquished to the Bombay Bible Society, but no further steps 
have since been taken towards its completion, probably because the rapidly increasing use of the 
Mahratta dialect among the natives of the Concan appears to render a Kunkuna version vmnecessary. 

' M'Culloch's Geogrrapbical Dictionary, vol. i. p. 629. 3 Eighth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 3. 

* Sixth Memoir of the Serampore Translations, p. 10. 


LUKE, Chap. vi. v. 27 to 38. 

^" Tami penclo a sangue sos lo junelais : Caraelad a jires daschmanuccs, querelad 
raistos a junos sos camelan sangue choro. ^^ jMajarad a junos sos zermanelan a sangue, 
y raanguelad a Debel por junos sos araquerelan sangue choro 1 ^' Y a 6 sos curare tucue 
andre yeque mejilla, dinle tambien a aver. Y a 6 sos nicobelare tucue o uchardo, na 6 
impidas lliguerar tambien a furi. '" Din a os sares ma tucue manguelaren : y a 6 sos 
ustiliire ma sincla de tucue, na se lo pida. ^' Y ma camelais que querelen a sangue os 
manuces, ocolo matejo querelad sangue a junos. '^ Y si camelais a junos sos camelan a 
sangue, t, que merito terelareis ? Presas os chores tambien camelan a junos sos os 
camelan. ^^ Y si querelais mistos a junos sos querelan mistos a sangue, g que merito 
terelareis ? Presas os chores tambien querelan ocono. ^* Y si prestisareis a ocolas, de 
coines ujarais ustilar, i qu^ merito terelareis ? Presas tambien os chores prestisaran 
yeques a averes, somia ustilar aver tanto. ^^ Camelad pues a jires daschmanuccs : quere- 
lad mistos, y diiiad prestado, bi ujarar por ocono chichi ; y jire manchin sinara baro, y 
sinareis chabores e Udscho, presas d sinela gacho aun para os sungales y chores. 
^^ Sinelad pues canreosos, sasta tambien jire Dada sinela canreoso. ^'' Na juzgueis, y na 
sinareis juzgados ; na sapleis, y na sinareis saplados. Ertinad y sinareis ertinados. 
'* Dihad, y a sangue se diiiara : nielalo lacho, perelalo, y baro, y costunado diiiaren andre 
jire chepo : presas sat o matejo melalo con que melalareis, a sangue se volvera a melalar. 


Diffusion and Statistics. — The vagrant tribes, known in England by the name of Gipsies, 
wander in hordes or companies about the plains of iVsia, and in certain parts of Africa, as well as in most 
of the countries of EiU'ope. Without historical records, without traditions, without even a rehgion of their 
own, they are bound together by national habits and customs, by the love of an unsettled hfe, and by 
a peculiar language ; and, like the Jews, they exist from generation to generation as a separate people 
in the midst of many nations. In Germany they are called Zigeuner ; in Russia, Zigdni ; in Turkey 
and Persia, Zingarri : and these various appellations, all apparently springing from the same etymon, 
may, it has been conjectured, be radically the same as the term ZiucaU, by which they sometimes 
designate themselves; a term compounded of two words, and supposed to signify the black men of 
Zend, or Ind} The English name Gipsy (from E-gypt-ian) and the Spanish Gitano, arose from a 
notion once currently entertained respecting the Egyptian origin of this singular people. In France 
they are still called Bofwmicns (Bohemians), either because they first entered that country from 
Bohemia,- or else from the old French word boem, a sorcerer, in allusion to the arts they have so long 
exercised in practising upon the creduhty of the vulgar. They have been known in Eui-ope only since 
the beginning of the fifteenth century. The most severe legislative enactments have at various times 
been framed against them, on account of their inveterate habits of petty depredation ; yet no degree 
of persecution has ever succeeded in effectually dlmluishLng their numbers, or in driving them from 

1 Borrows Ziiicali, vol. i. p. 3. z Hoyland's Historical Survey of the Gypseys, p. 10. 


countries into which they have once introduced themselves. Grelhnan computed that in his time the 
number of Gipsies throughout Europe amounted to between 700,000 and 800,000, of whom, he said, 
40,000 were located in Spain, chiefly in the southern provinces.' Mr. Borrow likewise is of opinion 
that there are at the present moment about 40,000 Gipsies in Spain, but he considers that they were 
formerly considerably more numerous in that country. There are also great numbers of Gipsies in 
Hungary and Transylvania, where they are extensively employed in washing gold from the sands of 
the rivers, and occasionally in other avocations. The Gipsies at present dispersed through England 
are supposed to number about 20,000. 

Characteristics or the Language. — In default of all historical evidence concerning the 
proper coimtry of the Gipsies, their language indicates with tolerable distinctness that their origin ia 
to be traced to India. Their physical conformation, their complexion, and their pecuHar mode of life, 
furnish additional proofs of their Indian descent ; for Captain Richardson has shown that in these 
points they bear a very strong resemblance to a sort of people in India called Bazeegurs ; ^ and many 
writers have attested that in these and other respects they may well be compared to the lowest caste of 
Hindoos, particularly to certain thievish castes, who to this day are to be found in various parts of 
India. To account for their sudden appearance in Europe, Adehmg conjectured that they fled thither 
to escape the cruel war of devastation can-ied on by Tamerlane, in 1408-9 ;^ but this hypothesis rests 
on very insuflBcient data ; and it is equally reasonable to suppose that they may have quitted their 
country either to evade the laws they had outraged, or in pursuit of further plunder. The language 
stiU spoken by the Gipsies in all the countries through which they are dispersed is a dialect of the 
Sanscrit : it is called Rommany, from rom, a husband, or a man; and so close is its aflSnity with other 
Indian dialects, that it is by many considered as Httle else than a corrupt form of Hinduwee.'' It is 
related of Lord Teignmouth, the first President of the British and Foreign Bible Society, that one 
day chancing to meet with a Gipsy woman, he was struck with her resemblance in form and 
feature to the natives he had been accustomed to see in India. He addressed her in Hindustani, with 
which language he was familiarly acquainted, and found to his surprise that she could perfectly 
understand him. He then invited her and several of the members of her tribe to his house, and 
induced them to pronounce a number of words in Rommany, which he carefully noted down ; many 
of these words he discovered to be purely Hindustani, while otliers were obviously derived from 
Sanscrit roots.' But although the idioms, and almost all the words of the Rommany, are imques- 
tionably of Indian extraction, it has also adopted terms belonging to other families of languages. 
Several Sclavonic words, for instance, are to be detected in Rommany; and this circumstance seems to 
have arisen from the Gipsies, in their migration from the East, ha\'ing passed through the steppes of 
Russia, where many of the tribe are still to be met with. Modern Greek words, probably learnt 
during their passage through Bulgaria, are also occasionally to be heard in their language ; and still 
more abundant is the intermixture of Persic words. The languages of the other countries in which 
the Gipsies have estabhshed themselves, have had more or less influence in the modification of 
Rommany. In Spain, its grammatical peculiarities have entirely disappeared ; its syntax, its declen- 
sion of nouns, its conjugation of verbs, being all subjected to the rules of Spanish grammar.^ In 
Hungary and Transylvania it is spoken with tolerable purity ; and in England the idiom has sufiered 
far less modification than in Spain, for the English dialect of Rommany stiU retains its original syntax 
to a certain extent, and its peculiar methods of conjugation and of declension.^ 

Version of the Scriptures in this Dialect. — The whole of the New Testament has 
been translated into the Spanish dialect of Rommany by Mr. Borrow, who during a long course of 
years possessed opportunities of familiar intercourse with the Gipsies, never obtained before or since 
by any individual unconnected with the race. Determined that this neglected people should under- 
stand the Gospel, Mr. Borrow proposed that they should themselves translate it. With this view he 
assembled some of the Spanish Gipsies together, and commenced with the Gospel of Luke, they 
rendering into Rommany the sentences which he delivered to them in Spanish. They proceeded in 
this way as far as the middle of the eighth chapter, when Mr. Borrow found it necessary to complete 
the translation himself, supplying deficiencies from a version which he had commenced at Badajoz in 

1 Versuch Uber die Zigeuner, Gottingen, 1787. 5 Life of Lord Teignmouth, vol. ii. p. 375. 

2 Asiatic Researclies, vol. vii. * Sorrow's Zincali, vol. ii. p. 123. 

3 Mithridates, i. 198 ; iv. 488. ' Borrow's Zincali, vol. ii. second edition, p. 263. 
* BischoflF's Deutsch-zigeaerisclies Wtirterbuch. 

Indo-Eueopean Langttaoes.] TAMUL. 113 

1836. He printed 500 copies of this Gospel at Madrid in 1838; it was tlie first book that had ever 
appeared in Kominany.' Copies of the work were so cagerl)- sought by the Gitanos of Madrid, that 
Mr. ]:5orrow remarks he could readily have disposed of the whole edition in a fortnight had it not been 
for the opposition to its circulation excited by the clergy immediately on its publication. " Sorcery," 
exclaimed one bishop. " There is more in this than we can dive into," said a second. "He wUl con- 
vert all Spain by means of the Gipsy language," said a third.'' In compliance with their entreaties, 
the Corregidor, or Gefe politico, of Madrid gave orders for the seizure of all copies of the Gipsy 
Gospel exposed for sale, and the soldiers obtained about thirty copies, which they sold at a high price 
for their own benefit. The translator was shortly after consigned for three weeks to imprisonment, 
under the suspicion that he was attempting to revolutionise the country, and annihilate the power of 
Rome by means of his Rommany version ot the Gospel.' 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — The Rommany Gospel of St. Luke, 
the only portion of Mr. Borrow's version that has yet been printed, was found to be perfectly intelligible 
to the Spanish Gipsies : many of the men were able to read it, and appeared to set a high value on it, 
yet it soon became evident that it was the language, and not the heavenly doctrine, which they prized. 
Even the women, who in general are unable to read, were anxious to possess themselves of copies to 
use as charms or amulets in preser-\ang them from danger, especially in their thieving expeditions.^ 
The result of Mr. Borrow's zealous endeavours to disseminate a knowledge of the Scriptui-es among 
this singular people, maybe briefly summed up in his own woi-ds: — " They listened," he tells us, 
" with admiration, but, alas ! not of the truth, the eternal truths I was proclaiming, but to find that 
their broken jargon could be written and read. The only words of assent which I ever obtained, and 
that rather of a negative kind, were the following from the mouth of a woman : — ' Brother, you tell 
us strange things, though perhaps you do not Lie ; a mouth since I would sooner have believed these 
tales, than that this day I should see one who could write Rommany.' " ■' Of late years, efforts have 
been made in England by Mr. Crabb and others in behalf of English Gipsies; and a school, in which 
Gipsy children are instructed in the knowledge of Scripture, where they are at the same time trained 
for service, and taught various trades, has been established at Farnham, near Blandford, Dorset.^ 


(For Specimen of this Version, see Plate V.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Tamul, the language of the ancient kingdom of 
Dravira, is spoken in the extensive country now called the Carnatic, and is the vernacidar language 
from the Dutch settlement of Pulicat in the north to Cape Comorin in the south, and from the shores 
of the Indian Ocean on the cast to the Ghauts on the west. This important territory, which since 
1801 has been entirely under British government, includes Madras, Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Madura, 
Tinnevelly, and ('oimbatore. The inhabitants have been estimated at 6,622,474; they are chiefly 
Hindoos of the Brahminical sect, and there are comparatively few IMahommedans among them. The 
Tamul language also obtains along the whole northern coast of Ceylon, including the popidous district 
of Jaffiia, where it is spoken by a race of people sometimes called the Malabars. Tamul is likewise 
the vernacular language of the Moormen of Ceylon; they are dispersed in great numbers through 
every part of the island, especially at Colombo, and are supposed to be the descendants of Arabs, who, 
in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, conquered several of the seaport towns of India and Ceylon.' 

Characteristics of the Language. — It is a question of the highest historical interest 
whether Tamul and the other languages of the Deccan are to be considered as the daughters of the 
Sanscrit, or whether their oiigin is to be traced to some other source. Drs. Carey and Wilkins con- 
sidered them to be undoubtedly derived from the Sanscrit, and Colebrooke was inclined to adopt the 

1 Borrow's Zincali, vol. i. p. 358 s Borrow's Zincali, vol. i. p. 230. 

2 Borrow's Bible in Spain, vol. iii. p. 9. e See " A Plea for rhe Education of the Children of the GTpsies," 

3 Borrow's Bible in Spain, vol. iii. p. 10. by Rev. J. West. Seeley and Co., London. 

I Borrow's Zincali, vol. i. p. 359- " RecoUections of Ceylon, by Rev. James Selkirk, p. 76- 


same opinion. Mr. Ellis, in tlie Preface to Campbell's Teloogoo Grammar, was the first to doubt their 
supposed relationship to Sanscrit ; and Babington, in his Introductory Remarks to the Gooroo Para- 
martan, has maintained the same view of the case. The various researches which have been made into 
the subject have at length led to the conclusion that these southern languages are the remnants of 
some ancient tongue, which at a very remote period of antiquity probably pervaded the whole of 
India, as some slight traces of it are yet to be met with even in the Sanscrit dialects of the north. 
But whether this hypothesis be correct or not, it has been satisfactorily proved that Tamul and its 
cognate languages derive their source from no language at present in existence ; and if in most systems 
of classification they have obtained a place among the Sanscrit family of languages, they owe their 
position not to their oiigin, but to the modification of their elementary structui'e induced by the 
superposition of Sanscrit forms; a process which has been carrying on for centuries, dating from the 
period when the natives of the south received the religion of the north, and bowed to the domination 
of the Brahminical sect. Tamul, however, possesses fewer Sanscrit terms than the other languages of 
the Deccan. It has two distinct dialects, the Kodun, or common dialect, which contains the greatest 
admixture of Sanscrit words; and the Shen, or polished dialect, which, from its long disuse as a collo- 
quial medium, has been preserved in a state of greater purity. A knowledge of the former alone is 
quite sufficient for all ordinary intercourse with the natives, but acquaintance with the liigh, or Shen, 
dialect is necessary for those who wish to study Tamid literature and science.' The chief peculiarities 
of the Tamul language, as briefly summed up by Anderson, consist in the absence of a relative pro- 
noun, in the small proportion of adjectives and particles properly so called, in the power of employing 
adjectives in an adverbial capacity, in the exact correspondence in termination between the demonstra- 
tive pronouns and the third person of verbs, in the existence of a negative verb, and, above all, in the 
conjugation of derivative nouns. ^ Some of the characteristics are to be met vsdth in the Tehnga, 
Canarese, and MalayaUm languages; but in the possession of a conjugate derivative, Tamul appears to 
stand quite alone. This singular grammatical form seems to have arisen from a remarkable Interchange 
of the properties peculiar to different parts of speech, for as in other languages, as well as in Tamul, 
verbal nouns are liable to be inflected as substantives, so the derivatives of nouns are liable in Tamul 
to be conjugated as verbs.^ Tamul nouns have eight cases, three of which are ablative, and are distin- 
guished as local, causal, and social ablatives. Words performing the office of prepositions in tliis lan- 
guage always stand after the nouns or pronoims which they govern. The verbs possess properly but 
three moods, the indicative, imperative, and infinitive; and the third person of each tense denotes the 
changes of gender by corresponding changes of termination.'' The negative verb, which in Tamul 
and its cognate languages conveys a negative signification without the aid of particles, is formed by the 
mere removal (except in the third person neuter and its derivatives) of the usual characteristic aug- 
ments of the afiSrmative.' 

A Tamul alphabet which, like the Greek, consisted of sixteen letters, is said to have been in use 
among the natives of the country before the introduction of the Sanscrit language. The characters 
now employed in writing Tamul are thirty in number, and are evidently, so far at least as form is con- 
cerned, derived from the Devanagari. The order in which they are arranged is similar to that of the 
Sanscrit alj)habct, and even letters representing sounds which do not occur in Sanscrit, are formed by 
the combination of Devanagari characters.^ All aspirates are ejected from the Tamul alphabet. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — The honour of executing the first 
Tamul version of the Scriptures belongs to the Danish Missionaries. Ziegenbalg, the first missionary 
sent by the Danish Government to their settlement at Tranquebar, commenced the translation of the 
New Testament in 1708, and completed it in 1711. The printing of this version was delayed in order 
that it might receive the benefit of a thorough revisal, and this important task was committed to the 
missionary John Ernest Grundler, who had arrived in India soon after the commencement of the trans- 
lation. Under his care the work was printed at Tranqviebar in 1714, at the press and on paper pro- 
vided by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. His Majesty George I. of England took 
an especial interest in the progress of this version, and addressed a letter to Ziegenbalg. The transla- 
tion of the Old Testament was commenced by this devoted missionary in 1717, and in 1719 he had 
carried it as far as the book of Euth, when he smik beneath the weight of his manifold labours, at the 
age of thirty-six. It is not certain whether his translations were executed immediately from the sacred 

' Beschi's Grammar of the Shen Tamil, p. 1. * Anderson's Rudiments of Tamul Grammar, p. 41 . 

- Anderson's Rudiments of Tamul Grammar, p. six. s Anderson's Rudiments of Tamul Grammar, p. 63. 

3 Anderson's Rudiments of Tamul Grammar, p* 12". 6 Nouveau Journal Asiatique, vol. i. p. 2S5. 

Indo-European Languages.] TAMUL. 115 

originals, or from the German version of Luther. After his decease, and that of his fellow-labourer 
Grundlcn', which occurred during the following year, the revision of his manuscripts and the prosecu- 
tion of the version of the Old Testament devolved on Benjamin Scliultze, a missionary who had 
arrived IVom Halle a short time previously, under the patronage of the SoL'iety for Promoting (Chris- 
tian Knowledge. Schultzc published the portion of the Old Testament translated by Zicgenbalg in 
1723, and completed the version iu 1727. He was well acquainted with Hebrew, and is said to have 
consulted most of the European versions in the course of his translation. Such was his indefatigable 
zeal, that in the midst of important missionary duties, and in the relaxing climate of Southern India, 
he regularly devoted six hours daily to the prosecution of his work. He likewise addressed liimself to 
a diligent revision of the New Testament, a second edition of which he put to press in 1722, and 
completed iu 1724 at Tranquebar. In 17.58 a third edition of the New Testament was printed at the 
same place; it had previously been subjected to another revision, in which several missionaries took a 
part. The second Tranquebar edition was reprinted at Colombo in 1741-3, after having undergone 
some alterations adapting it to the Tamul spoken in Ceylon : this edition was designed for the native 
Tanmhan Christians in that island, and was published under the auspices of Von ImhofT the governor. 
In 1777 an important version of the New Testament was published by the Rev. J. P. Fabricius, 
one of Schultzc's successors in the Danish Jlission at ]\Iadras. This version is far more elegant and 
classical in diction than that of the Tranquebar translators.' Fabricius hkemse undertook the revision 
of Schidtze's version of the Old Testament, preparatory to a second edition; but the work as revised 
by him has every claim to be considered as a new and independent version. He sent the translation, 
sheet by sheet, for examination and correction to the missionaries at Cviddalorc; from them it passed 
to the Danish Missionaries, and from them to the native translator to the Danish Government. The 
notes and corrections thus obtained were carefully collated by Fabricius, and the whole translation was 
again subjected by him to a searching revision. It was j)rinted at the Mission press at Tranquebar 
between the years 1777 and 1782, under the especial care of two missionaries, one of whom was Dr. 
Rottler. Fabricius was esteemed an " unparalleled Tamul scholar," and his translation long held the 
rank of the standard Tamul version of the Scriptures. The editions of the two versions of the New 
Testament above mentioned, printed by the Danish Missionaries prior to the commencement of the 
present century, amount in all to fourteen, besides two versions of the Old Testament. They were 
assisted by grants of paper and other supplies from the Royal College of Copenhagen, the Orphan 
House at Halle, and the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Still the number of copies 
issued was very far from being adequate to the wants of the native Christians; and the deplorable 
scarcity of the Scriptures in the Tamul country was first pressed upon the notice of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society in a letter from the Rev. Dr. Buchanan, dated Madiu-a 1806. Dr. Buchanan 
stated that of the ten or twelve thousand Protestant Christians then belonging to the Tanjore and Tin- 
nevelly districts, not one perhaps in a hundi'ed had a New Testament; and he described the people in 
general as " clamorous for Bibles, supplicating for teachers, and saying, ' we do not want bread or 
money from you, but we want the word of God.'"'^ In consequence of these and other similar repre- 
sentations, the Corresponding Committee at Calcutta raised a subscription for the purchase of all the 
copies of the Tamul Scriptures which could be then obtained, and which bore a price placing them 
beyond the reach of the poorer Christians. These copies reached Tanjore in 1810, where they were 
received with the most hvely gratitude; and the supply was acknowledged " not only as a seasonable 
and acceptable present, but as the cause of abundant thanksgiving to God through Jesus Christ our 
Saviour, from many who were desirous to know the saving truths which the Bible contains, and to use 
it for the benefit of their souls."' Arrangements were then made by the British and Foreign Bible 
Society for the publication of another edition, and after due inquiries had been instituted, it was 
deemed advisable to print it at the Serampore press, from the admired text of Fabricius.'' Notwith- 
standing the disastrous fire In which the Tamul fount of types and large supply of paper were 
destroyed, the edition, consisting of 5000 copies, was completed by the Serampore Missionaries In 1813. 
As great demand for the Scriptures still continued throughout the Tamul country even after the cir- 
culation of this large edition. It seemed necessary to take immediate measures for issuing further 
supplies. The want of copies of the Scriptures appeared to be particularly felt at Ceylon, where the 
number of native Christians speaking the Tamul language was estimated at 45,000.'' Besides the 
edition of the New Testament published at Colombo in 1743 as above mentioned, a version of the 

' Eighth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 15. * Ninth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 18. 

~ Cliristian Researches in India, by Dr. Buchanan, pp. 172, 1"6. 3 Twelfth Report of Britisli and Foreign Bible Society, p. 24.. 

3 Eiglith Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 311. 


Pentatcucli, translated by Mr. de Millio, had also been printed in Ceylon under the patronage of the 
Dutch Government in 1790.' These editions, however, had been long exhausted, and the people 
in general vrere almost destitute of the Scriptures. It was, therefore, deemed advisable not only to 
issue another edition, but also to obtain such a revision of the existing version as might render it 
intelligible to the Tamul population of Ceylon as well as of the adjacent continent. This important 
revision was committed to the Rev. C. T. E. Rhenius of the Church Mission, subject to the superinten- 
dence of the Rev. Dr. Rottler (who had formerly assisted in carrying the version of Fabricius through 
the press), and the inspection of the missionaries at Trichinopoly, Tanjore, and Tranquebar. To ensure 
the greater accuracy of the work, a Committee of Translation was appointed at Madras in 1821, and 
great hopes were entertained of the success of a version carried forward imder such efficient manage- 
ment, and in the midst of the Tamul country. In order, however, to meet the actual demand for the 
Scriptures, it was found requisite, while the revision was in progress, to issue another edition from the 
text of Fabricius. This edition appears to have consisted of 1000 copies of the Old Testament, 2500 
of the New Testament, and 2500 extra copies of the Gospels and Acts : the Old Testament was printed 
at the Vepery press of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and the Xew Testament at 
the Church Missionary Society's press at Madras; the edition was completed about the year 1824. In 
1825 the revision of the Gospel of St. Matthew was finished, and an edition of 10,000 copies was pub- 
lished by the Madras Committee. The following year another edition of the Old Testament from the 
text of the Tranquebar translators was commenced : it consisted of 5000 copies of the Pentateuch, 
and 2500 of the other Books of the Old Testament, and appears to have been completed about the year 
1832. In the meantime the revision of the old version under the care of Mr. Rhenius was rapidly 
proceeding, and In 1827 an edition of 5000 copies of the New Testament was put to press. In 1828 
the Four Gospels were completed, and so rapid was the circulation, that another edition of 5000 copies 
was immediately ordered, and the part of the New Testament containing the Epistles was extended to 
7500 copies.^ Yet, notwithstanding these large issues, the desire of the native population to receive 
the Tamul Scriptures more than kept pace with the ability of the Committee to supply them; and it 
was found that before the last books of an edition could be got from the press, nearly all the first books 
had been distributed, so that It appeared almost impossible to Issue one complete and uniform copy of 
the Tamul Old and New Testaments.^ The Madras Committee, therefore, determined In 1831 to 
print 12,000 copies of the Tamul New Testament in small type. This edition was afterwards extended 
to 15,000, and the revised version was selected as the text on account of the numerous testimonies that 
had been laid before the Committee In proof of its superiority over the version of Fabricius. To 
expedite the revision and publication of the entire Tamul Scriptures two additional Sub-committees of 
revision were formed about this period, (the one at Tanjore, and the other at Nagracoll and Palam- 
cottah,) consisting of Churchmen, Wesleyans, Lutherans, and Dissenters of various denominations, who 
all agreed to set aside party distinctions, in order to promote the publication of the word of truth.^ 
In 1844 an edition of 6000 copies of the entire Tamul Bible was completed. The Old Testament was 
the version of Fabricius, corrected as to grammar and orthography; and the New, that of Rlicnius: it 
contained the headings of chapters and the chronology from the English. In printing this edition the 
Madras Society was assisted by funds from the American Bible Society, and by supplies of paper from 
the British and Foreign Bible Society.' During the same year (1844) 10,000 copies of cach'of the 
Four Gospels in 18mo., Fabrlclus's version, were ordered to be printed at the press of the Christian 
Knowledge Society, Vepery; and the same number and size of the revised version at the American Mis- 
sion press, for the use of schools. Other portions of Scripture were printed at about the same period 
at the Neyoor press, for the use of schools In TInnevelly and Travancore, and for the pui-poscs of pubHc 
worship.^ The last Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society (for 1848) annomices the com- 
pletion of a second edition of the uniform Tamul Bible, with headings and chronology from the 
English, and references from the German version. The edition consists of 6000 copies, and the 
demand continues lai'ge. Among other portions of Scriptures recently printed under the auspices of 
the Society, It may be noticed that an edition of 3000 copies of the New Testament In 12mo. has been 
published, according to rules proposed by a Tamul Sub-committee of revision, for separating the words 
in printing, and in many cases omitting the usual changes, reduplication, and elision of letters required 
by the law of SandhI in the high dialect.' Another edition of the New Testament, printed from the 

1 Twenty-fourth Report of British anil Forei^ Bible Society, p. Ixxiv. 5 Forty-first Report of British and Forei^ Bible Society, p. cxv. 

' Twenty-fifth Report of British and Foreign Bihle Society, p. lix. » Forty-first Rejjort of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. cxv. 

' Twenty. seventh Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. li. ' Forty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xc. 
< Twenty-eighth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Lxiv. 

Indo-European Languages.] TAMUL. 117 

version of Rhcnius at Ncyooi', is stated in the last Report to bo now ready for the large and increasing 
native church in tliat section of the Tamul country. 

It now only remains to mention another revision of the Tamul Scrlj)tures which is at present 
being carried forward in Ceylon, under the superintendence of the Jaffna Committee, and with the 
sanction and at the expense of the Parent Society. The missionary by whom this revision is con- 
ducted is Mr. Perceval, of the Wesleyan Mission, in Ceylon. lie devotes six hours daily to the work 
with his native assistants, in addition to the time occupied in miscellaneous references and general 
reading connected with the undertaking. The standard authority which he adopts is the original 
text ; and where various readings occur, he carefully follows the authorised English version with its 
marginal readings.' He has recently visited Madras for the purpose of conferring with the Tamul 
revisors, by whom the revision of the New Testament above mentioned has been prosecuted. A plan 
of co-operation has been established between them and Mr. Perceval, and a friendly arrangement has 
been confirmed between the committees at Jaffiia and Madras, for caiTying on the undertaking to 
what it is confidently hoped will prove a satisfactory result.^ 

Results of the Dissemination op this Version. — As the Tamul was the first language 
of India in which the Gospel was proclaimed by Protestant missionaries to the natives, and the first 
into whicli tlie Scriptures were translated for their benefit, so it has been observed that, " for spiritual 
privileges, for missionary zeal and enterprise, for the light and liberty which prevail, the Tamul country 
may well be called the Goshen of India." ^ The rapid circulation of so many large editions of the Scrip- 
tures as above described, is in itself a proof of the alacrity with which the natives have received the 
word of God ; and individual instances in proof that the precious seed thus gladly welcomed was owned 
and blessed of God are to be found in great numbers in missionary records, and in the Reports of the 
Bible Society. Let one example here suffice. Shunkuru-Lingum was born at Quilon, about 1787, 
of heathen parents, of the Vellaula or Cultivator caste. After several changes in his temporal circum- 
stances and position, he entered the service of a gentleman holding a civil appointment under the 
Ceylon government. An apparently trivial circumstance was the turning point of his life. Under a 
tree of the forest he found a copy of the Gospels in Tamul, probably left there by a follower of the 
British camp, for it was the time of the Kandyan war, and strangers from Tranquebar had come over 
to Ceylon with the army. He read the book with eager delight ; it opened up to liim a new region 
of thought and inquiry, and ultimately was blessed to his conversion. Deeply affected by a sense of 
the spiritual degradation of his countrymen, and impelled by love to his Saviour, he sought to make 
known the truth to others, and became a minister of the Gospel ; and he afterwards underwent much 
persecution as a setter-forth of strange gods, because he preached Jesus and the resurrection.'' The 
general aspect of the present state of affairs in the Tamul country, as induced by the extensive distri- 
bution of the Scriptures, may be inferred from the following passage in a recent letter from the 
Rev. J. H. Gray, one of the secretaries of the Madras Bible Society : — " I think I can say, ' that the 
word of the Lord is running,' and our Lord Jesus Christ is being glorified in Southern India. If it 
be a proof of this, that we find ' the strong man armed' no longer enjoying a peaceful possession of his 
goods, or that we see bitterness and persecution rife among the heathen towards Christians, we are 
beginning to have these things abound at our doors ; and the so called gentle and passive Hindoo is 
now seen in the streets of Madras, armed with a hatchet to cut down the gate of a missionary's house, 
and rescue his relative, who had fled thither as to a city of refuge from heathen superstition and 
uncleanness ; or he is seen casting his son's or his brother's Bible into the fire, lest it should convert 
him ; and thousands upon thousands can meet together to cry as lustily as ever they did at Ephesus in 
behalf of Diana, for their gods." * 

1 Fort>--third Report of British and Forei^ Bible Society, p. cv. * Evangelical Map:azine for 18-17, p. 562. 

- Forty-fourth Report of British and Foreigru Bible Society, p. c. i Forty-third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society-, p. xciv. 

^ British Friend of India Magazine, vol. ili. p. 517. 


(For Specimen of tliis Version, see Plate IV.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The Telinga language is spoken within 23 mUes 
of Madras, and prevails for about 500 miles along the coast, from the Dutch settlement of Pulicat to 
the borders of Orissa. In the interior it extends as far west as Bedar, through nearly the whole of 
Hydrabad, a part of Berar, and the eastern provinces of Mysore. The portion of the Telinga country 
subject to the Madras Presidency includes the five Circars — Vizagapatam, Eajahmimdry, ilusulipatam, 
Guntoor, and the Cuddapah and Nellore districts of the Carnatic. The superficial extent of the entire 
region in which this language is predominant has been estimated at 118,610 square miles. The natives 
are Hindoos, and number about 10,000,000. The Telinga language is also diffused to a greater or less 
extent tlirough various countries of Southern India, in which the Tamul and Canarese are the proper 
vernacular languages. This difiusion in part arises from the early conquests, dating from the fourteenth 
century, achieved by the people of Tehnga in the south. Like the Romans, they endeavoured to 
secure their conquests, and to keep the natives in subjection by the estabhshment of military colonies ; 
and the Tehnga language is still spoken by the descendants of the TeUnga families, who were deputed 
by the kings of Vidianagara to found these colonies.^ The roaming tendencies of the Telinga people 
also serve to account in part for the diffusion of the language. On this subject the missionaries have 
remarked that " in intelligence, migratory habits, secular prosperity, and rmfrequency of return to their 
native land, tliis people are, in relation to other parts of India, what the Scotch are in relation to 
England and the world." ^ 

Characteristics of the Language. — Telinga is the most soft and polished of the languages 
of Southern India, and contains the greatest proportion of Sanscrit words. Yet the Sanscrit terms 
with which it unquestionably abounds, form no part whatever of the basis of the language, but appear 
to have been engrafted on the elements of the original Telinga at some period far too remote for inquiry. 
The grammatical construction of Telinga is alone sufficient to prove that it has no claims to be regarded 
as a mere Sanscrit dialect. In the declension of its nouns, effected by means of svibjoined particles, in 
the mode of conjugating the affirmative, and in the possession of a negative verb, in the use of a plural 
pronoun apphcable to the first and second persons conjointly, and in the pecuUarities of its syntax, it 
offers obvious points of deviation from the forms of Sanscrit grammar, while at the same time it 
exhibits decided affinity in these respects with its cognate languages of the Deccan. The Telinga 
language possesses no word exactly corresponding with our article ; the indefinite article is sometimes 
expressed by means of the numeral otie, but in general the article is considered as inherent in the noun. 
Like the Tamul and Canarese, the Tehnga possesses that singular part of speech called the relative 
participle, which displays the combined force of the definite article, the relative pronoun, and the 
verb.^ It also resembles these languages in the possession of two dialects, the common or popular 
medium, used for all purposes of business and conversation, and the high or refined dialect, in which 
the literature of the nation, consisting chiefly of poetry, is written. The dissimilarity between these 
dialects is so great, that commentaries are requisite in the perusal of native works, even in the case of 
individuals who have acquired the most complete famlharlty with the colloquial dialect. The Telinga 
possesses great facihty in the naturalisation of foreign terms ; yet, with the exception of a few words 
obtained from the neighbouring provinces of Orissa, Mahratta, and Gujerat, it docs not appear to 
borrow many words from foreign sources. Several technical revenue and official terms derived from 
the Hindustani were at one time in common use, but they now begin to be superseded by the 
corresponding Enghsh words."* The Telinga, hke other Indian alphabets, is distinguished by the per- 
plexing multipHcity of its symbols, of which there are no less than eighty-one : some of these, however, 
are merely abbreviated forms of the regular Initial letters ; others are only used as marks for certain 
consonants when doubled ; and some are peculiar to words of Sanscrit origin. " Hence," says Mr. 
Campbell, " aU native grammarians concur In reducing tlie characters to thirty -seven, by excluding 
forty-four, which they acknowledge belong to the language, but which they will not admit Into the 

1 Campbell's Teloogoo Grammar, Introduction, p. i. 

2 An Appeal in behalf of S. India, by Rev. J. Smith. 

Indo-Euuopean Lanottages.] T E L I N G A. 119 

alphabet." ' In point of form these letters arc round and flowng, and form a striking contrast to the 
square characters of the Devanagari, although arranged upon the same principle of classification. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — Schultze, the laborious Danish mis- 
sionary, was the first who engaged in a Telinga version of the Scriptures. He commenced his trans- 
lation in 1726, immediately after his completion of the Tamul version above mentioned. He translated 
immediately from the Greek and Hebrew texts, and finished the Telinga version of the New Testa- 
ment in 1727, and of the Old Testament in 1732.^ From some cause or other hitherto unexplained, 
this work was never printed, although Schultze seems to have taken some steps towards obtaining the 
assistance of a learned Brahmin, and a fount of types for the purpose. He died in 1760 at Halle, and it 
has been thought that his Telinga MSS. may still be preserved in that city.^ The Serampore Mission- 
aries commenced another version of the Scriptures in this language in 1805, and in 1809 they had 
translated the whole of the New and part of the Old Testament. Soon afterwards they succeeded in 
casting a foimt of Telinga types, but owing to various causes of delay, the New Testament was not 
printed till 1818, when an edition of 1000 copies was issued, aided by a grant from the British and 
Foreign Bible Society; and in 1820, the same number of copies of the Pentateuch were published. 
But while this Serampore version was in progress, another Telinga version of the New Testament was 
commenced and carried on to the close of the First Epistle to the Corinthians by the Rev. Augustus 
Desgranges, of the London Missionary Society. He had been stationed at Vizagapatam since 1805, 
and therefore enjoyed great local facilities for the prosecution of his undertaking: he found, indeed, 
but few difficulties in the Telinga language to impede his cflbrts, and he remarked that " this language 
richly furnishes the translator with words, phrases, and sentences for his purpose ;" and that in addition 
to its acknowledged softness, elegance, and refinement, it is " regular in construction, replete with 
sentences clear and strong, and abounding with the most beautiful figures of speech." ■* Mr. Desgranges 
was assisted by the Eev. George Cran, wlio was also stationed at Vizagapatam, and by Auunderayer, 
a Telinga Brahmin of high caste, who had sincerely embraced the Christian religion. What our Lord 
Jesus requires from his followers, Anunderayer had really dbne, for he had left his wife, mother, 
brother, sister, his estate and property, and had sufierod reproach and persecution patiently for the 
sake of the Gospel.* Having acquired an intimate knowledge of the Tamul language, he translated 
the Scriptures direct from the Tamul version into his own language, and his work was submitted, verse 
by verse, to Mr. Desgranges, who made such alterations as his critical knowledge of the original text 
suggested. Mr. Cran died in 1808, and Mr. Desgranges two years subsequently; and it was found on 
examination that the first three Gospels were the only portions of the translation that were in a state 
of readiness for the press. Of these three Gospels 1000 copies were printed at Serampore in 1812, 
under the care of Anunderayer. No alterations whatever were admitted, for it was considered that to 
give the Gospels as the able translator had left them, would be a tribute of respect to his memory. Li 
the meantime another version of the Telinga New Testament had been commenced. The Rev. Messrs. 
Pritchett and Lee, agents of the London Missionary Society, arrived at Vizagapatam a short time prior 
to the decease of the lamented Mr. Desgranges. Mr. Lee undertook soon afterwards a translation of 
the Book of Genesis, but the preparation of the version afterwards devolved almost exclusively on ]\Ir. 
Pritchett, who addressed himself in the first place to the translation of the New Testament. In the 
first three Gospels he is said to have availed himself of the labours of Mr. Desgranges, introducing 
such alterations as his own judgment suggested. When the version of the New Testament was com- 
pleted, he sent it to Madras for examination, and it was so highly approved by the distrngmshed 
Telinga scholars to whom it was submitted, that the Madras Bible Society readily closed with Mr. 
Pritchett's proposal to print it for the benefit of the Tehnga nation. An edition of 2000 copies was 
therefore issued in 1819, the expenses of which were defrayed by the Calcutta Bible Society. I\Ir. 
Pritchett was proceeding with the translation of the Old Testament when, in 1820, he was arrested in 
the midst of his work by death.^ In 1823 another version of the Scriptures was oflered to the 
Calcutta Bible Society by the Rev. J. Gordon, also of the London Missionary Society, who had during 
many years been stationed at Vizagapatam. Great diiSculty was experienced in deciding upon the 
relative merits of Mr. Pritchett's and Mr. Gordon's translations, and all printing operations were sus- 
pended until it could be ascertained which was best calcidated for general usefulness. At length their 
respective translations of Genesis and of the history of Joseph were circulated for comparison, and when 

' Campbell's Teloogoo Grammar, p. 2. < Seventh Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 13. 

2 Le Loni?, vol. i. part ii, a Seventh Report of Hritish and Foreign Bible Society, p. 80. 

3 Bishop Marsh's History of Translations, p. 37. 6 Seventeenth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Iviii. 


the opinions of competent judges had been collected, it was found that the result of the investigation 
was in favour of Mr. Gordon's production, which was unanimously declared to be " clear, intelligible, 
and the more literal translation of the two." At the same time Mr. Pritchett's was pronounced a good 
translation, and more grammatical than Mr. Gordon's, but deficient in idiom. The Committee of the 
Madras Society, therefore, resolved upon adopting Mr. Gordon's version, but they requested him, 
before he sent it to the press, to compare it carefully with Mr. Pritchett's translation, and " to select 
therefrom whatever he might tliink a desirable acquisition to his own." Mr. Gordon's important 
labours were closed by death in 1827. After his decease it was found that Mr. Pritchett's version was, 
after all, more correct than had been expected ; certain corrections were accordingly introduced, and an 
edition of 3000 copies of the New Testament was printed in 1828, accompanied by 2000 copies of Mr. 
Gordon's version of St. Luke.' Vigorous efforts were subsequently made to revise the versions pre- 
pared by Messrs. Pritchett and Gordon, and further portions were printed, which, notwitlistanding 
their admitted defects, obtained such extensive circulation as to warrant the hope that they were 
perused with profit.^ Up to the present time the Madras Committee have been still persevering in 
their endeavours to procure an acceptable and faithful version of the Telinga Scriptures. Among 
other revised editions of portions of the New Testament issued by them from time to time, may be 
mentioned an edition of 1000 copies of the Gospel of Luke, translated by C. P. Brown, Esq., son of 
the late Rev. David Brown,^ and printed about the year 1839. Five thousand copies of the TeHnga 
Psalms in 18mo., revised at Bellary, were printed at the press of the American Mission at Madras in 
1845.'' According to the last Report of the Madras Bible Society, only jsarts of the Telinga version 
are even now considered suitable for circulation. The Sub-committee of revision are still, it is said, 
" diligently engaged in the work of revision: when their labours arc sufficiently matured, the seed of 
the word of life will be freely scattered among the many millions speaking this language, now perish- 
ing for lack of knowledwe."^ 


(For Specimen of this Version, see Plate VI.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The names by which this language is distin- 
guished, are by no means calculated to convey a just notion of its geographical extension. The term 
Karnata would naturally lead to the inference that this language is predominant in the Carnatic, which 
is by no means the case, Tamul, as we have already shown, being the vernacular language of that 
country. The other appellation, Canarese, as apphed to tlus language, is almost equally erroneous, for 
Tuluvu is the proper and original dialect of Canara, although it has of late years become restricted to 
the lower classes of that province. This confusion of terms seems to have arisen from the fact of the 
Mussulman conquerors of the country having erroneously extended the distinctive appellation of the 
ancient province of Carnatica to the adjacent districts, namely, to the Carnatic on the one side, and to 
Canara on the other. The name thus ignorantly extended to these countries has been retained ; while 
Carnatica itself, which had alone been previously distinguished by this appellation, no longer exists as 
a separate province, the territories which it comprised being now chiefly known as the Mysore and the 
Balaghaut, or province of the Upper Ghauts. The limits of the Karnata (formerly the vernacular 
language of Carnatica), may be described as co-extensive with those of that ancient province : it may 
be said to extend from between the 12th to above the 18th degree of north latitude, with an average 
breadth of 180 miles ; and it may almost be considered to include Canara, where it is rapidly super- 

1 Twenty-fifth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. lix. ' Forty-second Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xcii. 

2 Thirty-third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixviii. ^ Forty-foxirth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xci. 

3 Thirty-sixth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. li. 

Indo-European Languages.] K A R N A T A. 121 

seding the Tuluvu. The amount of j)opulation to whom the Karnata language is vernacular has been 
estimated at upwards of 7,000,000. These people are Hindoos, and are subject to the Madras 

Chauacteuistics of the Language. — 'I'lic idioms of the Karnata or Canaresc are very 
similar to those of the Tamul and Telinga,' with which languages it is radically connictcd. It 
possesses, however, an alphabet of its own, consisting of fifty-six letters, and evidently borrowed, so far 
at least as classification and order are concerned, from the Devanagari. A valuable Canaresc and 
English Lexicon, in two large quarto volumes, comjsiled by Mr. Reeve, one of the translators of the 
Bible, has been pubhshed by the Aladras Government. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — The first attempt to produce a 
Karnata translation of the Scriptures was commenced at Serampore in 1808 : the work, however, 
from various causes, appears to have been laid aside from time to time ; and it was not till 1822, that 
an edition of 1000 copies of the New Testament was completed at press. A version of the Old 
Testament was also undertaken, and partly executed, by the Serampore Missionaries ; but they after- 
wards relinquished the work on finding that similar efforts were being made by other labourers, who, 
from being stationed in the country where the language is vernacular, enjoyed greater facilities for the 
successful prosecution of the translation. The Karnata or Canarese version was, in fact, one of the first 
contemplated by the Calcutta Bible Society. In 1813 they made an application to the Archbishop of 
Goa concerning the necessity of supplying the native Christians of Goa and its neighbourhood with 
the Canarese Scriptures. These Christians were Roman Catholics, and numbered about 200,000. The 
archbishop, in the true spirit of his church, discouraged the undertaking. One of the objections which 
he urged was, however, afterwards found to be correct ; for he alleged, and with truth, that the 
Canarese Christians of Goa spoke a mixture of different languages, and that their dialect varied greatly 
in many districts. No further steps were therefore taken by the Committee till, in 1817, a letter was 
addressed to them by Mr. Hands, of Bellary, an agent of the London Missionary Society, stating that 
he had translated the whole of the Xew Testament into Canarese. As this translation was foimd on 
examination by competent judges to be adapted for general usefulness, an edition of 2000 copies of the 
Gospels and Acts was printed at Madras, with the sanction and at the expense of the Society, under 
the immediate eye of the translator.^ In order that Mr. Hands might not be longer detained from his 
station, the types and material for printing were afterwards forwarded to Bellary, and the entire Xew 
Testament was completed in 1821. At this period Mr. Hands had likewise completed the translation 
of the Old Testament ; and his friend and coadjutor, the Rev. Wm. Reeve, had engaged in a separate 
translation of the Pentateuch, with the view of comparing it with that of Mr. Hands, and of securing 
by this means a more correct and idiomatic version. In 1822, while these two translators were 
labouring conjointly in their important undertaking, they were invited by the Madras Bible Com- 
mittee, upon whom the superintendence of tliis translation had devolved, to associate themselves with 
Mr. A. D. Campbell and Mr. R. C. Gosling, so as to form a Sub-committee of translation, calling in 
the further aid of such learned men as they should find expedient.^ Under the care of this Sub-com- 
mittee, therefore, the revision of the Old Testament was continued ; and every separate portion was 
again subjected to the careful Inspection of the Committee at Madras previously to its publication. 
The printing of the Old Testament was commenced in 1827 ; and in the following year, Mr. Hands 
made the following statement concerning his own share in the translation: — "The work was com- 
menced sixteen years ago, and scarcely a day has passed in which I have not laboured therein : it has 
engaged the best part of my time and strength : many of the books have been revised and re-copied 
seven or eight times."'* The printing of the Xew Testament, which had been commenced at Madras 
in 1820, was completed at Bellary in 1831, by the pubhcation of the Epistles and the Book of Reve- 
lation, under the care of the Sub-committee;' and in 1832 the Old Testament hkcwise left the press, 
and a Sub-committee was formed for the express purpose of revising the Xew Testament, prior to a 
second edition.*" This edition was intended to consist of 5000 copies of the Gospels and Acts, 1000 
extra copies of St. Luke and Acts, and 3000 copies of the Epistles : it does not appear, however, that 
the edition was eventually issued. In the Report of the Madras Bible Society for 1847, it is stated 
that the Cailarese Bible Revision Committee had, during the preceding year, been preparing a new 

1 M'Kerrell's Camatic Grammar, p. 157. * Twenty-fifth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. lix. 

2 Report of the London Missionary Society for 1821, p. 55. s Twenty-eighth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. btvii. 
' Nineteenth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 116. « Twenty-ninth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, 


translation of tlie Epistles to the Romans, Hebrews, Pliilipplans, Colossians, and the First and Second 
Epistles of Peter ; and that a small edition of the first four Epistles had been printed and circulated in 
order to elicit further criticism. It is further observed in the same report, that the cause of the work 
not progressing more rapidly is, that those engaged in it are also employed in the active duties of 
missionary labour ; and that they are moreover desirous of avaihng themselves of every advantage 
afforded by the present improved state of biblical science, and by the increased facilities for under- 
standing the genius and idiom of the Canarese language.' The Epistles to the Romans, 1 Corinthians, 
and Hebrews were finally revised by the Canarese Revision Committee, in the course of the year 
1847, and were accepted for the press by the Madras Committee. In forwarding them at the close of 
that year, the Rev. W. Thompson wrote: — "In a few months, if it should please our heavenly 
Father to grant health and strength, we hope to present you with the remainder of the Epistles, some 
of which are already in a considerable state of forwardness."^ The next reports therefore may 
perhaps announce the completion of this new version. 

Results of the Dissemination op this Version. — In proof of the acceptableness of this 
version may be cited the observations of the Rev. Mr. Taylor, made during a tour in 1831 : — "AVhile 
itinerating the country," he writes, " in my journey from Belgaum, I have had opportunities of 
putting in circulation the sacred volume in whole and parts. Very few instances of unwillingness to 
receive the Scriptures have come imder my observation, but innumerable evidences of great earnestness 
and solicitude to obtain them. I have had opportunities of ascertaining that the word has been read, 
and its contents tolerably understood ; and the knowledge I found some possessed of concerning Christ, 
and of what he did and suffered to save sinners, has afforded me both dehght and encouragement."^ 
Omitting other testimonies respecting the influence of the Scriptures on Canarese communities, it 
may not be uninteresting to quote the following individual instance of the blessing of God attending 
the perusal of the Canarese Bible, as related in the last report received from India: — " When travelling 
last year," says the Rev. Mr. Wurth, of Hoobly, in the southern parts of the Dharwar Collectorate, I 
met with a man who told me that there was a Lingaite Swamee in a village called Maraulee, who 
advised the people to throw away the Linga they wear on their breast, and put no confidence in idols, 
but to beheve in Christ. The Swamee, at my request, came to meet me, followed by many of his 
disciples (Lingaite priests) who carried with them a great number of books. Among these were the 
New Testament, Genesis, the Psalms, and the Prophets, all in Canarese. After some preliminary con- 
versation the Swamee said openly, ' I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and that the Holy 
Trinity, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, is the only true God ; and though 
the people call me a madman, I shall not give up this my conviction.' He has formed a circle of dis- 
ciples around him, who are to believe that of which their master is convinced. I was quite astonished 
to hear such sentiments from a Swamee of the Lingaites, who was never in close connexion with a 
missionary. He had drawn his knowledge partly from tracts, but more especially from the Bible, 
which in its sublime simphcity is the best teacher. He did not, it seems, till now, seek the remission 
of his sins in Christ, although he admired the sublime truths of the Christian religion. But I enter- 
tain a good hope, that the word of God, which has led him on so far, and which is quick and powerful, 
and sharper than any two-edged sword, will, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, become to him, in 
this respect also, a lamp unto his feet, and a Hglit imto his path."'' 

• Forty-third Report of British and Forei^ Bihle Society, p. xcvii. 3 Twenty-eighth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixvii. 

- Forty-fourth Report of British and Foreigrn Bible Society, p. xc. < Forty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xcvii. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Tuluvu Is the ancient and proper dialect of the 
long narrow tract of land now called Canara, situated westward of the Mysore, between the range of 
the Western Ghauts and the ocean. Canara extends about 180 miles along the coast, and comprehends 
7720 square miles. Its inhabitants, in point of number, amount to 657,594, of whom about one-fifth 
arc Brahmins, and the proportion of Jains and of Mussulmans is also rather considerable. Owing to 
the long subjection of Ganara to Karnata princes, the Karnata, or Canarese, language is now chiefly 
spoken by the higher orders of the population in that province ; Tuluvu, however, still continues the 
vernacular of the common people, especially in South Canara. The number of individuals who employ 
the Tuluvu language has been estimated at 80,000.' 

Characteristics of the Language. — The Tuluvu in idiom and structure closely resembles 
the Malayalim language, and is written in the same character. It contains, however, a great many 
Mahratta, Gujerattee, Telinga, Canarese, and Tamul words. 

Version of the Scriptures in this Language. — In 1834, a missionary station was 
estabUshed at Mangalore, the capital of Canara, by the German Missionary Society; and since that 
period some progress has been made, imder the patronage of that Society, in the translation of the New 
Testament Into the vernacidar dialect of the province. In 1844 the Gospel and Epistles of St. John 
and the Acts, translated by Mr. Ammann, and the Epistle of James, translated by Mr. Greiner of 
Mangalore, were lithogi'aphed at the Mission press of that station. The editions consisted of from 350 
to 400 copies of each book. Two Gospels and ten Epistles with the Acts form the total proportion of 
the Tuluvu version now in a state of completion.'^ The Tidu congregation now consists of 135 
individuals, many of whom have been baptized, and the missionaries have had cause, before and since 
their baptism, to rejoice on their account. No direct testimonies of the resvdts attending the perusal 
of such portions of the Tuluvu Scriptures as have been lithographed have yet been received. 

' British Friend of India Magazine, vol. iii. p. 192. 2 Year-Book of Missions, by Elijah Hoole, p. 84. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The Malayalim language is spoken along the 
western coast of Peninsular India, from Cape Comorin to the borders of Canara, and from the sea to 
the Western Ghauts, This region, sometimes distinguished by the general name of Malayala, includes 
an area of 17,760 square miles, and a population of 2,107,575: it comprises the British district of 
Slalabar under the Madras Presidency, and the territories of the several rajahs of Travancore, Cochin, 
and Coorg. The natives in general are Hindoos. The Syrian Christians who form an important 
section of the population have already been mentioned. 

Characteristics op the Language. — Malayalim is a dialect of the Shcn Tamul. It has 
been observed by Mr. Ellis, that the jjeculiar characteristic which distinguishes it from all other Tamul 
dialects is, that though it is derived from a language superfluously abounding in verbal forms, its verbs 
are entirely devoid of personal terminations, the person being indicated simply by the pronoim. The 
alphabet, as in the other languages of the Deccan, is arranged in the order of the Devanagari, but the 
form of the characters is peculiar. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — Dr. Buchanan, who visited the Syrian 
Christians of Malayala in the beginning of the present century, found that several attempts had been 
made by them at diiferent times, though without success, to effect a translation of the Scriptures into 
Malayalim, their vernacular language.' At the suggestion of Dr. Buchanan the design was at length 
carried into execution, and the venerable bishop Mar Dionysius engaged to superintend the translation. 
On his second visit to Travancore in 1807, Dr. Buchanan had the gratification to find that the version 
of the Four Gospels had been completed by Timapah Pillay and Kembar, a catanar or priest of the 
Syrian Church, under the direction of the arclibishop.^ The translation had been made from the 
excellent Tamul version of Fabricius, and an edition of 500 copies of these Gospels was printed soon 
afterwards at Bombay, at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Timapah Pillay was 
subsequently placed under the superintendence of the Eev. Mr. Thompson at Madras, in order to com- 
plete the translation of the New Testament from the version of Fabricius, and he accomplished the 
work in 1813. Inquiries, however, instituted by Mr. Thompson among persons versed in the lan- 
guage, soon convinced him that this version, originally intended for the Syrian Church, was not 
calculated for general circulation. It was found to abound with words familiar to the Syrian Chris- 
tians, but almost unintelligible to other classes of the Malayalim population.' An entirely new trans- 
lation was accordingly projected without delay, and Timapah Pillay was sent to the coast of Malabar 
for the immediate commencement of it, under the superintendence of a gentleman well qualified for 
the undertaking. The progress of the work was retarded by the opposition of the Catholic Archbishop 
of Crangalore and by various other obstacles, and when at length completed it was still found open to 
the same objections that had been brought against the original translation. It appeared in fact, on 
further investigation, that the language of Travancore varies so much from the purer dialect spoken 
in Travancore, as to render two separate versions desirable, if not indispensable, for the respective parts 
of the country. Mr. Spring, chaplain at Tellicherry, therefore, proposed to enter upon a complete 
revision of Timapah Pillay's version, so as to render it acceptable to the natives of Malabar; while Mr. 
Bailey, who was stationed at Cottayam, engaged to execute a new translation for the benefit of the 
inhabitants of Travancore. Mr. Sjiring was assisted by two learned natives who translated from Dr. 
Carey's Sanscrit New Testament: their work was afterwards submitted to a Committee of natives all 
versed in Sanscrit, and one of them acquainted both with English and Tamul, while Mr. Spring had 
before him the Greek text and various critical works. Mr. Bailey was assisted in his translation by 
the catanars and nairs of the Syrian Church : it was executed partly in the , peculiar idiom of the 
Syrian Christians, and partly in a medium style adapted for general usefulness.'' It was finished in 

» Seventh Report of British and Foreigrn Bible Society, p. 8". 
2 Ninth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 20. 

Indo-Eueopean Languages.] MALAYALIM. 125 

1819, and on being submitted to the Madnis Translation Committee was prefeiTed to the purer 
Malayalim version executed by Mr. Spring. In consec^uencc of the greiit anxiety nuinifestcd by the 
Syrian metropolitan, his clergy, and people, to obtain some portion of the Scriptures in their vernacular 
language, an edition of ]\Ir. Bailey's version, to consist of 5000 copies, was commenced at Cottayam, at 
the expense of the Madras Bible Society. The Gospel of St. Luke, the first portion printed, was 
completed at press in 1827; other portions followed, and in the year 1830 the whole of the New 
Testament had been printed. This edition was printed with types cast for the purpose by Mr. Bailey : 
he had never even seen a type foundry or its apparatus, and derived all his information from books; he 
had no assistants but a common carpenter and two silversmiths, yet his success was complete.' The 
translation of the Old Testament was hkewise completed by Mr. Bailey in 1830, and this work was 
submitted to a Sub-committee, formed in 1832 in connexion with the Madras Bible Society, for the 
publication of a Malayalim version of the Old Testament. About the same period an edition of 3000 
copies of the Psalms was begun at press: the translation had been made by the Kev. T. Norton, and 
revised by Kev. H. Baker.^ In 1834 an edition of 5000 copies of the Gospels and Acts, and 2000 
separate copies of St. Luke and the Acts, was printed in London with types belonging to the Church 
Missionary Society, and at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society. The edition was 
carried through the press by Mr. Bailey the translator, who had been compelled to visit England on 
account of his health. On returning to Cottayam, he took with him the entire edition for distribution, 
together vnth. a supply of paper for printing the remainder of the New Testament at the mission 
press.^ In 1840 an edition of 3000 copies of the Old Testament was passing through the press at 
Cottayam, at the expense of the Madras Bible Society,'' and it would appear Trom the last report that 
this important work is still in progress.^ 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — The following affecting history of 
the influence of the Scriptures over the heart and life of a Syrian of Malayala, is related by the Rev. 
Mr. Harley of the Church Mission, in his journal for 1840. Some years ago a Syrian, of the name of 
Curiatha, was reclaimed from a most sinful course of Hfc by the study of the Gospels, a copy of which 
he had received from the Rev. S. Ridsdale. In studying this holy book he became quite another man; 
he abandoned his covetous, worldly, and self-seeking views, and began to preach the Gospel of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, with a self-denial, zeal, and boldness seldom to be witnessed in a native Christian. 
He travelled through a great part of South India, preaching the Gospel among the heathen. He was 
quite careless of worldly emolument, and many times refused pecuniary assistance, travelling penniless, 
and contented to live on casual alms. How much he suffered for Christ cannot be known, for Curiatha 
never revealed such matters. As in life, so in death, he upheld the honour of the Gospel. He was 
preaching in the Kunnamkoollam Bazaar, when an opposer of the truth, a Syrian, incensed at his zeal, 
went home for a knife, and returning stabbed Curiatha to the heart. Curiatha put up a prayer to God 
not to lay this sin to the charge of the murderer, and immediately fell lifeless. Such was the end of 
Curiatha. He was faithful unto death." ^ Concerning the effects of the dissemination of the verna- 
cular Scriptures manifested at the present moment throughout ilalayala, we have the following interest- 
ing account from the Rev. J. Hawksworth, in the last report received from that country: — "Although 
I cannot enumerate many instances of evident spiritual benefit and conversion by distribution of por- 
tions of MalayaUm Scriptures, I am persuaded that great good is being quietly and extensively effected. 
Besides which, I believe the careful distribution of the Scriptures here at the present time is the course 
to be taken to prevent the fallen Syriac Church becoming a prey to her old and designing foe — the 
apostate Church of Rome. I may mention, that about ten days ago I baptized a family of five con- 
verts from heathenism, making now altogether a party of about thirty souls that have embraced Chris- 
tianity in one village during the last eighteen months. The conversion of the whole of these is 
traceable to the giving of a Malayalim Testament as the means."' 

' Report of Church Missionary Society for 1824, p. 133. 5 Forty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xci. 

2 Twenty-ninth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. bd. 6 Missionarj' Register for 1842, p. 343. 

3 Thirty-flrst Report of British and Foreign Bible Society', p. lidv. ' Forty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Societ}-, p. xciii. 

4 Thirty-sucth Report of British and Foreign Bible Societj-, p. Iv. 


(For Specimen of this Version, see Plate VI.) 

Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The Island of Ceylon lies at the entrance of the 
Bay of Bengal, between the 6tli and 10th degrees of north latitude, and the 80th and 82nd degrees of 
east longitude. Its area has been estimated at 25,000 square miles, and by the last census in 1835, 
the returns gave the amount of population at 1,250,000.' The Cingalese language is only pre- 
dominant in the interior of the island, and on the southern coast from Battycola on the east, to the 
river Chilaw on the west. Tamul, as before mentioned, prevails on the northern coast, and Indo- 
Portuguese is spoken by the descendants of European settlers in many of the seaport towns. Pali, as 
we have already had occasion to state, is the learned and religious language of the Buddhists of Ceylon. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The remarks already made on the peculiarities of the 
Tamul language are almost equally applicable to the Cingalese, which closely resembles the Tamul in 
constiTtction and idiom. In Cingalese, as in the languages of the Deccan, there are two distinct 
dialects ; namely, the dialect employed in books, properly called Elu, but more commonly high 
Cingalese, and which offers very few points of approximation to the Sanscrit, and the vulgar or coUo- 
quial dialect, in which nine out of every ten words are derived either from Sanscrit or Pali." The Elu, 
it is generally supposed, was the language of the aborigines of the island, and the colloquial dialect is 
thought to be a modification of the Elu, altered by the intermixture of Pali words, and by other 
causes. The Cingalese alphabet contains fifty letters, arranged very much upon the Devanagari 
system; but upon examination of their powers, the number of articulate sounds may be reduced to 
seven vowels and twenty-three consonants. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language.— The first Cingalese version of the 
Scriptures was made when Ceylon was in the possession of the Dutch. The Dutch Governor Von 
Imhof established a printing press at Colombo in 1737, with the \'icw of disseminating the knowledge 
of the Gospel among the natives. In 1739 an edition of the Four Gospels in Cingalese was completed 
at this press, under the care of the Rev. J. P. Wetzel, a minister of the Dutch church at Colombo. 
The translation had been executed from the original Greek by the Rev. W. Konjhn, a minister of the 
same church. It was reprinted at Colombo in 1780, after having been revised and corrected by the 
Rev. IMessrs. Fybrands and Philipsz. These two ministers likewise superintended an edition of the 
Acts, printed at Colombo 1771 : two learned Cingalese natives had executed this translation, under 
the direction of the Rev. S. Cat. The Epistles to the Galatians and Corinthians were translated by 
Mr. Philipsz, and printed in 1773; he then completed the translation of the remaining books of the 
New Testament, and committed them to the press in 1776. Of the Old Testament, a metrical version 
of the Psalter was printed at Colombo in 1775, and republished in 1768. The books of Genesis, 
Exodus, and Leviticus were published in 1783. Mr. Philipsz appears to have continued the version as 
far as the book of Job ; and after his death the manuscript was deposited among the archives of the 
Dutch church at Colombo. The Colombo Auxiliary Bible Society was formed in 1812, and one of 
the first measures adopted by the Society was the examination of the state of the Cingalese version of 
the New Testament. It was found so replete with errors, that a thorough revision, or a new transla- 
tion, was deemed indispensable, and the execution of this important work was intrusted to a Com- 
mittee of Cingalese interpreters, under the superintendence of Mr. Armour, an English schoolmaster, 
well-versed in the language, and W. Tolfrey, Esq., a civil officer under government, and an eminent 
Cingalese scholar. As it had been, however, previously ascertained that a most deplorable scarcity 
of the vernacular New Testament existed in Ceylon, a reprint of the former text was made by the 
Calcutta Auxiliary Society: this edition, consisting of 1000 copies, was printed at Scrampore 
in 1813, and was presented to the Colombo Society for the purpose of meeting the urgent wants 
of the people, while the revised edition was in course of preparation.' As many alterations were 

1 Eleven Years in Ceylon, by Major Forbes, vol. i. pp. 12, 15. 3 Tenth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. II. 

2 Clough's Cingalese Dictionary, Introduction. 

Indo-Europea.n Languages.] CINGALESE. 127 

requisite in the printed text, the work of revision progressed but slowly; constant reference was 
made to the Sanscrit and Bengalee versions, whence many appropriate words and phrases were 
obtained. The Tamul version was also of much assistance, for owing to the affinity between the 
two languages, the form of expression in Tamul was often found to run easily into Cingalese. 
The Pali was likewise consulted in order to give clearness and precision to the translation ; and 
Mr. Tolii'cy declared that it was expedient to render every chapter into J'ali, before it could be 
revised with eilect in Cingalese.' The whole revision was conducted with continual reference to the 
Greek text and the Englisii version. In 1815, 200 copies of the Gospels of Matthew and Mark were 
struck olf lor circulation among Cingalese scholars, and the criticisms and opinions thus elicited were 
decidedly in favour of the work, which was declared to be free from the low and familiar words which 
disfigured the former text, and which, though of constant occurrence in the colloquial dialect, are 
deemed peculiarly reprehensible in the Cingalese written composition. The lamented death of Mr. 
Tolfrey occurred just as the revision had reached the Second Epistle to Timothy. The prosecution of 
the work then devolved upon the Rev. Messrs. Chater and Clough, in conjunction with Mr. Armour, 
and by their united exertions a complete edition of 5000 copies of the New Testament left the 
Colombo press in 1817. They then applied to the preparation of a version of the Old Testament 
Scriptures, which they conducted on the same plan as that on which the revision of the New Testa- 
ment had been executed. By the aid of grants received from the Parent and Calcutta Bible Societies, 
and from tlio American Board of Missions, 1000 copies of the book of Genesis were printed at Colombo 
in 1818 ; and in the following year, a second edition of 3500 copies of the revised New Testament was 
pubUshed. This was soon followed by 2000 copies of the Psalter, and by 1000 copies of each of the 
other books of the Old Testament, and the entire version was completed at press in 1823. Some 
assistance to this work was granted by the British Government. As the supplies of the Scriptures was 
still found inadequate to meet the urgent demands of the people, another revised and cheaper edition 
was undertaken with the aid of the British and Foreign Bible Society ; it consisted of 2500 copies of 
the Old Testament and of 6000 of the New. The Pentateuch and Gospels left the press in 1828, and 
the entire edition was completed in 1830. 

Another translation of the Cingalese Scriptures was imdertaken by the Rev. Mr. Lambrick, of the 
Church Mission, at Cotta, a village near Colombo. The first portion of this version that passed 
through the press was the Gospel of St. Matthew, 100 copies of which were printed for the use of the 
schools at Cotta. Other portions of the Scriptures were successively issued, and in 1833 the New 
Testament was completed at press, followed in 1834 by an edition of the Old Testament, printed at 
the expense of the Church Missionary Society. This translation, which is generally distinguished as 
the " Cotta Version," differs from the version set forth by the Colombo Bible Society in the following 
particulars : — " 1. All the honorific terminations, that is, peculiar terminations of the verbs, nouns, 
and pronouns, indicative of respect, used in books in the high Cingalese dialect, are omitted in the 
Gotta version. 2. Those terminations of nouns, etc. in common use in the colloquial dialect are 
adopted. 3. One pronoun for the second person singular (there are twelve others in use in Cingalese 
books) is uniformly used throughout the Cotta version, whoever may be the person spoken to, human 
or divine. 4. Words in common use are invariably substituted for learned ones."^ The aid of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society has been extended to both these versions ; and in 1838, 2000 copies 
of the Cotta version were ordered to be printed at their expense.' Although considerable difference 
of opinion has hitherto existed among the missionaries respecting the use of honorific terminations, yet 
it is now felt to be extremely desirable on all sides, that there should be but one standard version of 
the Cingalese Scriptures ; and it is hoped that the negociations now pending between the Church 
Missionaries at Cotta and the members of the Colombo Translation Committee will result in a unity 
of judgment and feeling on this important point.'' 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — Ceylon is the venerated seat of 
Buddhism, and one of the chief depositaries of Buddhistic learning ; yet in no country of the East has 
the distribution of the Scriptures been attended with more abundant manifestations of the divine 
blessing. IMany individual instances of conversion resulting from the perusal of the word of God in 
this language are dispersed throughout the records of the Bible, Church Missionary, and Wesleyan 
Societies. The following statement by Mr. Clough, one of the translators, shows the rapid progress of 

I Twelfth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 230. ' Thirty-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Societ}-, p. Ixxir. 

- RecoUectioiis of Ceylon, by Rev. James Selkirk, p. 344. » Forty.third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. cui. 


truth through tlic length and breadth of the island : — " The Bible in Ceylon is working a great change 
in the views and fl-chngs of the heathen. Formerly the priests and others felt but httle at its circu- 
lation ; but since the people have got a more extensive supply, and the effect of their reading is 
become apparent, the priests have taken the alarm, and have endeavoured to thwart the circulation. 
But the matter has gone too far, and this they now see ; for in our schools in the southern part of 
Ceylon we have, by the blessing of God, raised up in the midst of the population not less than 30,000 
native Christian readers, who do read, and will read, in spite of the opposition of the heathen." ' And 
in the last reports received from Ceylon, the Rev. Mr. Gogerly writes — " The number of Cingalese 
readers is increasing daily ; there is much more of a spirit of inquiry than was formerly apparent, and 
a greater willingness to read the word of God. In some instances, especially about Morotto, even 
Koman CathoUcs apply for the New Testament. Vital Christianity has not spread among the people 
so much as we desire ; yet, in the Wesleyan body alone, nearly 1000 sincere Christian men and 
women, without enumerating their children and family connexions, besides the members of other 
sections of the chm-ch, daily receive instruction in the Holy Scriptures." ^ 


The Maldives are a chain of islands, supposed to be about 1200 in number, in the Indian Ocean, 
extending between the 1st degree of south, and the 7th of north, latitude, and between the 72nd and 
73rd degrees of east longitude.' They are of coralline formation, and many of them are little else 
than reefs. They have been seldom visited by Europeans, and the amount of population is unknown. 
The rulers are Mahommcdans, but it is thought that the people are pagans. 

The language^ is a very mixed one, and contauis a fiir greater number of Cingalese, Hindustani, 
Sanscrit, and Arabic words, than of Malay, among the dialects of which some have wished to class it.'' 
Dr. Leyden considered that it bears a distant relation to Cingalese. The Maldivians have an alphabet 
of their own, said by the Serampore Missionaries to resemble the Persic in name and form.^ 

The Four Gospels were translated into Maldivian by Dr. Leyden, who presented the MS. to the 
Calcutta Bible Society. The death of that eminent scholar arrested the further progi-ess of the version, 
but the native whom he had employed in making the translation was retained at Serampore. A fount 
of types was cast for the purpose of printing the Gospels, but through some cause now unknown, ^no 
portion of the version appears at any time to have passed through the press. 

' Twenty-ninth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ixiv. * Balbi's Atlas Ethnographique. 

2 Forty-third Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, pp. ciii. cv. 5 Eleventh Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 32. 

3 M*Culloch*s Geographical Dictionary, vol. ii. p. 259. 

.mui.1 ttgMr ft Son. PUinioihc K 




SPECIMEN OF THE WELSH VERSIONS.— St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

London, Folio, 1567. 

gi^ 2 berijrar gtiti octil) o @air, 
a'r ©nil' octli y got a Quto, a'r 
®air ijtunia ocliti Duto. 

2 Jtjuju octilj «n s ticrijrae goti 
a ©uto. 

3 ©11 a fanactlipfast trtoo 'r ®air 
l)tonto, ac rttilJato tin tonacttiptoDt 
tiim a'r a iBuacHiptoyl. 

4 |f)iittn*u S^li ortii' iJDtogt, a"r 
bgfagt oftti 'olnini tionion. 

5 a'r golamt a tnlngn gn u 
tniriDltorl). a'v tgttiultoci) nil) ortJt 
gn ci ninguffrcl). 

6 gtil) ortil) glur a li'Sanfaoncsit 
5 gan^DtJuiD, a' zi cntti orlil) loan. 

7 1t|ton a titiarti) gn trstiolaetfj, 
bcstiolartiju o'r golcuni, gn g 
i3[)rrtifnt oil trbogtitiato. 

8 ilgt) cfc ortli g golcuni Ijlnnto, 
citi^r £ l)l)anfonc3it g licstialactf)u 
o'r golcuni. 

lijtotir.ijb ortti g gliiir "okunt g 
sg gn golcuo pop tign 'sgn gn liguol 

10 gn g bgti gtiti octiti rf, a'r 
bob a Trmaclijplnut triDgbbato cf: 
a'r fagb npb atinalni titiim o Ijanato. 

1 1 ilt ur fi "btialD g M\m g tiactij, 
a'r ct= "bbato gtjun ng 's lilTrrbgnc^ 
Bont cf. 

12 3' riignniurr an lirrbgnirsont 
tf, ri)0C3 g Sbteignt braint g faot gn 
faribion i DtiuUJ, 'scf ix satol a 
rrrliant gn g (ffnto cf, 

13 gr ci a anrt ngb o iuact, nac 
cbjullgs g matnb, na'c o 'tngllgs 
gtor, citlK o Dtiuto. 

1-1 il'r ©air !)bbni.itj a tonacti)- 
ptogt gn giialnt. a: a tirigiaUiliti gn 
cin plfti), va' gludsam ci 'ogoniant, 
facgis gogoniant bn gnnctiic iiap 
gbtirtij g SEalj) gn I'aUin'rat a" 

London, Folio, 1588. 

gm g bcdjjrctiat) gr ocbti g gair, 
a'r gair ocbt ggti a Suto, a ^ufa 
ortiti g gair. 

2 Itjttin octib gn g icdjrcnalj gglj 
a JDuSd. 

3 STrtog'blJa cf g gtonacti^pfagt) 
pob pctli, ac Ijcbtito cf ni tonacli tint 
a'r a irmartttptnuti. 

\ !|Dtttt)o rf gr ortti bglugti, a'r 
bglugt'oclit olcuni tgnion. 

5 'H'r golcuni a IcUturcijotti gn g 
tgtuglltocl), a'r tgtogllulrij nil) ocl)5 
gn ci atnggffrcli. 

C |3r gSoclil) gliir Inclii ti anfon 
otilji torUj Qtiutt), a'i cntai Eoan. 

7 fijton a litacti) gn tcstiolact^, 
fcl g tcstiolactiic cfc ant g golcuni, 
fcl g crctc pamb tttoulilio cf. 

8 i^lili cfc octl) g golcuni ljirin= 
nir, citijr t icstiolacUju am g 

9 [^Jtnnnto] octli g gtolr olcuni, 
gr iilnn sgtil) gn golctio pob tun a'r 
g sgtl) gn tgfot i'r but. 

to gn g but ur octt cfc, a'r but 
a irinacTiipiilut trUogtto cf : a'r but 
nit atnabu cf. 

U at ci citto ci Ijun g tactf) cfc, 
a'i citto d ijun ni's tcrbgnniasant 

12 ©nt cgnnifcr a'r a'i tcrbgn= 
ninsant cf, cfc a rottcs ittgnt allu 
i fot gn fcibion i Ettiio, [scf] i'r 
sntol a grctnit gn ci cniu cf, 

13 g rljai ni anct o iuact, nac o 
ctogllus u cnatot, nac o ctogllns glur, 
citljr Dtuin. 

L't a'r gair a innactfjptogt gn 
gnalnt, ac a trigott gn cin plitij ni, 
(ac ni a toclgotn ci ogoniant cf, 
nicgis gogoniant gr tnicganctic 
[jpab gn tgfot] otti torti) g 2Lat) 
gn llafan graa, a gtoirionctt. 

London, Folio, 1620. 

giji g tccf)rcuat gr octt g ©air, 
a'r ©air octt ggt'a Dutti,"a Quto 
octt g ©air. 

2 ^tjtun octt gn g tccf)rcuat got 
a IDuln. 

3 SErrogtto cf g gfanactfjptotjt 
pob pctl) ; ac i)cbtta cf, ni tonact1)= 
ptogt tint a'r a tonartliptnut. 

\ gntto cf ur octt bgtogt, a'r 
bgtogtoctt olcuni tgnioif : " 

5 a'r golcuni sutt gn llctogrrbu 
un g tutoglltorli, a'r tutoglllnci) nit 
octt gn ci nmggffrct. 

6 gr utoctt gtjbr tocti ti anfon 
otti tort!) Dtuln, ai cnto loan : 

7 1i|ton a ttactij gn tgstiolactf), 
fcl g tgstiolnctljci ant g golcuni, fcl 
g actri patob trtoutto cf. 

8 ilit cfc octt g golcuni, citijr 
[cfc a anfonasit] fctg tgstiolaclfjci 
am g golcuni. 

9 It^ton gtoctt g giiiir olcuni, gr 
ijton sutt un golcuo pob tun a'r g 
sutt un tnl'ot i r but. 

10 gn g but ur octt cfc, a'r but 
a tonactliptout titogtto cf ; a'r but 
nit atnabu cf. 

U at ci citto n bun g tartly, 
a'r citto ti Ijun ni ttcrbuniasant 

12 ©nt cgnnifcr ac a'i tcrbgn= 
iasant cf, cfc" a rottcs ittgnt allu 
i fot gn fcibion i Dbuto, [scf] i'r 
satol a grctant gn d cnto cf. 

13 g rijai ni anct o toact, nac a 
ctogllus u niatot, nac o ctogllus gtor, 
citi)r Stuto. 

\\ a'r ©air a tonactf)ptogt gn 
gnatot, ac a trigott gn cin plitJj 
ni, (ac ni a tocleom ci ogoniant ef, 
gogoniant mcgis gr bnig=anctig 
ottitorlli g Slat) gn llaton gras a 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The Welsh, sometimes called the British lan- 
guage, on account of its former predominance in Britain, is a dialect of the Celtic, an ancient tongue 


once diffused tliroughout the greater part of Europe, although now confined to certain sections of the 
British Isles and a portion of Brittany. According to the last census taken in 1841, the population 
of Wales and Monmouthshire was estimated at 1,045,958; but a very large proportion of this popula- 
tion, particularly in Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire, consists of EugHsh and Irish immigrants. 
It is believed that, throughout the whole of Wales, the natives of the principality, to whom the Welsh 
lano-uage is vernacular, do not number above 700,000 individuals; an amount of population which is 
less by one half than that of cither Yorkshire or Lancashire.' In estimating, however, the number of 
individuals by whom Welsh is spoken, it must be taken into account, that from fifty to seventy thou- 
sand Welshmen are settled in various towns of England, particularly in London, Liverpool, Man- 
chester, Chester, Birmingham, and Bristol.^ 

Characteristics of the Language. — One grand distinctive feature which runs through 
the Welsh, and all the other dialects of the Celtic language, is the incompleteness of the grammatical 
system of inflections, as compared with the complex and elaborate systems of the Sanscrit, Teutonic, 
and other families. This circumstance, viewed in connection with the generally received opinion, that 
Europe was first colonised by tribes of Celtic origin, leads to the inference that the separation of the 
Celtic family from the parent stock in Asia took place at a period prior to that in which the language 
then common to the Asian race had attained its full maturity of development. The study of the 
Celtic dialects has, therefore, a bearing more or less direct upon all questions connected with the early 
history and origin of nations; for the remarkable analogies still preserved by those dialects with other 
families and classes of languages, lead us back to the most remote epochs that can possibly be inves- 
ti"-ated by the aid of comparative philology. In Celtic may still be traced some faint indications of 
the ancient relationship, if not of the original identity, of the Indo-European and Shemitic classes. 
The Celtic, like Hebrew and other Shemitic languages, has two sets of personal pronouns; namely, 
the full or unmutilated forms used chiefly in the nominative case, and the abbreviated forms employed 
in reo-imen; the latter often found in conjunction with a preposition, so as to make but one word.^ 
The Celtic pronouns also point to the solution of a problem that has long occupied the attention of 
philologists, for it has been satisfactorily ascertained, that the personal terminations of Welsh verbs are 
neither more nor less than a series of pronominal suffixes; so that, as Dr. Prlchard has justly observed, 
the lono-'debated question respecting the origin of these terminations may now be considered as set at 
rest, so far, at least, as the Celtic is concerned.* In the number of its tenses in the active voice, and 
especially in the possession of a passive voice, the Celtic dialects are richer than any of the Teutonic 
lani-uao-es except the Moeso-Gothic, which alone retains any remnant of Its ancient passive form, and 
that only in the present tense of the indicative and subjunctive moods.* In the laws of euphony 
reo-ulatino- the permutation of consonants when brought together in composition, the Celtic oflers 
many points of resemblance to other languages of its class; but, with this distinctive peculiarity, that, 
while in Greek and in most of the Indo-European languages one consonant has no power in modifying 
another, except when joined thereto in one and the same word, the Celtic alone resembles the San- 
scrit in the modifying influence possessed by the final and initial consonants of words in sequence. 
The principles upon which these changes in the consonants of distinct words depend are, in Sanscrit, 
comprised in what is technically called the law of Sandhi, and are purely euphonic in their nature. 
In Welsh and its cognate dialects, on the contrary, these characteristic changes of Initial consonants 
seem to have a more especial reference to the meaning of the preceding word, or to some rule of 
o-rammatical construction ; yet there are many cases in which the alteration of the initial letter seems 
m Welsh to depend mainly, if not solely, upon euphonic principles.'^ The Welsh differs in several 
respects from the other Celtic dialects : it is derived immediately from the Cymric branch of the Celtic 
lano-uacre anciently spoken through Germany to the ocean, whereas Gaelic, Erse, and Manx probably owe 
their orio-in to the ancient language of Celtic Gaul. The Welsh is remarkable, Hke the Eollc Greek, for 
its habitual substitution of hard palatine and guttural consonants for the soft palatine and sibilant letters 
of the Sanscrit in such radicals or elementary words as are common to both languages. In this 
peculiarity it is foflowed in some degree by the Teutonic languages, although they often incline more 
strongly to the Introduction of an aspirate.' The great number of Latin words which enter into the 
Welsh vocabulary may in part be accounted for by the long supremacy of the Romans in Britain : to 

1 Wales, by Sir Thomas Phillips, p. 7. ' Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations, p. ISO; see also Grimm's Deutsche 

2 Wales, by Sir Thomas Phillips, p. 567. Grammatili, p. 8S5. 

3 Dr. Meyer, in the Seventeenth Report of the British Association, p. 317. "^ Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations, p. 34. 
< Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations, p. 130. ' Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations, p. 42. 

Indo-European Languages.] WELSH. 131 

whicli cause may also be traced the adoption, by the Welsh, of the Eoman characters, which took place at 
an early period, as is evident from ancient inscriptions and Icgc'nds on coins.' To account, however, for 
the numerous Celtic words which are to be detected in the Latin and (ircek languages, we must resort 
to the hypothesis that the Umbri, the Osci, and perhaps some of the other primitive colonists of Italy 
and Southern Europe, were of Celtic descent. In many words, of which Lhuyd gives a detailed list, 
(Arch. Brit. p. 269), the Celtic and Greek approximate so closely as to leave no room for doubt 
respecting the identity of their origin, while; the corresponding terms in Latin evidently proceed from 
an entirely distinct source. Such words as in Latin commence with sc, sp, or st, have the letter y 
prefixed in Welsh (e.g. Lat. scclere, IVd. ysceler; Lat. spiritus, Wei. yspryd ; Lat. status, VVel. ystad);^ 
and a similar peculiarity is exhibited by the French language, which also inserts a vowel before Latin 
words commencing with these letters, as in espvce, from Lat. species; esperer, from Lat. s])erare. 

The form of conjugation in the Welsh verbs is immediately derived from the Latin, as will appear 
by exhibiting some of the forms of a verb common to both languages: e.g. Wcl. canu, to sing, Lat. 
cano, or canto ; IVcl. canaf, or canav, LMt. cantavi ; W(d. eanaist, Lat. cantavisti, contracted cantasti ; 
Wei. canodd, Lat. canit ; Wei. imperative, caned, Lat. future, canet ; Wei. canasom, Lat. contr. 
cantassemus, for cantavissemus. The form of the second person plural is pccidiar to the Welsh: 
canasoch, you sang ; the ch is derived from chvl, you; a personal pronoun used in Welsh as a distinct 
word ; Wei. canasent, Lat. cantiissent. It appears from these examples that the Welsh is as intimately 
connected with the Latin as the Italian is, as far, at least, as the conjugations are concerned : for the 
Italian terminations deviate from the Latin as much as the Welsh, and nearly in the same manner, 
with the exception of the second person plural already noticed; as -amus in Latin is -amo in Italian, 
and in Welsh -om, as in the above examj^les. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — The earliest mention of a Welsh version 
of any part of the Scriptures occurs in an epistle prefixed, by Dr. Eichard Davis, bishop of St. David's, 
to the first printed edition of the Welsh New Testament (that of 1567), in which he states that there 
was a version of the Pentateuch extant about the year 1527, and that he himself saw a copy of the work 
in the possession of a learned gentleman, a relative of his own: he does not, however, give any in- 
formation respecting the translator, or the period at which the version was executed.* Several short 
detached portions of Scripture were translated into Welsh, and printed during the reign of Edward VI., 
probably for the use of the Liturgy or Service Book compiled during that period. In 1562, a law was 
enacted by parliament enforcing the translation of the entire Scriptures into the Welsh language, under 
the superintendence of the Bishops of St. Asaph, Bangor, St. David, Llandaff, and Hereford. In 
consequence of this enactment, William Salesbury, a Welshman of liberal education, and a good linguist 
for the age, was appointed by the bishops to take the oversight of the projected edition;' and by him 
the entire New Testament was translated, except the Book of Revelation, which is ascribed to Huet, 
a chantor or prrecentor of St. David's, and five of the Epistles (2 Timothy, Hebrews, James, and the 
two general Epistles of Peter), which were translated by the above-named Dr. Richard Davis, bishop 
of the same place. The whole version was made from the Greek collated with the Latin : Its general 
fidelity has never been disputed, but it is faulty in style and orthography. It is divided, like our 
present Testaments, into chapters, but has no distinction of verses except in some books towards the 
end.'' It was dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, and was printed in 1567 in Loudon, at the expense of 
Humphrey Toy. The edition, which consisted of 500 copies, was in quarto, and printed in black 
letter. More than twenty years elapsed after the publication of the New Testament, before a version 
of the Old Testament was bestowed upon the people of Wales. This boon was at length conferred by 
Dr. William ilorgan, originally a vicar of Llanrhaiadr-mochnant, in Denbighshire, and raised in 1595 
to the see of Llandaff, and in 1601 to that of St. Asaph. With the aid of several eminent scholars, 
he prepared a version of the Old Testament from the Hebrew,'^ and revised Salesbury 's version of the 
New Testament. He was not nommated to this important undertaking by the bishops, but engaged 

* A Welsh version of the Bible was preserved in MS. at Celydd Ifan, near Bridgend in Glamorgan : it appears to have been 
executed from the Latin Vulgate, by an ancestor of the family residing in that place, about the year 1470. A considerable portion 
of the MS. was still extant a few years ago, and in all probability it is still preserved. It may have been a MS. of the Pentateuch of 
this version to which Dr. R. Davis referred. We may, however, also mention that it has been stated that the translation of the 
Pentateuch into English, by WiUiam Tyndale, was the basis of a Welsh version. 

Historical and Critical Remarks on the British Tongue, by Dr. 3 Historical Accountof the Welsh Vers, of the Bible, by Dr. Llewelyn, p. 8. 

LleweljTi, p. 41. 4 Historical Account of the Welsh Vers, of the Bible, by Dr. Lleweljii, p.6. 

Lhuyd's Archieologia Brit. p. 8. 5 Historical Account of the Welsh Vers, of the Bible, by Dr. Llewelyu, p. 6o. 


in it spontaneously. In 1588 he printed both Testaments with the Apocrypha in one volume foUo. 
The work was divided into verses throughout, and, like the former edition of the New Testament, was 
dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. This edition also consisted of 500 copies, and was printed in black 
letter : a copy, presented by the translator himself, may be seen in the library of the dean and chapter 
at Westminster, and another in the library of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Dr. IMorgan 
afterwards subjected the New Testament to a second revisal, and the corrected version was ready for 
the press in 1604, when he died: it does not appear ever to have been printed. The important work 
which had occupied so many years of this prelate's life, was not discontinued after his decease. His 
successor in the see of St. Asaph, Dr. Richard Parry, manifested equal zeal in the preparation of 
a faithful version of the Welsh Scriptures. Of his own accord, and in concert with his chaplain, 
the celebrated Dr. John Davies, Dr. Parry undertook a complete revision of the Old and New 
Testaments, in the course of which he introduced so many corrections and alterations, that the 
work is deservedly regarded as a new and independent version, rather than as an amended translation. 
It has always been held in such high estimation, that it has been used as the text of all succeeding 
editions; and the few variations that from time to time may have been made from it, are chiefly of an 
orthographical nature : it is, in fact, the standard version of the Welsh Scriptures. It was pubhshed 
for the first time in 1620, by Norton and Hill, his Majesty's printers in London, and contained a 
dedication to King James. The copy which was presented to the king is now in the British Museum. 
The edition, however, only consisted of 500 cojsies: like the two previous editions, it was printed 
in black letter and m folio, and the total want of copies of the Scriptures printed in a more 
accessible form was at this jieriod severely felt in Wales. In consequence of this lamentable deficiency, 
some noble-minded citizens of London combined together to furnish a portable edition of the Welsh 
Bible at their own expense. Their edition, which was published in 1630 in London, was in small 
octavo, and contained, besides the Old and New Testaments, the Apocrypha, the Book of Common 
Prayer, and a metrical version of the Psalms. Prys, archdeacon of Merioneth, was the translator of 
this psalter, which is now used in the Welsh churches. Another metrical version of the Psalms, by 
Captain Middleton, had been printed by Salesbury in London as early as 1603. The other principal 
editions of the Scriptures, issued during the 17th and 18th centuries, may be briefly enumerated as 
follows : — 

1647. The New Testament in 12mo., without headings to the chapters; 1000 copies. 

1648. Second edition of the Metrical Psalms, by Archdeacon Prys, in 12mo. 

1654. The whole Bible in 8vo. ; 6000 copies. This is sometimes called Cromwell's Bible. 

1654. A separate edition of the New Testament, also in 8vo., 1000 copies; printed in larger type 
than the Bible of the same date. 

1672. The New Testament with the Psalms, both in prose and metre. This edition was pub- 
lished by means of subscriptions collected in Wales and England : it was printed in 8 vo. , 
and consisted of 2000 copies. 

1678. The whole Bible, with the Book of Common Prayer, in 8vo., printed in London. Of 
this edition, which consisted of 8000 copies, 1000 copies were distributed gratis among 
the poor, and the rest were sold at a price below the cost of printmg. Mr. Thomas 
Gouge, a man of noted benevolence, was the principal promoter of this edition : it passed 
through the press imder the care of his friend, the Rev. Stephen Hughes, who formerly 
held the living of Mydoim, in Caermarthenshire, but was ejected at the passing of the 
Act of Uniformity. The corrections in orthography and punctuation, introduced by 
Mr. Hughes, were ninnerous and important ; and this edition, though not without its 
defects, has in consequence been held in high estimation. 

1690. Bible in 8vo., 10,000 copies. This edition was published by the Rev. David Jones, the 
ejected minister of Llandisllio, imder the patronage of Lord Wharton, and with the 
assistance of some ministers and citizens of London. 

1690. Bible in folio, 1000 copies, printed at Oxford, for the use of churches. This is sometimes 
called Bishop Lloyd's Bible, because he Is believed to have had some hand In the pub- 
lication, and to have supplied the chronology and references.' It was printed under 
the superintendence of Mr. Pierce Lewis, a gentleman of Anglesea. This was the first 
edition printed in Roman characters ; It varies from preceding editions in the ortho- 
graphy of many words. 

1 Historical Account of the Welsh Version of the Bible, by Dr. Llewelyn, p. 35. 

Indo-Kuropkan I^anguages.] welsh. 133 

1718. Biblo in 8vo., 10,000 copies, printed in London. This is often called "Moses Williams' 
Bible," because that gentleman, then vicar of Dyfynog, in Brecknockshire, was the 
curator of the press. This edition was the first published under the patronage of the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge : it has the Apocrypha, tlie Psalms in 
metre, some hymns, and forms of prayer ; also marginal references and the contents of 

1727. Bible in 8vo., 5000 copies, London. This edition was published under the same patronage 
as the last, but without the references or the headings of the chapters : on account of 
this omission it was never so higlily valued or sought after by the people. 

1746. Bible in 8vo., 15,000 copies, Cambridge. This was the third edition brought out under 
the superintendence of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. It contains 
nearly all that was printed in the edition of 1718, and passed through the press under 
the care of Mr. E. Morris of the Navy Office, a distinguished Welsh scholar. In this 
and the following edition the orthography of Bishop Lloyd's Bible was adopted. 

1752. Bible in 8vo., 15,000 copies, London. This, like the edition of 1746, was printed under 
the superintendence of Mr. Morris, at the expense of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge: these two editions cost the sum of £6000.' 

1752. New Testament and Psalms, in 8vo., 2000 copies, London: printed from the edition of 
1672 by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Several reprints from this 
edition have been made at Shrewsbury. 

1769. Bible in 8vo., 20,000 copies, London: pubHshed by the Society for Promoting Christian 

Knowledge. The orthography is that of Bishop Lloyd's Bible. 

1770. Bible in quarto, Caermarthen, with Notes by the Ecv. Peter Williams. This has been 

reprinted at least twelve different times at Caermarthen, and similar editions have issued 
from other Welsh presses. The same Bible has been printed in folio size, with plates, 
by Fisher and Co., London. 

1789. Bible in folio, London. This was a small edition, printed for the use of churches by the 

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 

1790. Bible in 12mo., with Mr. John Canne's Ecferences, printed at Trevecca, in Brecknockshire, 

under the superintendence of Mr. Peter Williams. An edition of the same Bible was 
subsequently printed at Caermarthen. 
1799. Bible in 8vo., 10,000 copies; and New Testament printed separately (also in 8vo.), 2000 
copies. These editions were published under the care of the Eev. John Roberts, at Ox- 
ford, by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
The editions above enumerated, with the exception of 10,000 copies of the New Testament in 
various sizes, printed in the year 1800 at Salop, ^ were all that appeared prior to the formation of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. At the close of the last and commencement of the present 
century, great scarcity of the vernacvdar Scriptures prevailed in Wales. The large edition of 1799 
was no sooner published than sold, and the last copy was disposed of before one fourth part of the 
country was suppUod.' Urgent applications were made to the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, entreating them to provide further supplies of the Welsh Scriptures, but without success. 
At this juncture, when no aid seemed attainable from that source, the Eev. Thomas Charles of Bala, 
formerly a clergyman of the Established Church, but then officiating in connection with the Welsh 
Calvinistic Methodists, came to London to endeavour to find other means for supplying the princi- 
pality with Bibles. He was introduced to one of the meetings of the Committee of the Eeligious Tract 
Society, the members of which entered warmly into the case. It was found to be too important and 
too difficult to admit of any immediate resolution ; but meetings were held on alternate Tuesdays for 
its consideration, which, after fifteen months' anxious dehberations, issued in calling the public meeting 
on the 7th March, 1804, for the formation of the British and Foreign Bible Society.'' _ As the scarcity 
of Bibles in Wales had thus been the proximate cause of the origin of this noble institution, so one of 
the first measures of the Society, when established, was an attempt to meet the urgent demands of the 
Welsh people for copies of the Scriptures. The Society resolved in 1804 to print an edition of the 
Welsh Bible and Testament on stereotype plates: the number ordered was 20,000 Bibles in 12mo., 
with 5000 additional Testaments in a larger type. The text selected was the Oxford edition of 1799, 

1 HistoricalAccountofthe Welsh Vers, of the Bible, by Dr. Llewelyn, p. 54. 
3 Anderson's Historical Sketches, p. 257. 


and the proffered services of Mr. Charles were accepted in revising and preparing a copy for the press. 
Wliile this revision was being vigorously carried on, a communication, emanating from the Rev. 
J. Eoberts of Tremeirchion, Flintshire, was conveyed, through the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, to Lord 'I'eignmouth, the President of the British and Foreign Bible Society, impeaching 
the accuracy of certain orthographical alterations introduced by Mr. Charles. A Sub-committee was 
appointed to investigate the validity of these complaints ; and after a lengthened controversy it was 
proved, that though Mr. Charles had in his revised copy ventured on the adoption of certain ortho- 
graphical changes, chiefly in accordance with the system of Dr. Pughe, yet that he was guiltless of 
innovation so tar as the general sense or meaning of the sacred text was concerned. The expediency 
of the alterations in orthography adopted by Mr. Charles formed the next subject of inquiry; and as 
the Sub-committee, from their imperfect acquaintance with the language, felt themselves incompetent 
to decide the question, the matter was referred to the arbitration of the Eev. Walter Davies, vicar of 
Meifod, Montgomeryshire. This gentleman declared his opinion to be in favour of the old system of 
orthography, which the Society accordingly determined to adopt in their forthcoming edition ; and it 
must be mentioned to the honour of Mr. Charles, that he liberally gave his services to the correction 
and revision of the text by which his own was superseded. In 1805 the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge announced their intention of printing 20,000 copies of the Welsh Bible from the 
text of 1746; to which, however, they afterwards gave the preference of the text of 1752. To avoid 
the serious evil of discrepancy between their versions, the British and Foreign Bible Society resolved 
that they likewise would adopt this latter text; and their edition, prepared from this standard, left the 
press in 1806. Including this their first edition, the number of copies issued at successive intervals by 
the British and Foreign Bible Society from the year 1806 to the present year (1849) may be briefly 
stated as follows ' : — 

Bibles .329,131 

Testaments 384,209 

Diglots, Welsh and Enghsh . . 1,986 

Total . . 715,326 

Other large editions besides those above described have been published by the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge: of these the principal was that printed at Oxford in 1809, for which collations 
were made from previous editions, typographical errors were corrected, and the orthography of proper 
names was restored according to the text of 1620.^ 

Facts relative to the Dissemination of this Version. — The manner in which the 
Bible Society's first edition of the New Testament was received in Wales is thus described by an eye- 
witness: — " When the arrival of the cart was announced which caiTied the first sacred load, the Welsh 
peasants went out in crowds to meet it, welcomed it as the Israelites did the ark of old, drew it 
into the town, and eagerly bore off every copy as rapidly as they could be dispersed. The young 
people were to be seen consuming the whole night in reading it. Labourers carried it with them to 
the fields, that they might enjoy it during the intervals of their labour, and lose no opportunity of 
becoming acquainted with its sacred truths."' The increase in the issues and circulation of the Scrip- 
tures in Wales since that period is highly encouraging. Adding the circidation of the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, and that of private printers, to the munber issued by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, the total number of Welsh Bibles and Testaments printed at different times, 
and in different places, cannot be far short of ONE MILLION copies. 

Forty.fourth Report of British and Tmeign Bihie Society, p. 51 . - Kniglit's Remarks, Historical and Philologic al, p. I ■(. 

~ ~ ■ ■■ "■ -for July 1810. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

Anns an toiseach bha am Focal, agus blia 'm Focal raaille re Dia, agus b'e 'm Focal Dia. 
^ Bha c so air tiis maille re Dia. " Rinneadh na h-uile nithe leis ; agus as eugnihais cha 
d'rinneadli aon ni a rinneadh. ■• Annsan bha beatha, agus b'i a' bheatha solus dhaoine. 

* Ao-us tha 'n solus a' soillseachadh anns an dorchadas, agus cha do ghabh an dorchadas e. 

* Chuireadh duine o Dhia, d'am b'ainm Eoin. ' Thainig esan mar f hianuis, chum fianuis 
a thoirt mu'n t-sohis, chum gu'n creideadh na h-uile dhaoine tridsan. ** Cha b'esan an' 
solus sin, ach chuireadh e chum gu d'thugadh e fianuis mu'n t-solus. " B'e so an solus 
fior, a ta soillseachadh gach uile dhuine tha teachd chum an t-saoghail. "* Bha e anns 
an t-saoghal, agus rinneadh an saoglial leis, agus cha d'aithnich an saoghal e. " Thainig 
e dh'ionnsuidh a dhucha fein, agus cha do ghabh a mhuinntir fein ris. ''^ Ach a mheud 
's a o-habh ris, thug e dhoibh cumhachd a bhi 'nan cloinn do Dhia, eadhon dhoibhsan a 
ta creidsinn 'na ainm : '•' A bha air an gineamhuin, cha'n ann o f huil, no o thoil na febla, 
no o thoil duinc, ach o Dhia. " Agus rinneadh am Focal 'na flieoil, agus ghabh c cbm- 
hnuidh 'nar measgne, (agus chunnaic sinn a ghlbir, mar ghlbir aoin ghin Mhic an Athar) 
l^n grilis agus firinn. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The Gaelic is spoken in the Higlilands and 
Western Isles of Scotland, and pervades a region not much less in extent than the half of all North 
Britain. The people to whom this language is vernacular has. In round numbers, been estimated at 
400,000 individuals.' Antiquarians are not agi-eed as to whether the progenitors of this population 
were the ancient Britons, or merely colonists from Ireland. 

Chaeacteeistics of the Language. — The characteristics of the Gaelic are essentially the 
same as those of the Erse dialect. One point of difference however is, that the Gaelic, unlike the Insli, 
verbs possess but two simple tenses, the preterite and the future. The substantive verbs " bi," to be, 
and " Is," 1 am, form perliaps the only exception to the rule, as they both possess a present tense : 
such forms as " Creidim," I believe," " Guidheam," I -pray, now occasionally to be heard in the High- 
lands, do not properly belong to the Gaelic, but seem to have been introduced from Ireland.- In this 
singular defect of possessing no simple present tense, the Gaelic (like the Welsh, the Manks, and the 
extinct dialect of Cornwall) resembles the Hebrew and Shemitic class of languages, to which, as has 
aheady been observed, the Celtic class makes several notable approximations. 

Veesions of the Sceiptures in this Language. — The venerable Bede informs us that, 
in his time, the Scriptures were read in Great Britain " in five dialects then vulgarly used, viz. those 
of the Angles, Britons, Scots, Picts, and Latins.^ But if a version of Scripture ia the language we 
call Gaelic really existed in Bede's time, it is certain that no fragment of it is now extant; nor has any 
allusion to its existence been made by any other early writer. Scotland, indeed, appears to have been 
left longer than almost any other part of Europe unprovided with a version of the Bible in the 
vernacular language. In 1686, 200 copies of the Irish Bible, printed, as is subsequently mentioned, 

■ Anderson's Histoiical Sketches, p. 126. 2 Stewait's Elements of GaeUc Grammar, p. 9'. ^ Hist. Eccles. lib. i. p. 41 . 


at the expense of Mr. Boyle, were transmitted to Scotland for the use of tlie Highlanders, and owing 
to the similarity between the two dialects, were found to be generally intelligible. This edition was, 
however, printed in the Irish character, with wliicli the Highlanders were but imperfectly acquainted, 
whereas they had been taught to read, although they could not understand English. For their benefit, 
therefore, an edition of the Irish Bible was issued in Roman characters in 1690: the work was printed 
in London under the superintendence of the Eev. Robert Kirk, minister of Aberfoyle, and was 
promoted chiefly by the Rev. James Kirkwood, of Astwick, and assisted by Mr. Boyle. Another 
small edition of the Irish New Testament (consisting of about 500 copies) was published in Glasgow in 
1754, but it was not till the year 1767 that a New Testament in the Gaelic tongue was provided for 
the Scotch Highlanders. For this important translation, alike creditable to tlie venerable translator, 
and o-ratifying to all capable of understanding and appreciating it, Scotland was indebted to the 
Rev. James Stuart, of Killin: the work was published at the expense of the Society in Scotland for 
promoting christian knowledge, assisted by a grant from the London Society. The first edition 
consisted of 10,000 copies in 12mo., and a larger edition of 21,500 copies was issued by the same 
Society in 1796. Encouraged by the evident acceptableness of these editions, the next measure of the 
Society was to obtain a Gaelic version of the Old Testament. Several ministers cooperated in this 
translation, which they agreed should be made directly from the Hebrew text. To facilitate the work, 
the Old Testament was divided into four parts, two of which were allotted to the Rev. Dr. John Stuart, 
minister of Luss, the son of the learned translator of the New Testament. A third part, also, afterwards 
fell to his share, although it had in the first instance been executed by another hand. The remaining 
fourth part, consisting of the Prophetical Books from Isaiah to Malachi both inclusive, was translated 
by the Rev. Dr. Smith, of Campbeltown, and, on its completion, was found to differ altogether in style 
and execution from the other portion of the Bible translated by Dr. Stuart. The translation of 
Dr. Stuart was remarkable for its simplicity and its close adherence, so far as the idiom of the Gaelic 
lano-uage would permit, to the letter of the sacred text ; whereas the Prophetical Books are translated in 
a style which is at once free and poetical, resembling in some respects Bishop Lowth's translation of 
Isaiah.' The work was published in parts : the first part, containing the Pentateuch, appeared in 
1783, and 5000 copies of the whole version were completed at press in 1801, at the expense of the 
Society. In consequence of many complaints concerning the discrepancy in style between the 
prophetical and the other books, the Society resolved, in tlieir next edition, to subject the former to a 
thorough revision, that they might be rendered conformable to the other parts of the version. This 
plan was carried into effect in 1807, when an edition of 20,000 copies of the Old together with the 
New Testament was printed at Glasgow, under the care of the Rev. Alexander Stewart, of Dingwall.^ 
Many opposed this version as fearing it would encourage the existence of the Gaelic language 
(which some desired to extinguish, as identified with Jacobitism). Dr. Johnson did much to encourage 
the version. One of his letters shows the deep interest which he took in the subject. 

In the meantime, representations having been forcibly brought before the British and Foreign 
Bible Society respecting the deplorable scarcity of copies of the Scriptures in the Highlands, and tlie 
inadequacy of the means employed for their supply, the Society agreed to furnish an edition of the 
Gaelic Bible, from the text adopted by the Scottish Society for the Promotion of Cliristian Knowledge. 
This edition was published in London in 1807, nearly at the same time as the Edinburgh edition above 
noticed : it consisted of 20,000 Bibles and 10,000 Testaments. It was received with the utmost joy 
and gratitude by the Highlanders, but their demands for more copies still continued so urgent, that 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, from time to time, have issued other editions ; and the total 
number of Gaelic Bibles and Testaments printed by them up to the present year (1849) is 65,696 
Bibles, and 77,949 Testaments. The following list of editions published by other Societies is given 
by Mr. Anderson^: — 

1810. By Scottish Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge 10,000 Bibles, 12mo. 

1821. By ditto ditto ditto 10,000 Tests. 12mo. 

1827. By ditto ditto ditto 1,000 Bibles, 4to. 

1827. By ditto ditto ditto . 2,000 Tests. 8vo. 

1828. By Edinburgh Bible Society 7,500 Bibles, 24mo. 

1828. By ditto 5,000 Tests. 24mo. 

1829. By ditto 10,000 Bibles, 12mo. 
1829. By ditto 5,000 Bibles, 8vo. 

I Second Report of the B. and F. Bible Society, p. 176. = Towulcy's Illustrations, vol. iii. p. 468. = Hist. Sketclies, p. 259 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

[London, 1844.] 
21MN r* cofAC bo bi At) Bb|xiACA|t, i bo b] A1J 

Bb)t|ACA|l A bpoCAlfl 'Dfe, T bo b6 'DjA AT) 

2 'iDo bj 1*0 Ajt ciif A bpocAifi *!)&. 

3 LeifeAT) a c<v|b i)a b'wle t)e]ce bfevncA ; T 
5AP fe t)j bpvil ^injA bfevocA, bA i)b&A)ir)A6. 

4 210 r^'^'' *'*' ^1 beACA ; T bob j ai) beACA foluj* 
T)A t)b&oit)e. 

.5 2l5u|- rojUtiSib At) |-oluf rit) aO r^ boficAbAi*; 
1 t)jo|t 5Ab At) boitCAbAj" c.r,Tfi e. 

6 41)0 c-vilteAb bvii)e 6 C)b)A, b;\|t bA^rin) 6oit),; 

7 Tiv\ii)]c At) c6 1*0 tt)Aii ^]A6t)\;t;, bo cvrt) 50 
i)b6Ai)A& ]•& ^|t\6t)vi(; bot) ■C|-oluc, ioi")uf- 50 
SCTieibpibjf [cAc] \ile i\i\Ti. 

8 Njott beifeAt) At) Soluf iib, ACb [bo cvifteA6 
6] iot)vr 50 t)beAt)A6 t6 j:iA6t)v;|*| boi) T^j-oluf 

9 t)o b6 fo At) Soluj* pi|tii)eAC, fojUfijeAf 
5AC Vile 6v?t)e bJk bci5 *^ ■* cf ivogAl. 

10 <Do bj fe A^ft A cf&05Al, T citibfeAi) bo 
|t|t)eA& At) ]-^05aI, ACb t)iofi aicji) ai) j-^ojaI &. 

11 'DjoOfvije A cobA p^it) t'o.]r)]c ffe, "| t)io|t 
5AbAbA|v A 6&oit)e pe|t) cvca fe. 

12 2lcb At) rb^ib bo 5Ab cvca 6, CV5 f& cvtb- 
AcbA &6|b be)c t)A scloii) A5 'DjA, [e6ot)] botj 
b]vo]i)5 c|\e]ber aO a A|t)rr)^-eAt) : 

13 Mac bp\;l Ajt t)A T;5eit)eAtbAit) 6 ^\?l, t)^ 6 
CO)! t)<\ coUa, i)& 6 co|l pijt, ACb 6 <DbJA- 

14 2l3ur bo jtibgS peo]l boi) Bbtt^icut, T bo 
coft)t)v;5 ^-e eAbfx\;ije, (i bo cvr)CAtt)Aji a 5l6||v- 
X\or), tt)Att sloift &iD5eiDe [2t)bic] ai) 21cai|i), 
Ui) bo 5fiivi-vib 1 bpitupe. 

[London, 1824.] 
Ann sa tosach do bhi an Blunathar, agus do 
bin' an Bhriatliar a bbfochair De, agus do be Di'a 
an Bhriatliar, 

2 Do bhi so ar tiis a bhfocliair D^. 

3 Leisean a tdid na huile neithe d^unta, agus 
gan ^ ni bhfull einni deunta, da ndearnadh. 

4 Ann sau do blii beatlia, agus dob i an bheatha 
solus na nddoine : 

5 Agus soillsigliidli an solus sin ann sa dorch- 
adas, agus ni'or gliabli an dorchadas cliuige L 

6 Do cuireadh duine 6 Dhi'a, dar bhainm Eoin: 

7 Tainic an te so mar fliiadhnuisi, do chum go 
nd^anadh se fiadhnuisi don tsolus, ionnus go 
gcreidfidis cdch uile thrid. 

8 Ni'or bhesean an solus lid, achd do cuireadh 
e ionnus go ndeanadh s^ fiadhnuisi don tsolus 

9 Do be so an solus fi'rinneach shoillsigheas 
gach uile dhuine dd dtig ar a tsaoghal. 

10 Do bhi se air a tsdoghal, agus tridsean do 
rinneadh an sdoghal, achd nior aithin an saoghal e. 

11 Dionnsuighe a choda fein thainic se, agus 
nior ghabhadar a dhdoine fein chuca i. 

12 Achd an mheid do ghabh chuca d, tug se 
cumhachda dhcjibh bheith na gcloinn ag Dia, 
eadhon don droing chreideas ann a ainmsean. 

13 Nach bhfuil ar na ngeineamhain 6 fhuil, nd 
6 thoil na colla, nd 6 thoil fir, achd 6 Dhia. 

14 Agus do rinneadh feoil don Bhreithir, & 
do chomhnuigli se eadruinne (agus do chunnca- 
mar a ghl6irsion, mar ghloir ^ingheine mic on 
athair) Idn do ghrasuibh agus df irinnc. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Except in large to-ivns and their vicinity, the 
Erse or Irish language is still spoken more or less in almost every part of Ireland, but it prevails more 


especially in Munster and Connauglit. There are no less than 600,000 individuals who can speak 
no other language. The English language has been partially acquired by about three millions of the 
native Irish, but so imperfectly that they are unable to receive religious instruction through its 
medium.' The entire population of the island, including Enghsh settlers and those famihar with the 
English language, amounts to 7,943,940; and of this population it has been computed that there are 
6,427,712 Koman Catholics, 852,064 members of the Establishment, and 664,164 individuals belong- 
ing to other denominations ; so that, in round numbers, out of every hundred souls eighty-one are 
Koman Catholics, eleven belong to the Anglican church, and eight are Protestant Dissenters.^ Yet, 
although Roman Cathohcism has at present this preponderating influence, a pure form of Christianity 
existed in Ireland until the yoke of Popery was imposed upon it by England. This subversion of the 
ancient faith of the Irish people dates from the period when Pope Adrian IV., himself by birth an 
Enghshman, bestowed on Henry 11. of England the papal sanction for the annexation of the island to 
the British crown. 

Characteristics of the Language. — Although the Erse or Irish is now little known but as 
the vernacular of an illiterate population, it was once the language of hterature and science : "the English 
' Saxons," observes Camden, "anciently flocked to Ireland, as to the martof sacred learning :" and the monu- 
ments of Irish philosophy, poetry, and history have been handed down from the tenth, and in some in- 
stances, probably, from the sixth and seventh centuries.^ Erse belongs to the Gaelic branch of the Celtic 
language; but in vrhat country it originated is unknown, for Gaul, Spain, Scythia, and even Troy, have 
aU laid claim to the honour of having first sent colonists to Ireland, and the question will probably 
long remain undecided. It is, however, certain that this dialect of the Celtic has preserved its original 
purity from the period of its first predominance in Ireland, so that no elements which are not strictly 
Celtic can be detected in its composition. The few words of Teutonic origin, occasionally to be met 
with in Erse, may be ascribed to the influence of the Scoti, a tribe of Scandinavian or Belgic origin, 
who, about the time that the Romans quitted Britain, acquired so much power in Ireland that the 
country itself became known by the name of Scotia ; which name it retained until the Scoti transferred 
it to their settlements in North Britain towards the end of the eleventh century.'' The Gaelic or 
Celtic dialect of Scotland and that of Ireland are still closely allied, yet they now diverge far more 
widely from each other than in former times. From the fact that more than 200 copies of the Irish 
Bible were sent to the Higlilands in 1686, and were found to be generally intelhglble to the people, 
we may infer that at that period the two dialects were almost Identical. As compared with Welsh, the 
Erse dialect presents many points of diflerence, especially in the regular substitution of the letter A or c 
for the Welsh p in words common to both dialects : thus, the Welsh Pasc {Easter) Is in Irish Kasg ; 
and the Welsh pen (a head) is in Irish keann.^ Indeed, it has been remarked by Lhuyd, that there 
are scarcely any words in Erse, except a few borrowed from the Latin, that commence with p ; and he 
states that in an ancient alphabetic vocabulary of the language, that letter is entirely omitted. The 
letter h, on the other hand, takes a very prominent part in Irish orthography, especially m its influence 
on that transmutation of initials which we have already described as a characteristic of the Celtic 
dialects. The Influence of n in this respect probably arises from its having been the old Celtic pre- 
position denoting the genitive. This letter, however, like the final vowels, is generally suppressed, 
both in Welsh and Erse, where the transmutation of the Initials has taken place, so that the effect only 
is visible, while the cause is concealed. The changes incident to initial consonants, when preceded by 
final w, are classed by Irish grammarians under the general name of ecllpsis; a word probably derived 
from the fact of the altered consonant being placed before the radical or original one, which latter may 
properly be said to be eclipsed by the former. The Roman letters are often used in Erse compositions, 
but the Irish have an ancient alphabet of their own, for which they feel a trvdy national predilection. 
The origin of this alphabet is very uncertain; it bears some resemblance to the Anglo-Saxon, and it 
has even been questioned whether the Saxons derived their alphabetical system from the Irish, or the 
L-ish from the Saxons. In the dedication of the Irish Prayer-book of 1608, it is confidently asserted 
that the Saxons borrowed their letters from Ireland.* The native Irish alphabet consists of eighteen 
letters, of which five are vowels. Nine of the consonants are called mutable, because when a mark of 
aspiration is placed over them, they either lose their primitive sound, or are suppressed altogether in 
pronunciation; in this state they are technically said to be mortified. This change in pronunciation 

1 Reportofthe Irish Society of Londonfor 1847, p. 23. * Moore's Ireland, vol. i. p. 98. 

= M'Culloch's Dictionary of Geography, vol. ii. p. 47. ' Archieol. Britannica. 

» Rerum Uibernicaram Scriptores Veteres, vol. i. * Ingram on Anglo-Saxon Literature, p. 42. 

Indo-Ettropean Lanouaoes.] IRISH. 139 

by means of a point, is in some respect analogous to the effect wliicli the dagesh point has upon some 
of the letters in Hebrew.' 

Veksions of the Scriptukes in this Language. — It has been conjectured that the Scrip- 
tures were translated into Irish soon after the introduction of Christianity into the island, but we 
possess no delinitc account of any early version. The MS. containing the life of Moses and the patri- 
archs, described by Vallancey, although of unquestionable antiquity, is rather an historical compendium 
than a direct translation from tlie sacred text.'-' There is no positive evidence of the existence of the 
Scriptures in Erse till the age immediately preceding that oi' WickUfle, when a version of the New 
Testament is stated to have been in tlie possession of Ricliard Fitzralph, a native of Dundalk, raised in 
1347 to the see of Armagli, and hence frequently called Richard Armachanus. Fitzralph is generally sup- 
posed to have been himself the translator of tliis version; and in his autobiography he relates " how the 
Lord tiuight him, and brought him out of the profound subtleties of Aristotle's philosophy to the 
study of the Scriptures of God." Although he was remarkable for the boldness with which he 
opposed the corruptions of the Church of Rome, yet he was compelled by the troubles of the times to 
conceal his New Testament. He deposited the precious volume inside one of the walls of liis church, 
and wrote the following note on the last leaf: — " When this book is found, truth will be revealed to 
the world, or Clirist will shortly appear."^ About 170 years after his death, that is tosay, about the 
year 1530, the church of Armagh was repaired, and the MS. was discovered. No vestige of it, how- 
ever, exists at the present time, although Fox in his " Actes and Monumentes," published 1570, says, 
" I credibly heare of certayne old Irish Bibles translated long since into the Irysh tong, which if it be 
true, it is not other lyke, but to be the doing of this Armachanus:" and he adds that "this was 
testified by certayne Englishmen, who are yet alyve, and have seen it."* Usher, also, speaks of frag- 
ments of an Irish version being extant in his time. 

In the year 1571 a printing press and a fount of Irish types were provided by Queen Elizabeth 
at her own expense, " in hope (as it is stated in the dedication of the Irish New Testament) that God 
in mercy would raise up some to translate the New Testament into their mother tongue." The trans- 
lation was soon afterwards undertaken by three distinguislied individuals — John Kearney, treasurer 
of St. Patrick's, Dublin; Nicholas Walsh, chancellor of St. Patrick's, and afterwards bishop of Ossory; 
and Nehemiah Donellan, a native of Galway, who in 1595 became archbishop of Tuam. Walsh was 
murdered in his own house in 1585, while engaged in the prosecution of the work. The translation 
was not suspended after his decease, as his two fellow-labourers proceeded diligently with it. Little, 
however, is known concerning the result of their labours, except tliat they prepared the way for the 
completion of the version of the New Testament eventually published in 1602. William Daniel, or 
O'Donnell, archbishop of Tuam, by whom this version was completed and carried through the press, 
was assisted by Mortogh O'Cionga, or King, a native of Connaught. The translation was made from 
the Greek, " to which," says Dr. Daniel in his epistle dedicatory to King James, " I tied myself as of 
duty I ought." Tlie edition, printed in 1602, was in the Irish character, and in foHo, and consisted 
of 500 copies : the expense was defrayed by the province of Connaught, and by Sir WiUiam Usher, 
clerk of the council. 

AVith the exception of the passages of Scripture inserted in the Book of Common Prayer, which 
had been translated into Irish and printed by Dr. Daniel in 1608, no portion of the Old Testament 
existed in this language until the venerable Bishop Bedell undertook to procure a translation. 
Although appointed in 1629 to the see of Kilmore and Ardagh, he was an Englishman by birth, and 
unacquainted with the language of his new diocese. His first step towards the accomplishment of his 
important design was, therefore, the acquisition of the Erse dialect, which he commenced to study at 
the age of fifty-seven. His next measure was to secure the services of a native Irish scholar, and with 
the advice of Primate Usher, his choice fell on Mr. King, who had, as before mentioned, been employed 
by Dr. Daniel. He likewise availed himself of the assistance of the Rev. Dennis O'Sheriden, and with 
the aid of these two individuals, the version of the Old Testament was completed in 1640. Mr. King 
being ignorant of Hebrew, the translation was made in the first place from the Enghsh version. To 
Bishop Bedell the Hebrew and the Septuaglnt were as fiimihar as the English, for the Scriptures had 
for years been his favourite study. It was his custom, says his biographer, every day after dinner and 
supper to have a chapter of the Bible read at his table, whoever might be present ; when Bibles being 

I Grammar of the Irish, hy Dr. Monck Mason, p. 3. 3 Balaeus, Script. Brit. p. 246. (Edition 1559.) 

- Towiiley's Illustrations, vol. i. p. 195. 4 Fox*s Acts and Monuments, p. 381. (Edition, 1596.) 


placed before each individual, the Hebrew or Greek was laid before himself. As he compared the 
Irish translation witli the English, so he compared both with the Hebrew, the Septiiagint, and with 
the Italian version of liis friend Diodati, whom he highly valued.' Every portion of the Irish Bible 
was thus tested by direct comparison with the original text; and for this task Bishop Bedell was 
peculiarly qualified, having resided many years at Venice as chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton, where he 
had studied Hebrew under Eabbi Leo, the chief chachan of the Jewish synagogue. For some cause 
or other, however, Mr. King, then above eighty years of age, incurred the enmity of Usher and some 
other bishops, in fact of the very persons by whom he had been recommended as a translator, and 
great opposition was made to the translation: the old man sank beneath these unjust persecutions, but 
Bishop Bedell remained firm in his determination of publishing the version, and finally resolved to 
print it at his own expense, and in his own house. But while he was making preparations for the 
undertaking, the rebellion broke out; his palace was attacked, and he and his family were sent 
prisoners to the Castle of Lochwater. He was soon afterwards removed to the house of his friend 
Dennis O'Sheriden, where he closed his career of usefulness in 1641. 

After the death of this excellent prelate, the circulation of the vernacular Scriptures was utterly 
neglected by the bishops and clergy of Ireland ; the version of the Old Testament was suffered to 
remain in MS.; no attempt was made to reprint the New Testament; and even the types that had been 
provided by Queen Elizabeth, after being handed about from one printer to another, were bought up 
by the Jesuits, and were carried by them to Douay, to be used as the vehicle of disseminating their 
own sentiments among the native Irish. At length, when the New Testament was completely out of 
print, another edition was conferred on Ireland by the munificence of a private individual, the Hon. 
Eobert Boyle. A new fount of Irish types was cast by order of Mr. Boyle in London, with which, 
in 1681, a second edition of the New Testament, consisting of about 750 copies in 4to., was published 
in 1681. This was followed by tlie printing of Bishop Bedell's version of the Old Testament, chiefl.y 
at the expense of Mr. Boyle. The MS. had been confided by Bedell to the care of his friend Dennis 
O'Sheriden, one of the translators, from whom it had passed to Dr. Henry Jones, bishop of Meath: 
this latter communicated with Mr. Boyle on the subject, and the MS. was placed in the hands of 
Dr. Andrew Sail for examination; the sheets were found in much confusion, and defaced in some 
parts. Dr. Sail, therefore, luidertook to revise the work, which revision he continued to prosecute till 
his death in 1682. j\lr. Higgins, the Irish lecturer in Trinity College, who had assisted Dr. Sail in 
preparing the corrected copy for the press, completed the revision in conjunction with Mr. Eeilly, 
under the general superintendence of Dr. Marsh, afterwards primate of Ireland. An edition con- 
sisting of 500 copies of the entire Bible, in 2 vols, quarto, was printed in London in 1686, under the 
care of Mr. Reilly. Above 200 copies of this edition, as has already been stated, were sent to 
Scotland tor the benefit of those to whom the Gaelic tongue was vernacular. 

More than a century was suffered to roll away before any efficient measures were taken to reprint 
the Scriptures in Irish. A second edition of the Bible was certainly printed in 1790; but this edition 
was in Roman characters, and designed chiefly for the Highlanders of Scotland. In 1799, Dr. Stokes 
publislied 2000 copies of St. Luke and the Acts, followed in 1806 by an edition of the Four Gospels 
and the Acts, in parallel columns of Erse and English ; but these small portions of Scripture were far 
from sufficient to meet the wants of the Irish nation, and were moreover printed in the Roman 
character. The honour of first supplying Ireland with Bibles, after so long a period of destitution, 
belongs to the British and Foreign Bible Society. " In 1809," says Mr. Owen, " after a discussion, 
alternately suspended and renewed, for five years, and a correspondence of considerable extent with 
prelates, scholars, and public bodies in Ireland, an edition of the New Testament of 2000 copies, con- 
formable to the accredited version of Bishop Bedell, was put to press by the Society.''^ This edition 
was in Roman characters, and was followed in 1813 by another edition from the same stereotype 
plates, of 3000 copies. Another edition of 2500 copies was struck off in 1816, and again another of 
3000 copies in 1817. An edition of the complete Irish Bible, in Roman characters, was issued by the 
Society in 1817; the version of Bedell was employed as the text of the Old Testament. The edition 
was in octavo, and consisted of 5000 copies. In tlie course of the following year, 3000 copies of the 
New Testament, in the Irish character, were struck off from stereotype plates. At length in 1828 the 
entire Irish Bible appeared in the vernacular character, from the version of Bedell and Daniel. The 
edition was published under the superintendence of a Committee, and consisted of 5000 copies in 8vo., 
besides 20,000 copies of the New Testament. The editor on this occasion was Mr. M'Quige; but the 

* Bedell's Life, p. 93. '■* Owen's History of the British and Foreign Bible Society, vol. i. p. 459. 

Indo-Eueopean Languages.] IRISH. 141 

sheets were likewise examined by Dr. Monck Mason and otliers. The total number of Irish Bibles 
and Testaments tliat liave been publislied by the British and Foreign Bible Society up to the present 
year (1849) is as follows : — 

Bibles 15,000 

Testaments ..... 84,523 

Separate Books 18,020 

Total .... 117,543 

Ebsults op the Dissemination of this Version. — Notwithstanding the ealamities with 
whicli Ireland has recently been visited, the sacred Scriptures have been diligently disseminated 
throughout the length and breadth of the country; and though the results may not yet appear, it is 
certain that the precious seed thus scattered will ultimately take root, and bear fruit to the glory of 
God. At the last anniversary of the Hibernian Bible Society, it was stated that the issues during the 
past year were 99,464 copies of the Scriptures.' 

One result of the circulation of the Irish Bible has been the extensive perusal of the English 
version. The Irish version is remarkably faithful and accurate, but contains many dlfScult, and some 
obsolete, words. Tiie meaning of several passages is thus greatly obscured, and this has served to rouse 
the naturally enquiring spirit of the native Irish. In cases of perplexity they have acquired the habit of 
seeking in the English Bible an elucidation of the Irish text. The study of the English language has 
in consequence greatly progressed in Ireland, and in some places the English Bible is known by the 
familiar designation of " the coyistruer."'^ Dr. Monck Mason mentions that after the circulation of the 
Irish Bible, 700 copies of the English Testament were sold ujjon one occasion in the course of a few 
hours in the same place, where, but a dozen years previously, one of these very volumes had been 
publicly and triumphantly burnt. Owing to the benevolent efforts of the Sunday and other School 
Societies, the Irish peasantry have the means of learning to read the Scriptures very generally within 
their reach. At the commencement of last year, the schools connected with the Sunday School 
Society for Ireland amounted to 2,964, which were reported to be attended by 224,132 children and 
adults; and 135,174 of the scholars were stated to be reading in the Bible or Testament.^ 

The following remarks, occurring in a collective address of eight Irish teachers, written in the 
year 1845, are too appropriate to our subject to be omitted : — " What a living Ronge has effected in 
Germany, the immortal Bedell may yet effect in Ireland. ' He being dead, yet speaketh' — yet 
speaketh in the Irish Bible; which, under the blessing of the Almighty, has already brought thousands 
from darkness to light — from bigotry and superstition to Christian knowledge and liberality of mind. 
Though persecution and anathema deter many from uniting with us, still the Irish Bible and the Irish 
school have raised up intelligent men, who will not be prevented from reading the Holy Scriptures. 
These men know that for centuries past their brethren in Ireland, speaking the Irish language 
exclusively, have been allowed to live and to die without the Scriptures in their own tongue — they 
know that the Church of Rome, until this day, has not provided a translation of the Scriptures in Irish 
— they know, if it had not been for the Irish Society, they themselves must have been as the neglected 
generations departed. They feel then most grateful for Irish Schools and the Irish Bible. They have 
read it — they are reading it — they will read it, and hand it down to their children's children as the 
most valuable gift that Ireland ever received." 

> Forty-fifth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. clxxJdv. 2 History of the Irish Society for Promotiiig the Education of the Irish, 

^ Forty-fifth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. clxxxiv. by Dr. M. Mason, p. 35. 

M A N K S. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

[London, 1819.] 

Ayns y toshiaglit va'n Goo, as va'n Goo marish Jee, as va'n Goo Jee. ^ Va'n Goo 
cheddin ayns y toshiaglit marish Jee. ' Liorishyn va dy chooilley nhee er ny yannoo ; 
as n'egooish cha row nhee erbee jeant va er ny yannoo ; '' Aynsyn va bea, as va'n vea 
soilshey deiney. ^ As ren y soilshey soilshean ayns y dorraghys, as cha ran y dorraghys 
goaill-rish. '^ Va dooinney er ny clio)Tt veih Jee va enmyssit Ean. ' Haink eh shoh son 
feanish, dy ymmyrkey feanish jeh'n toilshey, liorishyn dy voddagh dy chooilley ghooinney 
credjal. " Cha nee eh va'n soilshey shen, agh v'eh er ny choyrt dy ymmyrkey feanish 
jeh'n toilshey shen. ^ Shen va'n soilshey firrinagh, ta soilshean ayns dy chooilley 
ghooinney ta chect er y theihll. '" V'eh ayns y theihll, as va'n seihll er ny yannoo 
liorishyn, as y seihll cha dug enney er. " Haink eh gys e vooinjer bene, agh cha ren e 
vooinjer bene soiaghey jeh. '^ Agh whilleen as ren soiagbey jeh, dauesyn hug eh pooar 
dy ve njm mec dy Yee, eer dauesyn ta credjal a)ms yn ennym echey : '* Va er nyn 
ruggey, cha nee jeh fuill, ny jeh aigney ny foalley, ny jeh aigney dooinney, agh jeh Jee. 
'^ As ghow yn Goo er dooghys ny foalley, as ren eh baghey nyn mast' ain (as hug shin 
my-ner yn ghloyr echey, yn ghloyr myr jeh'n ynrycan Mac er-ny-gbeddyn jeh'n Ayr) 
lane dy gbrayse as dy iiTinys. 


The Isle of Man, the ancient Mona, is situated in the Irish Sea, almost in the centre of the United 
Kingdom, and comprises an area of 280 square miles. The feudal sovereignty of the island was 
conferred by Henry IV. on the House of Stanley in the fifteenth century, and was held by that family 
and their successors, the Dukes of Atholl, till purchased by Parhameut in 1765 for the sum of £70,000: 
the island, however, still continues to be governed by its own laws,' and the established religion is 
that of the Church of England. The bishopric of Sodor and Man is the most ancient in the United 
Kingdom, and was founded early in the fourth century. Much labour has been expended by anti- 
quarians to discover the precise meaning of " Sodor," but in vain. " The byshop" is mentioned as 
early as 18th January, 1417-18.^ According to the census of 1841, the amount of population is 47,986. 
English may now be said to be the predominant language : it is spoken familiarly by all the young 
people, and in the elementary schools is the exclusive medium of instruction. It is heard from the 
pulpit in all the churches of the towns ; and even in the country parishes of the island, public worship 
is seldom conducted iu Manks more frequently than on alternate Sundays, and in some places only 
once a month. In several instances, service in Manks is desired by the people, but cannot be obtained, 
as the minister is unacquainted with it. Yet, although the knowledge of English is so generally 
diffused, Manks is still spoken by the adults of the working class, and in rural districts by their 
children. The old people in particular are much attached to their ancient tongue, and many of them 
understand no other. 

Chaeacteristics of Race and Dialect. — The island appears to be inhabited by two races : 
the one, with bght hair, fair and florid complexion, dweUing chiefly in the north ; the other, with 

1 Lord Teigrnmouth's Scotland and Isle of Man, vol. ii. p. 227. 2 'fhe Constitution of the House of Keys, by J. C. Bluett, pp. 9, 10. 

Indo-Eueopean Languages.] M A N K S . 143 

diirk hiiir and fomplexioii, in the south. Manks is more employed by the former than the latter race, 
and witli greater purity of diction and of pronunciation. It has scarcely any reseml)lance to Welsh ; 
it contains a lew words like Irish, but to Gaelic it bears a striking allinity, many words being identical 
in meaning and sound, and fiecpiently in orthograpliy. Manksmen call their own dialect Gaikk 
(from (illk). it is liighly expressive, being at once matter of fact and metapliorical. A frequent 
rhythm is observable, especially in the Liturgy, owing to vowel terminations. It abounds in guttural, 
full sounds, of broad pronunclatitm. The verb has few inilections, but by the preposition in composition 
undergoes a surprising change in meaning. Manks is characterised by the incorporation of many 
Scandinavian words, which were doubtless introduced during the successive sway of the Danes and of 
the Norwegians, who succeeded the Saxons in the government of the island. There is no written 
literature except the Bible, Prayer Book, and a small volume, now very rarely met with, a translation 
of part of Milton's Paradise Lost, by Rev. I. or T. Christian. 

Versions of the Scriptukes in this Dialect. — It is currently reported that a Manks 
version of the entire Scriptures was executed as early as the commencement of the seventeenth century, 
yet not the smallest vestige of the MS. is now to be met with; and, what is still more singular, no 
portion of it appears to have been in existence even during the last century. The translator is said to 
have been Dr. John Philips, bishop of Sodor and Man. He was born in North Wales, and before his 
elevation to tlie bishopric was rector of Hawarden, in FHntshire. His familiarity with his native 
language greatly facilitated his acquisition of the Manks dialect, and he devoted himself during the 
space of twenty-nine years to the translation of the Bible and of the Common Prayer Book into 
Manks.' He was assisted by Sir Hugh Cavoll, vicar of Kirk-Michael, and others ; but he died in 
1633, leaving his translations completed, but not printed, and no portion of them appears to have been 
committed to the press after his decease. The present version of the Manks Bible was produced by 
the christian zeal of two other bishops of Sodor and Man. It was commenced in the gaol of Castle 
'Eushen, by the excellent Bishop Wilson, in concert with Dr. Walker, one of his vicars, when unjustly 
imprisoned by the governor of the island. This was in the year 1722. The Gospel of St. Matthew 
was translated by Dr. Walker, and pruited imder the direction and at the expense of the bishop in 
London, in 1748. The other Gospels and the Acts were left in a state of readiness for the press by this 
venerable bishop, who died in 1755, at the advanced age of ninety-three, after having held the bishopric 
of the island for fifty-eight years. Dr. Mark Hildesley, his successor, entered with the utmost ardour 
and anxiety on the prosecution of the translation. " My whole heart," said Dr. Hildesley, in a letter to a 
correspondent, " is set on the Manks translation."'^ He was however deterred, by his imperfect 
acquaintance with the language, from taking any part in the work beyond that of general supervision. 
After untiring application to the study of Manks, he at length qualified himself to conduct the services 
of the Church in that language ; yet, notwithstanding his praiseworthy eiforts, he never attained a 
higher reputation than that of being " a very pretty Manks :" on one occasion he himself observed, 
that " he would give five hundred pounds were he enough master of Manks as to be able to translate."^ 
It is not certain whether Dr. Walker completed the translation of the New Testament, or whether 
Bishop Hildesley availed himself of the service of some other Manks scholar. The version was published 
in 1767 in London, chiefly by the aid of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. 
About the time of the completion at press of the New Testament, the bishop made arrangements for 
the translation of the Old Testament, dividing it for this purpose into twenty-four parts, which he 
distributed among as many diflcrent individuals. The twenty-four persons thus selected as translators 
were nearly all residents in the island, and, with one exception, they all held clerical appointments. 
After passmg through their hands, the work was committed for final revision to Dr. Moore and 
Dr. Kelly : the latter was then only eighteen years of age, but he had displayed such proficiency in the 
critical knowledge of Manks, which was his native language, as to justify his engaging in this important 
undertaking : he transcribed the whole version, from Genesis to Revelation, for the press, and in 
conjunction with Dr. Moore corrected and revised the proof sheets. Dr. Moore was aided by the 
advice of Bishop Lowth and Dr. Kennicot, both of whom took a deep interest in this version. The 
feelings with which Dr. Moore regarded his work may be inferred from his last will and testament. 
where he blesses God ^\for all the comforts of his existence, but above all that he had a capital hand and 
concern in the Manks Scriptures." He died in 1783, but not till he had witnessed the completion at 
press of the entire version. The fii-st part of the Old Testament was printed in 1770 at Whitehaven; 

' Towiiley's lUustratiotis. vol. iii. p. 349. - Anderson's Historical Sketches, p. 190. ' Anderson's Historical Sketches, p. 189. 


the preservation of tlie second part was entirely clue to the intrepidity of Dr. Moore and Dr. Kelly. 
They were proceeding to Whitehaven for the purpose of superintending the press, taking with them the 
second portion of the MS. : a storm arose, in whicli they were shipwrecked, and almost every article 
on board was lost except the MS., which they preserved by holding it above the water during the 
space of five hours. 

In 1772, the Old Testament, to the great joy of Bishoj) Hildesley, was completed and published. 
This good bishop had frequently said, " I wish but to see the sacred volume finished, and should then 
be happy, die when I may." On the last sheets of the work being placed in his hands, he very 
emphatically sang, " Nunc Domiiie, dimittis" in the presence of his congratulating family. This 
happened on Saturday, November 28th, 1772. On the following day he preached with more than 
usual fervour on the uncertainty of Hfe, and resumed the same subject in his family circle in so afiecting 
a manner, as to draw tears from all present. Thus in " something like prophetic strain " did he prepare 
the minds of others for his approaching end, for on the very next day he was suddenly attacked by 
apoplexy, which deprived him in a moment of his intellectual faculties : he lingered but a week, and 
then entered into rest. 

The second edition of the Manks Scriptures was published by the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge in 1775 : in this edition the entire Bible was in quarto, and separate copies of the New 
Testament were printed in octavo. Other editions have since been issued by the same Society. In 
1810, a stereotyped edition of 2000 copies of the New Testament, in 12mo., was published by the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. The Bishop of Sodor and Man having, through his clergy, 
ascertained the want of the Scriptures in the several jjarishes of the island, applied for 1326 Testaments, 
which were promptly supplied by the Society, at reduced prices, for the accommodation of the poor.' 
An additional supply of 250 copies was struck off from the same plates in 1815, and another edition of 
5000 copies of the entire Bible was printed by the Society in 1819. Since then no further editions of 
the Manks Scriptures have appeared, and it is probable that the edition of 1819 is the last that will 
ever be published. English Bibles are now in general demand in the island, and with the increased 
cultivation of the English language, are daily getting more and more into use ; indeed, so far back as 
the year 1825, the Bishop of Sodor and Man informed the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
that there was no longer any necessity for impressions of the Bible in the Manks language, and that 
the islanders were eager to be supplied with English copies.^ 

The Manks translation of the Old Testament has been esteemed nearer the Hebrew than is the 
English authorised version, and is frequently of a paraphrastical character. A remarkable variation 
between the English and Manks Bible occurs in 1 Kings xvii. 3 — 6. Instead of " ravens," the reading 
is " Cummaltee Oreb," inhabitants of Oreb. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — At the period of the first publication of 
the Manks Scriptures, the English language was comparatively little cultivated in the island, and the 
English Bible was unintelligible to the mass of the inhabitants. The benefit of the Manks version to 
the generation for whom it was executed can, therefore, only be estimated by taking into account their 
inability to read the Scriptures in any other language. A poor Manks woman, on hearing her son 
read to her for the first time a chapter of the new version, cried out, in great exultation, " we have sat 
in darkness {(lorraghys) until now." And when the first books of the Manks New Testament were 
brought into circulation (in 1763), Dr. Hildesley wrote: — " The vast eagerness and joy with which 
the first specimen has been received and sought after have amply convinced me of the utility of the 
undertaking, had I had no previous persuasion in my own mind of the real benefit it must needs be to 
the souls of the far greater part of the peojale of my charge." That the Manks version is even now 
valued by those to whom the language is vernacular is evident from the fact, that only last year (1848) 
300 copies were dispatched to the island by the British and Foreign Bible Society ; yet there is every 
probability that the prediction of a recent writer will be literally fulfilled, and that in the course of 
another generation, " the Manks tongue, regarded with dislike by the utilitarian philosophy of the 
nineteenth century, will be a venerable relic of past times, interesting only to the philologist and 
antiquary." ' 

'•i Wales, by Sir Thomas PliUlips, p. 563. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to U. 

[Brest, 1847.] 

Er gommansamant e oa ar Ger , hag ar Ger a oa gand Doue , hag ar Ger a oa Doue. 
^ He-ma a oa er gommansamant gand Doue. ' An holl draou a zo bet gred ch-czan, hag 
hepzan n'co bet gri't netra hag a zo bet gret. ■* Eiman e oa ar vuez , ar vucz a oa goulou 
an dud. ^ Hag ar goulou a ra scleria en devahen , hag an devahen n'e deus ked e resevet. 
® Bez' e 06 un den caset gand Doue, hanvet Ian. ' He-ma a zeuaz da desteni, evit rei 
testeni diwarben ar goulou, evit ma credche an holl drezan. * Ne ket hen a oa ar goulou , 
mes cased e oa evit rei testeni diwarben ar goulou. ® Hen a oa ar guir c'hoidou , pehini 
a sclera an holl dud , en eur zond er bed. '° Er bed e oa , hag ar bed a oa gred drezan , 
hag ar bed n'en deus ked e anavezet. " Deued eo d'e re , hag e re n'o deus ked e resevet. 
'^ Mes da gemend hini en deus e resevet, en deus roed ar galloud da veza bugale da 
Zoue ; d'ar re a gred en e hano ; " Pere n'int ket ganet eus ar goad , nag eus a volonte 
ar c'hig , nag eus a volonte an den , mes eus a Zoue. '* Hag ar Ger a zo bet gret kig , 
hag en deus choumed en hon touez , (hag lion eus gueled e c'hloar , ur gloar evel eus a 
Vab unic-ganet an Tad) leun a c'hras hag a ouirionez. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Breton, the language of the ancient independent 
kingdom of Armoiica, is now spoken in Lower Brittany. Its exact geograpliical diffusion lias been 
minutely described by the Kev. Thomas Phillips, to whose personal observations, during his active 
exertions in the cause of the British and Foreign Bible Society, we are indebted for much information 
concerning this interesting covmtry. " In Nantes and the surrounding country," says Mr. Phillips, 
" Breton is unknown. It is, therefore, wholly confined to Bas Bretagne, comprising the three westerly 
departments of Finisterre, Morbihan, and C6tes-du-Nord. A Hne drawn from the north to the south 
coast, so as to pass a little to the west of St. Brieux, through Pontivy to Vannes, will show the extent 
of country in which this language is spoken. On the west side of this line, and from Vannes along 
the seashore in a southerly direction, towards the department of Lower Loire, it continues to be the 
prevailing language, while on the eastern side of this supposed line you hear both Breton and French 
for some distance." ' Deducting the French part of the population, Mr. Phillips estimates the number 
of persons in Lower Brittany ordinarily employing the Breton language at 800,000 : of these he 
considers that upwards of half a million are unacquainted with French, and unable to read or converse 
in any language but Breton. The reUgion of Brittany is the Roman Cathohc, and Latin is therefore 
the Hturgical language ; but the priests in the country districts preach in Breton. French is now the 
only language used in all the elementary schools : it is also the language cliiefly employed in commerce 
and in the courts of law, and appears likely soon to supersede the native Breton in the larger towns. 
The priests however, from a principle, it is thought, of ecclesiastical conservatism, oppose the encroach- 
ments of the French language ; and Breton will, in all probability, continue to be for ages the 
vernacular of the uneducated section of the population. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The affinity between Breton and Welsh is so close, as 
to admit little room for doubt concerning theu- original identity. After the capture of Belle Isle by 
the English in 1761, such of the soldiers as were natives of Wales were able to make themselves 

1 Wales, by Sir Thomas Phillips, p. 573. 


intelligible to the Bretons, and to act as interpreters for tlieir English comrades ; and it is found at the 
present day, that a Welshman requires but little study to enable him to converse, read, and even write 
in Breton. An old and current tradition represents tlie country of Brittany as having been peopled 
by a colony of ancient Britons, who fled thither to escape from the aggressions of the Saxons, while 
others of their countrymen sought refuge from the same enemy in Wales. If this account could be 
satisfactorily attested, there would be no occasion to seek further for the cause of the remarkable 
similarity that exists between the languages of Wales and Brittany; but Niebuhr rejects the whole 
story as fabulous, and there certainly is a total want of all contemporaneous evidence on the subject. 
Still, the testimony of early writers, who mention the tradition as an undoubted historical fact, is 
entitled to some weight ; and the resemblance between the names of many places in Brittany and in 
Wales is afurther proof that some connexion anciently existed between the inhabitants of the two countries. 
It is also rather remarkable that the same kind of antiquities, supposed to be druidical remains, should be 
found in Brittany, Wales, and Cornwall, particularly as these antiquities are distinguished by the same 
names In each country.' These and other indications, together with the similarity of language, clearly 
establish the fact that Britain and Brittany were colonised by the same branch of the Celtic race; 
althouo-h as to the period and mode of this colonisation, and the nature of the intercourse which 
undoubtedly existed in very ancient times between the Bretons of Armorlca and the Britons of Wales, 
history is silent. Breton resembles Welsh not only in the Celtic elements common to both lan- 
guages, but also in the large stock of Latin words with which they are both intermixed.^ Some 
diiference has, however, of late years sprang up between Welsh and Breton, owing to the multitude of 
French words which the latter has admitted into its vocabulary, especially in the neighbourhood of 
towns: but these additions have not affected the structure of the language, which remains in all 
essential points precisely the same at the present time as at the most distant epoch from which written 
compositions in Breton have been transmitted.' 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — As early as the year 1814, an application 
was made by the Antiquarian Society of Paris to the British and Foreign Bible Society, on the subject 
of procuring a Breton version of the Scriptures. Another representation of the same purport was laid 
before the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1819; and in 1824 they authorised the Rev. Dr. Jones 
to proceed to Brittany, there to institute inquiries concerning any version or versions of the Bible in 
Breton that might be in existence. After a diligent search In all the libraries of the country, Dr. Jones 
ascertained that no portion of the Scriptures, either in print or MS., existed in the Breton language, 
with the exception of such scriptural extracts as had appeared in various Romish books of devotion. 
With the concurrence of the British and Foreign Bible Society, Dr. Jones, therefore, engaged the 
services of Legonidec, a Breton of considerable learning, to prepare a translation of the New Testament. 
Dr. Jones died during the progress of this work, but the sheets were regularly forwarded by Professor 
KiefTer of Paris to the Rev. T. Price, of Crlckhowel, an eminent Celtic scholar. After having been care- 
fully revised and corrected by Mr. Price, an edition of 1000 copies of this version of the New Testament 
was completed in 1827, at Angouleme, where Legonidec then resided : the copies were deposited in 
the Society's warehouse at Paris.* This translation was made from the Vulgate, for Legonidec was a 
Catholic : it possesses many excellences of style and diction, yet at the same time is scarcely suitable 
for general circulation. Legonidec's great object was to restore the language to its pristine purity, by 
the rejection of all foreign words and phrases that had, in the process of time, been commingled with it. 
But in his efforts to attain to classical correctness, he unconsciously adopted a style of writing that 
appeared obscure, and almost unintelligible, to his less educated countrymen; and moreover being, like 
Dr. W. Owen Pughe in Wales, the inventor of a new system of orthography, he unadvisedly introduced 
his system into this version, and thus rendered it still more unintelligible to the mass of the people. 
When Protestant missionaries first commenced their labours in this country (about the year 1834), 
they were greatly discouraged to find that this New Testament, the only version possessed by the 
Bretons in their own language, was but imperfectly understood by them. Mr. Jenkins, of Morlaix, a 
native of Glamorganshire, and agent of the Baptist Missionary Society, therefore undertook a new 
translation, in which he was assisted by a native Breton. lie translated from the Greek original, and 
consulted the Welsh and English authorised versions, and Martin's and Osterwald's French versions.* 
This work, when completed, was found to be intelligible to the whole Breton population, except the 

1 Dr. Prichard's Researches, vol. iii. p. 511. * Tiventy-fourth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xaix. 

2 Schlegcl, Essais Litteraires et Historiques, p. 313. ' Baptist E.xaminer, vol. ii. p. 112. 

3 Legonidec, Grammaire Celto-Bretomie, pref. vii. 

Indo-Euhopean Lanquages.] GOTHIC. 147 

inhabitants of the neip^hbourhood of Vanncs, who speak a peculiar dialect of Breton.' Attestations of 
its accuracy and faitlif'ulness having been laid before the Committee of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, they resolved on publisliing an edition of .3000 copies. The edition was printed at Brest, 
before the close of the year 1847, and depositaries liave been established both at Morluix and Quimper. 
No edition of the Old Testament has yet licen published ; but a version executed by Legonidec, and 
revised by Mr. Price, is preserved in MS. in the library of the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

Kesults of the Dissemination of this Version. — The ignorance of the people, and the 
bigotry of the priests, have hitlierto retarded the circulation of the New Testament in this country; 
but the recent sale of upwards of 1800 copies of the last edition, by the instrumentality of Protestant 
ministers and colporteurs, is a hopeful circumstance, and likely to lead to important results. 




ST. JOHN, Chap. xv. v. 1 to 12. 

Ik im veinatriu tliata sunjeino. jali atta meins vaurstvja ist. ^ all taine in mis unbairan- 
dane akran goth usnimith ita. jah all akran bairandane gahraineith ita. ei managizo 
akran bairaina. ^ jii jus hrainjai sijuth in this vaurdis. thatei rodida du izvis. visaith 
in mis jah ik in izvis * sve sa veinatains ni mag akran bairan af sis silbin. niba ist 
ana veinatriva. svah nih jus. niba in mis sijuth. ik im thata veinatriu. ' ith jus 
veinatainos. saei visith in mis jah ik in imma. sva bairith akran manag. thatei inuh 
mik ni maguth tavtjan ni vaiht. '' niba saei visith in mis. usvairpada ut sve veinatains 
jah gatliaursnith jah galisada jah in fon galagjand jah inbranjada. ' aththan jabai sijuth 
in mis. jah vaurda ineina in izvis sind. thatawah thei vileith. bidjith. jah vairthith 
izvis. ' in thanima hauhiths ist atta meins. ei akran manag bairaith. jah vairthaith 
meinai siponjos. svasve frijoda mik atta. '' svah ik frijoda izvis. visaith in friathvai 
meinai. '"jabai anabusnins meinos fastaid. sijuth in friathvai meinai. svasve ik 
anabusnins attins ineinis fastaida jah visa in friathvai is. " thata rodida izvis ei faheths 
meina in izvis sijai jah faheds izvara usfulljaidau. '^ thata ist anabusns meina ei frijoth 
izvis misso svasve ik frijoda izvis. 


Geographical Location. — The Goths formed an important section of the Teutonic or 
Germanic race, but their idiom is now extinct, and what little we know concerning it is deduced from 
the immortal work of Ulphilas, and a few other existing monuments. The earliest mention of the 
Goths by name occurs in some fragments of the Periplus of Pythcas, the renowned navigator from 

I Wales, bj- Sir T. Phillips, 573. 


Marseilles. From these fragments we may infer that they inhabited the coasts of eJutland about 325 
years before the Christian era; but it is probable that they had arrived in Europe several centuries 
prior to that period. Many authors arc of opinion that their first seat in Europe was Scandinavia. It 
appears from the statement of Tacitus that they were settled in Pomerania and Prussia, near the mouth 
of the Vistula, about the year a.d. 80. Sword in hand they gradually extended their dominion in 
Eastern Germany until the age of the Antonines (about a.d. 180), when suddenly, from some unknown 
cause, they began to migrate in vast hordes towards the northern coast of the Black Sea. From this 
point they made frequent incursions into the Roman empire, and possessed themselves of Dacia, and some 
of the neighbouring states. As their dominions increased, they became distinguished, according to the 
geographical position of the territories they occupied, by the appellation of the Eastern, Ostro, or 
Austro-Goths, and of the Western or Visi-Goths. About the year A.D. 377, the inroads of the Huns 
caused some of the Visi-Goths to implore the protection of the Roman Emperor Valens. In compliance 
'with their request, he assigned them the province of Mossia, the present Bulgaria and Servia ; and it 
was on account of their long residence in that province that some have called the language the Moeso- 
Gothic. They subsequently revolted from their allegiance to the imperial government, and in 409, 
under Alaric, they took and pillaged Rome. Their next migration was to the South of France ; and 
then, crossing the Pyrenees, they established themselves in Spain, where they reigned nearly three 
hundred years, until finally subdued by the Saracens. In the meantime the Eastern or Austro-Goths 
had established a monarchy in Italy, which continued from the time of Theodoric the Great, a. d. 493, 
until the power of this nation was crushed by Bellsarius and Narses, under Justinian, the emperor of 
the East. These Itahan Goths used the same language as those in Moesia, as is proved by the 
monuments of the language at Arezzo and Naples. 

Characteristics of the Language. — Although the Gothic is by no means the oldest 
Teutonic language, being nearly cognate with Saxon, Friesic, Alemannic, and other ancient branches 
of the Germanic family, yet it is especially interesting to the philologist, because, owing to its 
preservation in the precious version of Ulphilas, it affords means for the examination of one of the 
earliest stages through which the speech of the great Germanic family has passed. Many of the 
elements of the modern Germanic languages are traceable in the Gothic, and it is through the medium 
of this ancient language that their original connection with Sanscrit, Persic, Greek, and Latin is most 
clearly to be demonstrated. The Gothic retains several ancient forms which have wholly disappeared 
in modern languages. Like the Sanscrit and the Greek it possesses a dual number and a passive form 
of the verb, and it forms its past tense by means of a redupHcation. It is also remarkable for uniformly 
exchanging the;; of Latin, Greek, and Sanscrit words for/; thus, the Latin word, pes, in Greek ttou?, 
and in Sanscrit padas, is in Gothic fotus ; so ttoXv in Greek is converted into Jilu in Gothic, and the 
Latin piscis becomes J^sks. In the same way the t of the Sanscrit, Greek, and Latin becomes fh in 
Gothic ; and other uniform mutations of consonants might be cited. The characters used in writing 
the Gothic language were invented by Ulphilas, and are merely modifications of the Greek and 
Roman capitals. 

Version of the Scriptures in this Language. — One of the most valuable remnants of 
antiquity, part of a version of the Scriptures belonging to the fourth century, exists in this language. 
The version of the New Testament was made with great accuracy and fidelity from Constantinopolitan 
MSS., and that of the Old Testament from the Septuagint. Many readings from the Latin have been 
interpolated in more recent times, but they are easily distinguished from the genuine version. This 
work is, therefore, of great importance in the history of the sacred text, as it affords a correct represen- 
tation of the state of Constantinopolitan MSS. during the fourth century of our era. Unfortunately 
the fragments of this version, now known to he in existence, consist only of large portions of the Four 
Gospels, part of the Pauline Epistles, a sentence from the Psalms, and a few remnants of the books of 
Ezra and Nehemiah. The translator was Ulphilas, the celebrated bishop of the Moeso-Goths. He 
was a Goth by birth, but of Cappadocian ancestry. He was born A.D. 318, and was educated at 
Constantinople, where he embraced Christianity, and was ordained bishop in 348. By his moral and 
mental endowments he acquired unlimited influence over his countrymen, and easily induced them to 
embrace a religion the doctrines of which were exemplified in his own holy life. ■ It became at last a 
proverbial saying among the Goths, " whatever is done by Ulphilas, is well done." ' But Arianism 

1 Bosworth's Auglo-Saxon Dictionary, p. cxvi. 

Indo-European LANorAOES.] GOTHIC. 149 

was then the prevailing form of religion in tlic eastern part of the empire, and tlie history of Ulphilas 
alfords but too many proofs that he ujjlield this heresy. In one passage of his version his Arianism is 
apparent: Phil. ii. .5 is rendered ^^ (jalciho Gutha" like God; instead of the true rendering, "equal 
to God." 

The most important codex of the Gothic version now extant is that called Codex Argenteus, 
or the Silver Book, from the circumstance of the letters being of a silver hue, except some of the 
initials, which are of gold. The vellum itself is cliiefly purple, but in some parts of a violet colour. 
The MS. was produced in Italy, but the time of its execution is doubtful: by some authors it is 
attributed to the fifth century. It has evidently no claim to be regarded as the autograph of Ulijhilas, 
for it possesses some marginal readings which clearly attest that several transcripts had been made since 
his time. This valuable codex was not generally known to be in existence till it was discovered in 
the Benedictine Library at Werden on the Ruhr, in Westphalia, where it had lain for several centuries; 
but when or by what means it found its way thither cannot be ascertained. Its subsequent history is 
curious. About the beginning of the seventeenth century it was removed to Prague ; but in 1648, 
Prague being taken by the Swedes, it was sent among other spoils to Christina, queen of Sweden, who 
presented it to the Royal Library at Stockholm. Vossius, the keeper of that library, by some means 
now unknown, possessed himself of the codex, and took it in 1655 to Holland. Here it was borrowed 
by his uncle Junius for the purpose of publication, as will hereafter be mentioned. Puffendorf, who 
in 1662 was travelling through Holland, purchased it for the Swedish Count de la Gardie ; the 
purchase money was 400 rix dollars.' The count had it bound in silver, and presented it to the Royal 
Library at Upsal, where it is still carefully preserved in a glass box, imder lock and key; and no one, 
whatever be his rank, is allowed access to it. This jealous care appears to have arisen from eleven 
leaves having been stolen by some one who examined it. Gabelenz and Loebe, however, were allowed 
the free use of the MS. 

Another Gothic codex was discovered in 1756 in the Ducal Library at Wolfenbuttel, in the 
duchy of Brunswick, by Knittel, archdeacon and counsellor of the consistory of that city. This 
MS. contains part of Ulphilas' version of Paul's Epistle to the Romans (namely part of the 11th and 
following chapters, as far as the 1.3th verse of the 15th chapter), with a parallel Latin version. It is 
familiarly known as the " Code.x Carollnus," which name it received in honour of Charles, duke of 
Brunswick, the patron of Knittel. The text of this MS. was expunged during the eighth or ninth 
century, to make room for a Latin work, the Origines of Isidore of Seville, which was written over it 
in Spain on the same vellum. The letters of this latter composition, however, faded, and Knittel was 
thus enabled to detect the vestiges of tlie original writing, which had not been completely obliterated. 
The characters are similar to those of the Codex Argenteus, but not so beautifully formed. 

Other fragments of the Gothic version have been since discovered. In 1817, Angelo Mai, 
then keeper of the Ambrosian Library at Milan, found portions of St. Paul's Epistles under the 
homilies of Gregory the Great on Ezekiel. In subsequent years he discovered other remnants of the 
version concealed under various works. Among the most important of his discoveries were passages 
from the Gospels, which supplied chasms in the Codex Argenteus. In other Palimpsest ilSS. he 
found fragments of the Old Testament and a Gothic homily, rich in quotations from the version of 
Ulphilas, which have also been used in filling up some of the lacunae in the Upsal MS. 

The first portion of this version committed to the press was the mutilated copy of the Gospels 
contained in the Codex Argenteus. It was printed from a beautifid facsimile MS. made by Derrer, 
but with continual reference to the original codex. It was edited by Junius and Marshall, and pub- 
lished in two volumes 4to., at Dort, in 1665. This edition was provided with a glossary, and con- 
tained the Anglo-Sa.xon and Gothic versions in parallel columns, printed in their original characters 
from types cast for tlie purpose at Dort. Such copies of the work as remained uncirculated were re- 
issued, by means of a new titlepage affixed to them in 1684, at Amsterdam. In 1671, Stiernhelm 
published an edition at Stockholm in Roman characters, but it is not esteemed so accurate as that of 
Junius. In addition to the Gothic, the edition of Stiernhelm contains the Icelandic, Swedish, German, 
and Latin versions. Dr. Eric Benzel, archbishop of Upsal, made a new copy of the original codex, 
with a literal Latin translation, and prepared it for the press. He wished to publish the whole JNIS. 
in facsimile, engraved on wood : a specimen which he had thus engraved was published in 1705. 
After his death, his MS. was edited and published by Lye at Oxford, in 1750, in small folio. This 
edition is in Gothic letters, and has a short Gothic grammar prefixed by Mr. Lye. 

* Hu!?*s Introduction to the New Testament, vol. i. p. 485. 


In 1762, Knittel published the first impression of the Codex Carolimis, with several other 
fragments connected with biblical criticism, especially the text of two Palimpsest MSS. of part of the 
Gospels in Greek: the whole was accompanied by an elaborate commentary: but, for want of sale, 
many copies were used as waste paper, and the twelve copper-plates, employed in printing, were sold 
for old copper : this edition, though esteemed very correct, is in consequence scarce.' The Codex 
Carolinus was reprinted at Upsal in 1763, by Ihrc, a learned Swede: this edition was in quarto, and 
consisted of ninety pages: it was in Eoman characters, and accompanied by a Latin version and notes. 
Another impression of this codex has been given by Manning in the appendix to his edition of Lye's 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, printed in 1772. The codex was again printed in 1773 by Busching, at 

A corrected and very important edition of the fragments of Ulphilas, including those of the 
Codex Argenteus, was published by Zahn at Weissenfels, in 1805, from a revised text whicli had been 
carefully prepared by Ihrc, and from which he had expunged errors of preceding editors. This 
work comprises critical annotations on the text, a Latin version by Ihre, a literal interUnear Latin 
version, a grammar and glossary by Fulda, and a history of the version by Zahn. 

In 1819 some extracts from the Ambrosian Palimpsest MSS. were published with a Latin version 
by Mai and Castiglione, at Milan. ^ Ten years afterwards. Count Castlglione published the Second 
Epistle to the Corinthians, from one of the codices discovered by Mai; and in 1834 he pubUshed, at 
Milan, the Epistle to the Romans, the First Epistle to the Corinthians, and the Epistle to the Epheslans. 

During the same year (1834) a work was published by H. F. Maschmann at Munich, containing 
a Gothic Commentary on the Gospel of St. John, with a Latin translation, and several critical 
appendages of great service in the study of the Gothic codices. In 1835, Castlglione pubHshed the 
Epistles to the Galatians, Phihppians, Colosslans, and 1 Thessalonians ; and in 1839 he published 
2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus. This completed the publication of the fragments that 
had been discovered. 

Two editions of the version of the Gospel according to St. Matthew yet remain to be noticed : the 
first was pubHshed from the Codex Argenteus in London, in 1807, by Samuel Henshall, with the cor- 
responding English or Saxon, from the Durham book of the eighth century, and various etymological 
dissertations. The other separate editions of this Gospel appeared at Stuttgart, in 1827. Schmeller, 
the editor, drew the text from the Codex Argenteus and from the fragments of the version discovered 
by Mai : his design in this pubhcation was to compare the version of Ulphilas with the translation of 
the Harmony incorrectly ascribed to Tatlan, executed by a Saxon writer of the ninth century, and 
he therefore printed both versions in this volume. 

We now come to the latest and the most complete edition of the remains of the Gothic 
version. This edition comprises all the Gothic fragments, both of the Old and the New Testament, 
now known to be extant: it is furnished with collations and emendations from MSS. and from printed 
editions; and also with a glossary, a grammar, learned prolegomena, and various critical annotations. 
This valuable work was published at Leipslc, between the years 1836 and 1847 : it was edited by 
Dr. H. C. de Gabelenz and Dr. J. Loebe. The editors recollated the MSS. at Upsal and Wolfenbuttel, 
and corrected many errors of previous editions : the Milan MSS. were re-examined for this work by 
Count Castiglione. This edition has, therefore, superseded all that went before it.' A small edition 
has recently been published by Gaugengigl, at Passau, in 8vo., 1848 ; from which our Specimen is 

' Allgemeines Bibliographisches Lexicon, von F. A. Ebert, vol. i. p. 992. 2 Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, vol. 1. parti, p. 129. 

3 Bosworth's ^glo-Saxon Dictionary, p. cxix. 




St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 4. 

In anaginne uuas uuort, 

inti thas uuort uuas init Gote, 

inti Got sclbo uuas thas uuort. 

Thas uuas in anaginne 

mit Gote, alhu thuruh thas 

uuurdun gitan, inti uzzan siu 

ni uuas uuiht gitancs, 

thas thar gitan uuas. 

Thas hb uuas in imo, 

inti thas hb uuas hoht manno. 

Inti thas hoht in finstaruessen, 

leuhta, inti finstarnessen. 

thas ni bi<>:riffun. 

In principio erat verbum, 

at verbum erat apud Deum, 

et Deus ipse erat verl)um. 

Hoc erat in principio 

apud Deum, omnia per ipsum 

facta sunt, et sine ipso 

factum est nihil, 

quod factum est. 

Vita erat in ipso, 

et vita erat lux hominum. 

Lux in tenebris 

lucebat, et tenebrse 

earn non comprehenderunt. 


Although no version, strictly so called, of the .Scriptures exists in this ancient dialect, yet it 
possesses a Harmony of the Gospels, translated in the ninth century, which has a special claim on the 
attention of philologists, and which can, therefore, be scarcely passed over without notice. This 
harmony is the earliest document extant which exhibits the stock whence Anglo-Saxon sprang. The 
language in which it is written has been spoken almost from time immemorial in the greater part of 
Low, Piatt, or Northern Germany. The Saxons who emigrated from this part of Germany to Britain, 
and founded the Saxon Heptarchy, spoke this language; but from various causes, hereafter to be 
mentioned, it underwent several modifications in consequence of their residence in this country. Their 
brethren, on the contrary, who remained in their fatherland, preserved the purity of their language; 
and the original vernacular idioms of our Saxon progenitors are still to be heard, with comparatively 
little variation, among the peasantry of Hanover, Holsteiu, Sleswick, Mecklenburg, Magdeburg, 
Brandenburg, Pomerania, and the kingdom of Prussia; in part of Westphaha and of Jutland, and as 
far north as Livonia and Esthonia.' 

Characteristics of the Language. — The old Saxon, more appropriately designated by 
Grimm the Alt-nieder-deutsch, (i. e. Old Low German,^ was probably cognate with the Gothic, 
for it is impossible to say which has the strongest claims to antiquity: judging from the close simi- 
larity of structure which prevails between these two dialects, the Friesic, and the Alemannic, or Old 
High German, we may infer that at some very remote period they all branched olT from the language 
originally common to the whole Teutonic family. Old Saxon, like all the Low German dialects, is far 
more soft and Uowing than High German. It substitutes smooth consonants for the harsh, aspirated 
sounds of High German, and regularly changes sch into s, and sz or z into t. The most flourishing 
period, it has been remarked, of Low German was that immediately preceding the Reformation; and 

* Dictionary of the An;jlo-Saxon, by Dr. lioswortb, p. Ix 


many have regretted that the influence of Luther should have caused the harsh High German dialect, 
spoken by liim, to prevail as the language of the educated classes throughout Germany, to the exclusion 
of the Low German dialects, now confined to the poorer classes in the regions above mentioned. Dr. 
Bosworth observes that the Low German equals the High in strength and compositive power, while it 
exceeds it in richness and facility of enunciation; and that "the true old German freedom, sincerity, 
and honesty can have no better medium to express its fiill mental and pohtical independence, its 
genuine and confidential feehngs of the heart, than its old, unsopliisticated, open. Low German dialect." 

Harmony of the Gospels in this Language. — This ancient Harmony, written by some 
imknown author in the ninth century, bears the title of Heliand, or the Healer. The reason of this 
appellation can be best explained in the words of our own King Alfred, who says that the history of 
our Lord is thus designated, because He " sothlice hysfolc Hal (fedeth fram hyra synnum :'' that is. He 
truly maketh His people to be healed from their sins.' The Heliand is written in alliterative lines, 
and adheres pretty closely to the prototype. It is of some importance to the biblical student, from its 
showing the interpretation affixed by the early Saxons to the various passages of Scripture in which 
the words and actions of the Saviour when on earth are recorded. 

Two ]\IS. copies of this poem have been preserved, although in a very mutilated condition. One 
of these copies belongs to the Cottonian Library in the British Museum, and is marked Caligula, A. vii. 
An old tradition has been circulated, to the effect that this very copy formed part of Canute's collection, 
and hence it is still generally known as " Canute's Bible ;"'^ but we possess no direct evidence in proof 
that it was ever in the hands of that monarch. The other codex was foimd in 1794 by Gerard Gley, 
a Frenchman, in the library of the cathedral church at Bamberg : it has since been removed to 
Munich. Some extracts from the Heliand were pubHshed, (erroneously under the name of Franco- 
Theotisc,) in the second volume of Hickes's Thesaurus, and also by Nyerup at Copenhagen in 1787. 
A complete and splendid edition was published at Munich in 1830, by Schmeller. The Munich MS. 
was taken as the base of this edition, and the various readings occurring in the London MS. are given 
in the notes.' 

It may here be mentioned that, in the year 890, a Harmony of the Gospels, erroneously attributed 
to Tatian, was translated by an unknown writer into a sort of old Saxon. The dialect of this translation 
is softer than the Alemannic and Bavarian ; it contains words peculiar to Old Saxon, and may be 
iconsidered as a kind of transition between Low and High German.'' MSS. are preserved at Oxford 
and St. GaUen. In an edition published by Palthenius, in 1706, the dialect is styled "the ancient 
Theotisc." Tliis work was repubHshed by Schilter in the second volume of his Thesaurus. 

1 Alfred's Bede, i. 2! ; Foreign Quarterly Review, No. xiv. ■* Meidinger, Dictionnaire des Lang^ues Teuto-Gothiques, p. xxx. 

2 Foreign Quarterly, No. xiv. 4 Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon, p. Ixxxiv. 



ST. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 


London, 1842. 

On fruman wses Word, and ]>?et Word wses mid Gode, and God wses J^set Word. ^ J3aet 
wses on fruman mid Gode. ^ Ealle J'ing wasron geworhte ]>urh liyne ; and nan fiing nees 
geworlit butan him. ■" Dset wfes lif Jjc on him geworht wses, and J^aet Hf waes manna 
leoht. ^ And pxt leoht lyht on J^ystrum ; and J^ystro Jpset ne genamon. ^ Man wses 
fram Gode asend, J^ses nama wses lohannes. ' pes com to gewitnesse f>set he gewitnesse 
cy'Sde be jjam Leohte, }>set ealle men fmrh h3rne gelyfdon. ' Noes he Leoht, ac pset he 
gewitnesse for'S-bsere be ]?am Leohte. ' SoS Leoht wses, ]?set onlyht selcne cumendne man 
on Jjysne middan-eard. '° He wses on middan-earde, and middan-eard wses geworht J^m^h 
hine, and middan-eard hine ne gecneow. " To hys agenum he com, and hig hyne ne 
underfengon. ''^ So'Slice swa hwylce swa hyne underfengon, he sealde hym anweald f»set 
hig wseron Godes beam, )5am pe gelyfa'S on his naman : " }?a ne synd acennede of 
blodum ne of flsesces willan, ne of weres willan ; ac hig synd of Gode acennede. " And 
)?set Word wses flsesc geworden, and eardode on its, (and we gesawon hys wuldor, swylce 
an-cennedes wuldor of Feeder,) fiset wses ful mid gyfe and so'Sfsestnysse. 


Geographical Extent and Origin. — Anglo-Saxon was the language introduced into 
England with the Saxon domination by three distinct tribes of the Saxon Confederacy; namely, the 
Old Saxons properly so called, (of whom mention is made in the foregoing memoir,) the Angles from 
Anglen in the south-east of Sleswick in Denmark, and the Jutes from Jutland. The whole of 
England was divided between these three tribes: the Old Saxons established themselves in the West 
and South, forming the kingdoms of Essex, Sussex, and Wessex; the Angles obtained large dominions 
in the North and East of England, and the South of Scotland ; and the Jutes possessed a small 
territory in Kent and the Isle of Wight. Of these tribes the Angles appear to have been most 
numerous ; in fact, they flocked to our island in such numbers as to leave their native country almost 
destitute of inhabitants. But from the time of Egbert, A.D. 827, the power of the West Saxons 
became predominant, and although the Angles gave their name to their adopted country, (Angle or 
Engle-land,) yet their descendants are to the present day termed, not Angles, but Saxons by the Irish 
and the other Celtic nations. One and the same form of paganism prevailed among Angles, Saxons, 
and Jutes from the period of their first arrival in England, A. D. 449, till the end of the sixth century, 
when Christianity was introduced among them by Augustine and the forty monks sent by Pope 
Gregory from Rome. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The three Saxon tribes who thus established their 
eight separate kingdoms in Britain, all spoke dialects of one language. The dialect of the Angles was 
broader and more harsh than that of the West Saxons, and was distinguished by the name of the 
Dano-Saxon, whereas the dialect of the West Saxons was called pure Anglo-Saxon. These two 
dialects remained distinct as long as Anglo-Saxon was the language of England, yet the difference 
between them probably was not greater than that which now exists between the dialects of EngUsh 


spoken in different counties. Alfred the Great, a West Saxon king, gave predominance not only 
to the power but to the dialect of his countrymen ; he patronised learning and learned men, devoted 
himself to Uteratui-e, and produced several translations from Latin into his vernacular tongue. Under 
his auspices, therefore, the language of the West Saxons became the cultivated dialect of Anglo-Saxon, 
though afterwards modified more or less by the influence of the other dialects. The supremacy of the 
Danes during twenty-six years in England, under Canute and his two sons, had some shght effect in 
altering the language of the Anglo-Saxons. The Norman-French, introduced in 1066, had a still 
further influence on Anglo-Saxon, which afterwards, by gradual and successive alterations, insensibly 
merged into the English. The Anglo-Saxon ceased to be spoken during the reign of Henry IIL, 
about A.D. 1258; it then took its place among the dead languages. Li some degree, however, it still 
lives in the English language, of which it forms the very groundwork and substratum ; nor is it 
possible, without some acquaintance with this ancient language, to understand thoroughly the structure 
of our own. 

Anglo-Saxon itself however is, as we have just shown, but a scion of the Old Saxon language 
described in a preceding memoir : among other evidences that it is not an original language may be 
cited the singular fact, that no less than five different fragments of verbs, of which the principal 
terminations appear in other languages, are huddled together in the conjugation of the substantive 
verb.' As compared with its cognate languages, Anglo-Saxon bears the nearest resemblance to the 
ancient Friesic, and it is more than probable that many of the Friesians accompanied their Saxon 
neighbours in the invasion and colonisation of England. In its grammatical forms, Anglo-Saxon 
presents comparatively few deviations from the early branches of the Germanic family. It has two 
numbers, singular and plural, and three genders. The gender of nouns is chiefly determined by their 
terminations, and the adjectives have variable terminations to correspond with their nouns in gender, 
number, and case. There are four cases, and three declensions. Adjectives have a definite and an 
indefinite form of declension ; the latter (of which the inflections are the same as those of nouns of the 
second declension) is used when the adjective has a definite article, a demonstrative, or a possessive 
pronoun before it.^ In nouns the final syllable ing is sometimes patronymic, like ihri<i in Greek : 
in the Anglo-Saxon version of the Bible, the servant of Elisha is called Elising:' from this source arise 
our words duckling, gosling, nestling, etc. But, perhaps, one of the most remarkable characteristics of 
Anglo-Saxon is the multiplicity of its sjnionymous words. It has ten synonymes for the word man, 
and as many for woman : it has eighteen different words to denote persons ui authority, besides ten 
compovmds, and several official titles. It has also eighteen words expressive of the mind, and fourteen 
to denote the sea ; and to express the name of the Supreme Being, it has more terms and periphrases 
than perhaps any other language. The Anglo-Saxons possessed a strong partiality for metaphor and 
periphrasis : thus, to describe the Ark, the poet Csedmon used no less than thirty consecutive phrases, 
such as, " the sea house," " the ocean palace," " the wooden fortress," " the building of the waves," etc. 
This poetical combination of words was so continually resorted to, especially in poems, that many of 
the words thus combined became current in the language as compound terms. The Anglo-Saxon 
language displayed extreme aptitude in the formation of compovmds, but, like most ancient languages, 
it drew its materials from its own resources, and formed its compound words by the combination of its 
own roots, without drawing, like modern English, from foreign vocabularies. " Great, verily," 
observes Camden, " was the glory of our tongue before the Norman Conquest, in this, that the Old 
English (or Anglo-Saxon) could express most aptly all the conceits of the mind without borrowing 
from any." 

Alphabetical System. — The Teutonic and the Celtic nations possessed an alphabetical system, 
of which the origin and the history are lost in remote antiquity. This system was styled the Eunic, 
from the Teutonic word Riln, denoting a mystery, because the Eunic characters were used in pagan 
rites. " The heathen Teutons," says Sir Francis Palgrave, "beUeved that the Eims possessed magical 
influence, could stop the vessel in her course, divert the arrow in its flight, cause love or hatred, raise 
the corpse from the grave, or cast the living into death-like slumbers."'' The Eunes, however, of the 
Teutons and of the Celtic varied in form; and even the Eunes of the Anglo-Saxons and the Scandi- 
navians differed from each other as much as the languages themselves.' On account of the idolatrous 
veneration with which Paganism invested these Eunes, the early preachers and missionaries of 

1 History of the Ang-lo-Saxons, by Sharon Turner, vol. iv. p. 510. ■" History of the Anglo-Sa-ion Period, by Sir F. Palgrave, p. 145. 

2 Bosworth*s Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, p. clxxxvi. ^ Kemble in Archseologia, vol. xxviii. p. 327. 

3 Latham's English Language, p. 259. 

Indo-European Languages.] ANGLO-SAXON. I55 

Christianity endeavoured to set them aside, and to introduce the use of the Latin characters in their 
stead. It was doubtless, from this cause, tliat Ulphilas refrained from writing his version in the Runic 
letters employed by the Germanic tribes, and adopted a modification of the (ireek and Latin alphabets. 
The Anglo-Saxons, who had brought their Runes with them from Germany, as is evident from several 
ancient inscriptions, continued to use them till the time of Augustine, when they were induced to 
substitute the Latin characters. The Anglo-Saxon alphabet, however, has preserved a relic of the 
Runes in its two peculiar characters p, ]>, and D, "5, the former of which had the hard sound of th as 
in thmg, and the latter the soft sound of the same letters as in th'me. The other Anglo-Saxon letters, 
though very dissimilar from the Roman letters of the present day, are precisely the same as those used 
at Rome during the age in which Augustine flourished. Five letters of our English alphabet, J, k, q, 
V, and r, arc not found in genuine Anglo-Saxon, but c and cw are invariably placed where ft and « 
would be used by us. 

Versions op the Scriptures in this Language. — It is very doubtful whether the 
entire Scriptures have ever been translated into Anglo-Saxon. We have no traditionary accoimt of a 
complete version, and all the biblical MSS. in Anglo-Saxon now in existence contain but select 
portions of the sacred volume. The poems on sacred subjects usually attributed to Csedmon, afford 
the first feeble indications of an attempt being made by our Saxon forefathers to convey the truths of 
Scripture in their vernacular tongue. Ca',dmon lived in the seventh century ; he was a monk in the 
monastery of Streoneshalch In Northumbria. It is said that he coidd neither read nor write, but that 
some of the other monks used to teach him portions of sacred history, and that he afterwards sang his 
lesson to his instructors in poetical strains. His poems have been strung together so as to form a sort 
of metrical paraphrase on some of the historical books of Scripture. He commences with the fall of 
the angels, the creation and fall of man, and proceeds to the history of the deluge, carrying on his 
narrative to the history of the children of Israel, and their wanderings in the desert. He also touches 
on the history of Nebuchadnezzar and of Daniel. The authenticity of this work has been doubted, some 
writers being of opinion that it was written by difierent writers at various periods ; the strlkino- 
similarity between some of the poems and certain passages in Milton's Paradise Lost has been 
repeatedly noticed. Two editions have been printed ; the first by Francis Junius at Amsterdam in 
1655, and the second, with an Enghsh translation and notes, by Mr. Thorpe, in London, in 1832. 

The literal versions of such portions of the Scripture as have been translated Into Anglo-Saxon 
have chiefly been transmitted to us In the form of interlineations of Latin MSS. A Latin Psalter, 
said to have been sent by Pope Gregory to Augustine, Is still presei-ved among the Cottonian MSS., 
and contains an Anglo-Saxon Interlinear version, of which the date is unknown. Aldhelm, bishop of 
Sherborn, and Guthlac, the first Anglo-Saxon anchorite, translated the Psalms soon after the com- 
mencement of the eighth century, but their MSS. are lost, and nothing is known with certainty 
respecting them. The same may be said concerning the portions of Scripture reported to have been 
translated by the venerable Bede. At the time of his death, this renowned historian was engaged in a 
translation of the Gospel of John, and almost with his latest breath he dictated to his amanuensis the 
closing verse of the Gospel. Alfred the Great also took part in the translation of the Scriptures. He 
translated the Commandments, In the twentieth chapter of Exodus, and part of the three following 
chapters, which he afilxed to his code of laws. He likewise kept a " hand-boc," in which he daily 
entered extracts from various authors, but more especially verses of Scripture translated by himself 
from Latin into Anglo-Saxon.' 

There are three dlfTerent versions of the Four Gospels at present known to be in existence. The 
most ancient of these Is the famous Northumbrian Gloss, or Durham Book, presen'ed among the 
Cotton MSS. In the British Museum. This MS. is one of the finest specimens extant of Saxon 
writing. The Vulgate Latin text of the Four Gospels was written by Eadfrld, bishop of Lindisfarne, 
about A.D. 680: his successor In the see adorned the book with curious illuminations, and with bosses 
of gold and precious stones; and a priest named Aldred added an Interlinear gloss or version, probably 
about the year 900. The second Anglo-Saxon version of the Gospels belongs to the tenth century, 
and was written by Farmen and Owen at Harewood, or Harwood, over Jerome's Latin of the Four 
Gospels. The Latin text was written about the same period as that of the Durham Book, having been 
made during the seventh century. This valuable J\IS. Is in the Bodleian Library, and is called the 
Rushworth Gloss, from the name of one of Its former proprietors. The other translation of the Gospels 

' History of the Aiiglo-Sa.\on Period, by Sir F. PaJgrave, p. 173. 


was made by an unknown hand, apparently not long before the Norman Conquest, and is thought to 
have been translated from the Latin version which was in use before Jerome's time. These important 
MSS., with the version of jElfric hereafter to be mentioned, were for two or three centuries thrown 
aside as useless lumber. With the disuse of the Anglo-Saxon language they ceased to be understood, 
and were consigned to the shelves of monasteries. At the time of the Reformation, some Anglo- 
Saxon MSS. on doctrinal subjects were drawn from their places of concealment, and placed before the 
world in testimony that the early Saxon Church withstood the growing heresies of the Church of 
Rome. The Reformers, aware that the translation of part of the Scriptures into Anglo-Saxon was a 
precedent in favour of their own translation into the vernacular tongue, collected the fragments of the 
Anglo-Saxon version, and in L571 issued an edition of the Four Gospels with an English parallel 
version. The text of this edition was a late MS. belonging to the Bodleian Library at Oxford: it was 
edited by Archbishop Parker, and a preface was written by John Fox, the martyrologist. This edition 
was carefidly collated with foiu' MSS. by Francis Junius, jim., and published by Dr. Marshall at 
Dort, in 1665, in parallel columns with the Moeso-Gothic version. Some copies of this edition were 
provided with new titlepages, bearing the date, Amsterdam, 1684. The most complete echtion of the 
Anglo-Saxon Gospels is that of Mr. Thorpe, printed in London, 1842. Two Cambridge MSS. form 
the basis of this text, which in all doubtful passages is carefully collated with other MSS. 

Two editions of the Anglo-Saxon Psalter have been published. The first appeared in 1640 : it was 
printed in London under the care of Spelman, from an ancient MS. by an unknown translator, and collated 
with other MSS. of equal antiquity. This version was iindoubtedly made from the Latin Vulgate.' 
A splendid edition of the Psalms was published in 1835 at Oxford : the MS. which forms the text 
formerly belonged to the Duke of Berri, the brother of Charles V., king of France, and was preserved 
in the Royal Library at Paris. Mr. Thorjje, the editor, attributed this MS. to the eleventh century; 
and by some it is supposed to be a transcript of the version executed by Aldhelm, bishop of Sher- 
born, in the early part of the eighth century. It is, however, rather a paraphrase than a version, and 
is written, partly in prose, and partly in metre. 

A partial interlinear translation of a Latin version of Proverbs, made in the tenth century, is 
preserved among the Cotton MSS. in the British Museum. To the same century belong the cele- 
brated translations of jElfric, archbishop of Canterbury : they consist of the Heptateuch, or first seven 
books of the Bible, and the book of Job. An edition of this version was published by Mr. Thwaits, 
at Oxford, in 1699, from an unique MS. belonging to the Bodleian Library: the book of Job was 
printed from a transcript of a MS. in the Cottonian Library. ^Ifric, in some portions of his version, 
adheres literally to the text ; but in some parts he appears to aim at producing a condensation, or 
abridgment, rather than a translation of the events related by the inspired historian. Like the other 
Anglo-Saxon fragments, his translation was made from the Latin version. 

A few MSS. of the Psalms, written shortly before, or about the time of, the Norman Conquest, 
are extant, and show the gradual decline of the Anglo-Saxon language. The history of the language 
may still further be traced in three MSS. yet in existence, which were made after the arrival of the 
Normans. They are MSS. of the same translation, and two of them are attributed to the reign of 
Henry the Second; but the language in which they are written is no longer pure Anglo- Saxon; it has 
merged into what is designated the Anglo-Norman. 

Facts relative to the Dissemination of this Version. — The Anglo-Saxon version 
was never disseminated among the people, for the art of reacHng was, during the Anglo-Saxon period, 
exclusively confined to priests and kings. Learning was then cultivated chiefly in monasteries, and 
the Latin version of the Scriptures was there generally studied. Some members of the clerical body 
were, however, but imperfectly acquainted with the Latin tongue, and it was for their benefit that the 
interlinear glosses were added to the Latin MSS., in order that they might understand themselves the 
portions which it was their duty to read to the people. 

1 Butler, Horffi BiblicK, vol. i. p. 148. 



WiCLIF, 1380. 
' IN the bigynnynge was 
the word and the word was 
at god, and god was the word, 
* this wa-s in the liigynnynge 
at god, 3 alle thingis weren 
made bi liym : and withouten 
hym was made no tiling. 
that thing that was made * in 
him was liif, and the Hit' was 
the \\}t of men, ■'' and tlie li5t 
schyneth in derknessisi and 
derknessis comprehendiJen 
not it. 

'> A man was sente fro god 
to whom the name was Ion, 
' this man cam in to witnes- 
sjmge, that he schulde here 
witnessynge of the lijt, that 
alle men schulden bileue bi 
hym, 8 he was not the lijt, 
but that he schulde here 
witnessynge of the li3t, s ther 
wa.s a verri Ii3t : whiche lijt- 
neth eclie man that cometh in 
to this world, '" he was in 
the world, and the world was 
made bi hym i and the world 
knewe hym not, 

" he cam in to his owne 
thingis : I hise resceyueden 
hym not : '^ but hou many 
euer resceiueden hym : he 
3af to hem power to be made 
the sones of god, to hem that 
bileueden in his name. 

Tyndale, 1.534. 
' IN the beginnyiige was 
the worde, and the worde 
was with God : and the worde 
was God. 2 Xhe same was 
in the beginnynge with God. 
3 All thinges were made by 
it, and with out it, was made 
iiothinge, that was made. 
* In it was lyfc, and the lyfe 
was the lyght of men, •'' and 
the lyght shyneth in the 
darcknes, but the darcknes 
comprehended it not. 

6 There was a man sent 
from God, whose name was 
lohn. ' The same cam as a 
witncs to beare witnes of the 
lyght, that all men through 
him myght beleve. 8 He was 
not that lyght : but to beare 
witnes of the lyght. 9 That 
was a true lyght, which 
lyghteth all men that come 
into the worlde. l" He was 
in the worlde, and the worlde 
was made by him : and yet 
the worlde knewe him not. 

11 He cam amonge his 
(awne) and his awne re- 
ceaved him not. 12 But as 
meny as receaved him, to 
them he gave power to be 
the sonnes of God in that 
they beleved on liis name. 

C0VEBDAI.E, 1535. 

IN the begynnynge was 
the worde, and the worde 
was with God, and God was 
y" worde. The same was in 
the begynnynge with God. 
All thinges were made by 
the same, and without the 
same was made nothinge that 
was made. In him was the 
life, and the life was the 
light of men ; and the light 
shyneth in the darknesse, 
and the darknesse compre- 
hended it not. 

There was sent from God a 
man, whose name was Ihon. 
The same came for a wit- 
nesse, to beare wytnesse of 
y" light, that thorow him 
they all might beleue. He 
was not that light, but that 
he might beare witnesse of 
y" light. That was the true 
"light, which lighteth all men, 
that come in to this worlde. 
He was in the worlde, (t the 
worlde was made by him, 
and y' worlde knewe him 

He came in to his a^NTie, 
and his awne receaued him 
not. But as many as re- 
ceaued him, to them gaue he 
power to be the children of 
God : euen soch as beleue in 
his name. 

Matthew, 1537. 
IN the beginninge was 
the worde, and the worde was 
with God : and the worde was 
God. The same was in the 
beginnynge wyth God. All 
thinges were made by it, and 
wythout it, was made no- 
thynge that was made. In it 
was lyfe, and the lyfe was 
the lyght of men, and the 
lyght shyneth in y' darck- 
nes but the darcknes com- 
prehended it not. 

There was a man sent from 
God, whose name was John. 
The same cam as a \vitnes 
to beare wytnes of the lyght, 
that all men through him 
myght beleue. He was not 
thatlyght: but to beare witnes 
of the lyght. That was a true 
lyght whych lyghteth all me 
that come into the worlde. He 
was in the worlde, and the 
worlde was made by hym : 
and yet the worlde knewe hjTn 

He cam amonge hys awne, 
and hys awne receaued hym 
not. But as many as re- 
ceaued hym, to them he gaue 
power to be the sonnes of 
God in that they beleued on 
hys name : 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The popiilation of the united kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, according to the census of 1841, is 27,019,558 souls, and that of England alone, 
15,000,154. But the extension of the English language must by no means be estimated by that of 
England, or even of the united kingdom. It may also be said to be coextensive with the habitable 
world, for of all people, except the Jews, the English are the most widely scattered, and thus their lan- 
guage maybe heard in every country, and amongst every nation, under heaven. The United States of 
America are inhabited almost exclusively by an English-speaking population. English is also the 
predominant language in the Canadas and the West Indies. In the East its ascendancy is being 
gradually increased and established : amongst the millions of India, for instance, it is becoming more 
and more cultivated ; and with the progress of education it will probably speedily predominate oyer 
all the various dialects spoken in the nmiierous colonies and settlements established by the enterprise, 
and maintained by the energy, of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

Chaeacteristics op the Language. — The English lanrjuage is the daughter of the Saxon, 

period ot its history it was greatly influenced by . _ 

William tlie Conqueror. During the first century after the Conquest, the two languages subsisted side 



[Class III. 

by side ; but a fusion gradually took place, in wliicli the language of tbe people triumphed over that of 
their invaders, for although Norman words were freely admitted into the vocabulary, the genius and 
structural character of the new language, evolved by this intermixture, were Saxon. The exact 
period of the transmutation of Saxon into English has been disputed, but it seems most reasonable to 
believe that the process was gradual.' A fragment of the Saxon Chronicle, published by Lye, and 
concluding with the year 1079, exhibits the language in the first stage of its transition state, no great 
deviation having then been made from Anglo-Saxon. But in the continuation of the same chronicle, 
from 1135 to 1140 A.D., the commencement of those changes may be distinctly traced, which sub- 
sequently formed the distinctive peculiarities of the English language. The principal change intro- 
duced about this period was the gradual substitution of particles and auxiliary words for the terminal 
inflections of the Anglo-Saxon. The Enghsh has happily retained the facility of its parent language 
in compounding words, the only difference in this respect being, that, in the formation of its compound 
terms, the Anclo- Saxon drew only from its own resources, whereas the Enghsh has had recourse to 
the Latin, the Greek, the French, the Italian, and even the Arabic languages. It has been remarked 
by a distinguished foreigner, that " everywhere the principle of utility and application dominates in 
England, and constitutes at once the physiognomy and the force of its civilisation." ^ This principle is 
certainly legible in its language, which although possessed of remarkable facihty in the adaptation of 
foreign terms and even idioms to its own use, is at the same time free from the trammels with which 
the other languages of its class are encumbered. In the gender of nomis, for instance, we meet with 
no perplexity or anomaly, every noun being masculine, feminine, or neuter, according to the nature of 
the object or idea it represents ; and as the adjectives are all indeclinable, their concordance with the 
noun is at once effected without the apparently useless trouble of altering the final letters. This 
perfect freedom from iiseless encumbrance adds greatly to the ease and vigour of expression. 

Cranmer, 1539. 

I IN the begynnynge was 
the worde, and the worde 
was wyth God : and God 
was the worde. ^ The same 
was in the begynnyng -w-ith 
God. 3 All thynges were 
made by it, and without it, 
was made nothynge that was 
made. * In it was lyfe, and 
the lyfe was the lyght of 
men, ^ and the lyght shjTi- 
eth in darcknes, and the 
darcknes comprehended it 

There was sent from God 
a man, whose name was lolm. 
7 The same cam as a wytnes 
to beare wytnes of the lyght, 
that all men through hym 
myght beleue. 8 He was 
not that lyght : but was sent 
to beare wytnes of the lyght. 
9 That lyght was the true 
lyght, whych lyghteth euery 
man that cometh into the 
worlde. '" He was in the 
worlde, and the worlde was 
made by hym : and the 
worlde knewe hym not. 

II He cam amonge hys 
awne, and hys awne re- 
ceaued him not. '2 But as 
many as receaued hym to 
them gaue he power to be 
the sonnes of God : euen them 
that beleued on hys name. 

Taverner, 1549. 
IN" the begynnynge was 
the worde, and the word was 
with God, and the worde was 
God. The same was in the 
begynnynge wyth God. All 
thynges were made by it and 
without it was made nothynge 
that was made. In it was 
lyfe, and the lyfe was the 
lyght of men, and the lyght 
shyneth in the darknes, but 
the darknes comprehended it 

Ther was a man sent from 
God, whose name was John. 
The same came as a wytnes 
to beare wytnes of the light, 
that all men through him 
myght beleue. He was not 
that lyght but to beare witnes 
of the lyght. That was a 
true lyght, which lyghteth 
all men that come into the 
worlde. He was in the 
worlde, and the worlde was 
made by him, and yet the 
worlde knewe him not. 

(}^ He came amonge his 
(owne) and his owne receiued 
him not. But as manye as 
receyued him to them he gave 
power to be the sonnes of 
God in that they beleued on 
his name. 

Geneva, 1557. 
1 IN the beginnyng was 
the word, and the worde was 
with God, and that worde 
was God. 2 Xhe same was 
in the begynnyng with God. 
3 Althinges were made by it, 
and without it was made 
nothing that was made. ■• In 
it was lyfe, and the lyfe was 
the light of men. * And the 
light shineth in darkenes, and 
the darknes comprehended it 
not. 6 There was a man sent 
from God, whose name was 
lolin. ' The same came for 
a wytnes, to beare wytnes of 
the light, that all men through 
hym might beleue. ^ He was 
not that light, but iras sent to 
beare wytnes of the light. 

9 That was that true lyglit, 
which lyghteth all men that 
come into the worlde. '" He 
was in the worlde, and the 
worlde was made by h^TU : 
and the worlde knewe him 
not. " He came among his 
owne, and his owne receaued 
him not. 

'2 But as many as receaued 
hym, to them he gaue power 
to be the sonnes of God, euen 
to them that beleue in liis 

Bishops, 1568. 

' IN the begynnyng was 
the worde, and the worde was 
with God : and that worde 
was God. 2 f he same was 
in the begynnyng with God. 
3 All thynges were made by 
it : and without it, was made 
nothyng that was made. < In 
it was lyfe, and the lyfe was 
the lyght of men. 5 And the 
lyght shyneth in darkenesse : 
and the darkenesse compre- 
hended it not. 

'' There was a man sent 
from God whose name was 
John : 7 The same came for a 
witnesse, to beare witnesse 
of the lyght, that all men 
through hym myght beleue. 
^ He was not that lyght : 
but was sent to beare wit- 
nesse of the lyght. 9 That 
[lyght] was the true lyght, 
which lyghteth every man 
that commeth into the worlde. 
10 He was in the worlde, and 
the worlde was made by hym, 
and the worlde knewe hym 

'1 He came among his 
owne, and his owne receaued 
hym not. '2 But as many 
as receaued hym, to them 
gave he power to be the sonnes 
of God, euen them that be- 
leued on his name. 

' Rask's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, Preface, p. 47. 

■ History of CiWlisation in France, by Guizot, p. 2r6. 

Indo-Etteopean Languages.] ENGLISH. 159 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — During tlie period of the gradual 
disappearance of tlic Anglo-Saxon and evolution of tlic English language, as above described, I'^ngland 
was under papal domination, and the Scriptures were no longer sought after. The Anglo-Saxon 
versions became useless from tlie alteration in the language, and until the fourteenth century the 
cff()rts made to produce a new translation were few and feeble. An ecclesiastic named Orm, or Ormin, 
supposed from his dialect to have been a native of tlie North of England, composed a metrical para- 
phrase of the Gospels and Acts, in lines of fifteen syllables, during the latter part of the twelfth century. 
This work is entitled the Ormulum, from the name of its author, and is preserved in the Bodleian 
Library. A more extensive metrical paraphrase, comprising the whole of tlie Old and New Testa- 
ments, is to be found amongst other poetry of a religious nature in a work entitled Sowle-hele (Soul's 
healtli), belonging to the Bodleian Library: it is usually ascribed to the end of the twelfth century. 
Another metrical version, probably of the same date, is preserved in Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge : it comprises only the first two books of the Old Testament, and is written in the dialect then 
spoken in the North of England. Li the same college, a metrical version of the Psalms, apparently 
written about the year 1300, lias been deposited: this version adheres to the Latin Psalter, corrected 
by Jerome, as closely as the nature of the composition will admit. Several other MSS. of the old 
English Psalter, preserved in the British Museum and the Bodleian Library, are supposed to be 
exemplars of the same version, with the orthography altered in conformity with the state of the 
language at the periods in which they were written. A translation of the Psalms from the same 
text, (the corrected Latin of Jerome,) was executed by Richard RoUe, of Hampole, near Doncaster, 
during the early part of the fourteenth century. This version is remarkable as being the first portion 
of the Scriptures ever translated into English prose. Rolle, or Hampole as he is more generally 
calletl, also wrote a paraphrase in verse of a part of Job. Two other versions of the Psalms, belonging 
to the same period, are likewise extant. In Benet College, Cambridge, there is a version of j\Lirk, 
Luke, and the Pauline Epistles, but the translator and the date are imknown; and in the British 
Museum there is a translation of the Gospels appointed to be read on Sundays, written in the northern 

Rheims, 1.582. 

• IN the beginning was 
the Word, and the Word 
vva.s with God, and God was 
the Word. ^ Xhis was in 
the beginning with God. 
•* Al tilings were made by 
him : and without him was 
made nothing. That which 
was made', ■• in him was 
life, and the life was the 
light of men : ■'' and the light 
shineth in darkenesse, and 
the darkenesse did not com- 
prehend it. 6 There was a 
man sent from God, whose 
name was lohn. ' This man 
came for testimonie : to giue 
testimonie of the light, that 
al might beleeue through him. 

* lie was not the light, 
but to giue testimonie of the 
light. '■' It was the true light, 
which lighteneth ouery man 
that commeth into this world. 
10 Ho was in the world, and 
the world was made by him, 
and the world knew him 

'1 He came into his owne, 
and his owne reeeiued him 
not. ''^ But as many as re- 
eeiued him, he gaue them 
power to be made the sonnes 
of God, to those that beleeue 
in his name. 

DouAT, 1847. 

' IN the beginning was 
the word, and the word was 
with God, and the word w-as 
God. 2 xhe same was in the 
beginning with God. 3 AH 
things were made by him : 
and without him was made 
nothing that was made : ■• In 
him was life, and the life was 
the light of men : * And the 
light shineth in darkness, and 
the darkness did not compre- 
hend it. 

c There was a man sent 
from God, whose name was 
John. 7 This man came for 
a witness ; to give testimony 
of the light, that all men 
might believe through him. 
8 He was not the light, but 
was to give testimony of the 
light. 9 That was the true 
light, which eulighteneth 
every man that cometh into 
this world, i" He was in 
the world, and the world was 
made by him, and the world 
knew him not. 

1' He came into Ws own, 
and his own received him 
not. '2 But as many as re- 
ceived him, he gave them 
power to be made the sons of 
G<)d, to them that believe in 
his name. 

Authorised, 1611. 

1 IN the beginning was 
the Word, and the Word 
was with God, and the Word 
was God. 2 The same was 
in the beginning with God. 
3 All things were made by 
him, and without him was 
not any thing made that was 
made. * In him was life, 
and the life was the light of 
men. 5 And the light shin- 
eth in darknes, and the dark- 
nes comprehended it not. 

6 There was a man sent 
from God, whose name was 
lohn. 7 The same came for 
a witnesse, to beare witnesse 
of the light, that all men 
through him might beleeue. 
* He was not that light, but 
icas se?it to beare witnesse of 
that light. 9 That was the 
true light, which lighteth 
euery man that commeth into 
the world. '" Hee was in 
the world, and the world 
was made by him, and the 
world knew him not. " He 
came vnto his owne, and his 
owne reeeiued him not. ''-But 
as many as reeeiued him, to 
them gaue hee power to be- 
come the sonnes of God, raen 
to them that beleeue on his 

Blatnet, 1769. 

' IN the beginning was 
the Word, and the Word was 
with God, and the Word was 
God. 2 'f he same was in the 
beginning with God. ^ All 
things were made by him ; 
and without him was not any 
thing made that was made. 
* In him was life ; and the 
life was the light of men. 
5 And the light shineth in 
darkness; and the darkness 
comprehended it not. 

15 There was a man sent 
from God, whose name icag 
John. 7 The same came for 
a witness, to bear witness 
of the Light, that all men 
through him might believe. 
s He was not that Light, but 
n:as sent to bear witness of 
that Light. 9 That was the 
true Light, which lighteth 
every man that cometh into 
the world. •" He was in the 
world, and the world was 
made by him, and the world 
knew him not. 

11 He came unto his own, 
and his own received him 
not. '2 But as many as re- 
ceived him, to them gave he 
power to become the sons of 
God, even to them that be- 
lieve on his name. 


Such were the principal translations of scriptural portions executed before the time of Wicklifie. 
A version has been commonly ascribed to John de Trevisa, vicar of Berkeley in Gloucestershire, who 
flourished towards the close of the fourteenth century ; but he only translated a few detached passages, 
which he introduced in certain parts of his writings. Some texts translated by him were painted on 
the walls of the chapel belonging to Berkeley Castle. 

To WickilfFe, therefore, " the Morning Star of the Eeformation," belongs the honour of having 
produced the first version of the entire Scriptures in the English language. His translation was made 
immediately from the Latin Vulgate, and was completed about the year 1380. So great was the 
opposition it excited, that in 1390 a bill was brought into the House of Lords for its total suppression. 
The motion, however, was thrown aside through the influence of the Duke of Lancaster, who is 
reported to have said, " We will not be the dregs of all, seeing other nations have the law of God, 
which is the law of our faith, written in their own language." It was perhaps, about this period, that 
the followers of Wicklifie revised and corrected his version : several copies of this revision are extant. 
In 1408 the further translation, and even the perusal, of the Scriptures was formally prohibited in a 
convocation held at Oxford, by Archbishop Arundel. Great persecution followed this edict, and 
many sufiered unto death for having read the English Bible. 

Although Wicklifle's version of the EngUsh Bible was the earliest in point of execution, yet, as 
the art of printing was unknown during the age in which it was produced, it was among the latest of 
the English versions in being committed to the press. The first printed edition was published in 
1731, by Mr. Lewis. This edition, which was preceded by a history of the English biblical transla- 
tions by the editor, included only the New Testament. The same version of the New Testament was 
re-edited In 1810 by the Rev. H. H. Baber, with very valuable prolegomena. It was again published 
with extreme accuracy in 1841, as a portion of the English Hexapla, the best MSS. having been most 
carefully collated for this purpose by George Ofibr, Esq.; a MS. then in the possession of the Duke of 
Sussex was used as the basis of this edition. Another edition has been lately published by Pickering : 
it is printed from a contemporary MS. written about A.D. 1380, formerly in the Monastery of Sion, 
and now preserved in the collection of Lea Wilson, F. S. A. The Old Testament of Wickliffe's version 
remained in MS. till within the last few years; but a complete edition of both Testaments has been 
very recently published at Oxford, under the editorship of the Rev. J. Forshall and Sir F. Madden. 

We now come to the history of our authorised version of the Scriptures, which may be said to 
date from the year 1524, when the Gospels of ]\Iatthew and Mark, the first portions of Tyndale's 
translation, were printed at Hamburgh. Tyndale's version, which has served as the basis of aU 
succeeding versions of the English Scriptures, was executed directly from the sacred originals. It was 
produced in the midst of persecution, and furnishes a wonderful example of the result of steadfast faith 
and firm determination of purpose. Though opposed by the combined power of the king of England, 
his whole council, and the emperor, William Tyndale contrived to elude their vigilance until the great 
work, upon which his heart was set, was accomplished. " Having from the first consulted only with 
God and his own conscience, he possessed an indescribable severity of conviction that he had but 
one thing to do, and though perpetually exposed to seizure and death, not a day was to be lost by him, 
nor was lost." ' And although he finally sealed his testimony with his blood, (for he was martyred at 
Vilvorde, near Brussels, in 1536,) yet he died in the midst of victory, for before he expired no less 
than fourteen editions of his version of the New Testament had been pubhshed, the last of which, 
being the Jirst edition of the English Scriptures ever printed in his native country, was passing 
through the press in London, " before or at the very time that he was receiving at Vilvorde the 
crown of martyrdom."^ It seemed as if all who had been concerned in this first translation of the 
English Scriptures from the original tongues were to be admitted to the glory of martyrdom, for John 
Fryth, who had yielded some assistance in the work, was afterwards burnt to death in Smithfield; and 
William Roye, who had at one time been Tyndale's amanuensis, was put to death in Portugal on a 
charge of heresy. Although the enemies of the truth thus succeeded in removing the translators from 
the earth, their efforts to suppress the translation, by destroying all the printed copies, were utterly 
unavailing. On one occasion Sir Thomas More, who was then chancellor, inquired of an individual 
who was suffering imprisonment for conscience sake, how Tyndale subsisted abroad, and who were 
the persons in London that abetted and supported him : the prisoner replied, that it was the Bishop 
of London who maintained him by sending a sum of money to buy up the impression of his New 
Testament. The chancellor admitted the truth of the statement, and suffered the man to escape. 

1 Introduction of the English Bible, by Anderson, p. 4. 2 Introduction of the English Bible, by Anderson, p. 3. 

InDO-EuRorE.vN Languages.] ENGLISH. 161 

Coverdale's Version of the entire Scriptures was published in 1535: it was printed on the 
continent, but at wliut place is uncertain. In producing this version, Coverdale, by his individual 
energy, accomplished what the combined efforts of the king, of the two Houses of Convocation, and of 
Archbishop Cranmcr, had been unable to eflect ; for in L533 an edition of the complete English Bible 
had been resolved upon, and actually commenced by Cranmer, but the attempt proved utterly abortive. 
In his preface, Coverdale states that he had used five different Latin and "Douche" (or German) 
versions in the formation of his own. It is also certain from internal evidences that he availed 
himself largely of the labours of Tyndale. " His style," observes Scrivener, " is vigorous ; the 
renderings of particular texts are very perspicuous, though they are often questionable and diffuse ; 
while an air of freshness and novelty pervades the volume, since no one of our translators has ventured 
on such bold interpretation as Coverdale, and but little oi' his pecuhar diction was adoptc<I by those 
who followed him." This translation, happily, was regarded with favour by Henry Vlll., and was 
the first English Bible allowed by royal authority. This capricious monarch further directed in 1536, 
that a copy of the whole Bible in Latin and in English should be laid in the choir of every church 
throughout the realm, " for every man that would, to look and read therein." 

Matthew's Bible was edited by John Eogers, the ardent friend of Tyndale and the proto- 
martyr of Mary's reign. The whole of the New, and the first part of the Old Testament, as far as the end 
of the Second of Chronicles, was merely a reprint of Tyndale's version with a few orthographical altera- 
tions. Tyndale had also translated a number of chapters from the Prophetical Books, which had been 
printed along with the New Testament.' These Rogers inserted, and the portions which Tyndale had left 
untranslated he supplied from Coverdale's version. The printers, Grafton and Whitchurch, bore 
unaided the entire expense of the publication of this work ; and from prudential motives Eogers 
affixed to it the fictitious name of Thomas Matthew. It was printed in folio in 1537, probably at 
Marlborow in Hesse. It is remarkable that up to the day of its arrival in London, the very existence 
of this Bible was unknown to Henry and his ministers. During the previous ten years this version 
had been denounced and proscribed ; the cojjies surreptitiously imported into England had been 
searched for and burnt ; even the persons by whom they had been read had been committed to the 
flames, and, only the year previously, the death of the translator himself had been compassed ; and yet, 
no sooner was the entire version, "the desire of Tyndale's heart," prmted for the first time in one 
volume and sent to England, than the hearts of those who had heretofore been persecutors were over- 
ruled to receive and to sanction it.' The volume received the royal license, and enactments were 
forthwith issued commanding the clergy to place copies in all the churches that the parishioners might 
obtain constant access to them. 

Cranmer's Great Bible (so called from its containing a prologue by Archbishop Cranmer, 
as well as from its size) is a revision of ]\Iatthew's Bible. The edition was commenced at Paris, where 
the paper was better and cheaper, and the workmen more skilful than in England. But before the 
work could be completed at press, the Inquisition interfered, and the edition, consisting of 2500 copies, 
was seized and condemned to the flames. Some copies, however, were rescued and brought to 
England; the French printers were prevailed upon to bring their types and presses to London, and 
the edition was completed under the correction and revision of Coverdale in 1539. 

Tavekner's Bible is hkewise a revision of Matthew's Bible, edited, as the name imports, by 
Richard Taverner. It appeared in folio m 1539, and was dedicated to the king. 

The Geneva Version of the Bible is a revision of Tvndale's version, executed after the 
immortal work of Tyndale had been again diligently compared with the Hebrew and Greek texts. It 
was usual to ascribe this translation to the pruicipal reformers who had taken reflige in Geneva during 
the persecutions of Mary. Anderson, however, has shown that so far from tins version being the 
collective work of several individuals, the New Testament can in all probabihty be correctly attributed 
only to one individual, the Rev. William Wliittingham, afterwards dean of Durham;^ while in the 
translation of the Old Testament, the names of Gilby and Sampson only are to be associated with that 
of Whittingham.'' The New Testament was pubhshed at Geneva in 1557, and is the first in our language 
which contains the distinction of verses by numerical figures. The Old Testament appeared in 1540. 

1 Introduction of the English Bible, hy Anderson, p. 8. 3 Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii. pp. 308, 312. 

= Itttroduction of the English Bible, by Anderson, p. 13. * Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii. pp. 320, 321. 


Archbishop Parker's, or the Bishops' Bible, was completed in 1568, after having 
been in course of preparation during three years. Several individuals were engaged in the work, 
for the Bible was divided into at least fourteen different portions, each of which was allotted to 
persons of learning and ability: eight of the individuals who thus took part in the revision were 
bishops; hence the edition is generally known as the "Bishops' Bible." Archbishop Parker, the 
promoter of this revision, employed other critics to compare the version with the sacred texts, and he 
directed and reviewed the whole work himself His object in setting forth this edition was, not to 
produce a new version, but to test and correct Cranmer's Bible, the ti'anslation then commonly in use, 
by a critical examination of the inspired originals. This Bible was in 1571 appointed to be used in 
churches, and for forty years it continued to be the church version, although the Geneva Bible was 
more generally used in private houses. A reprint of the Bishops' Bible, published in 1572 in large 
folio, with corrections and prolegomena, is commonly called " Matthew Parker's Bible." 

King J.oies's Bible, as our present authorised version is sometimes called, was commenced 
with the sanction of that monarch in the year 1604. It was undertaken on account of several objections 
having been made to the Bishops' Bible at the Conference held at Hampton Court during the 
preceding year. Fifty-four men, selected on account of their eminent classical attainments, were 
appointed to execute the work ; but from death, or some other cause, only forty-seven eventually 
engaged in it. Tliey wore divided into six companies, to each of whom a separate portion was assigned. 
They met periodically, for the piu-pose of conferring on the result of their individual laboiu's ; and at 
these meetings, says Selden, " one read the translation, the rest holding in their hands some Bible, 
either of the learned tongues, or French, Spanish, Italian, etc. If they found any fault, they spoke; 
if not, he read on." The basis of the excellent version thus produced still continued to be Tyndale's; 
for, according to the directions given them at the ovitset, the translators followed the Bisliops' Bible 
(which, as we have shewn, was based on that of Tyndale) as closely as the original would permit; but 
they compared it with the early editions of Tyndale's version, and with Coverdale's, IMatthew's, 
Cranmer's, Taverner's, and the Genevan Bibles, and adopted from each the renderings which were 
the most faithful to the sacred text. Our present authorised version, therefoi-e, so far from being a 
new translation, was a compilation from previous translations ; but its inestimable value arises from 
the fact, that it is a compilation founded on a collation with the original Scriptures, conducted by men 
duly qualified for so momentous an undertaking.' It was commenced in the spring of the year 1607, 
and was completed at press in 1611. Selden, Lowth, Horsley, Middleton, and other learned men who 
have critically examined this Bible, bear testimony to its great excellence. Dr. Adam Clarke justly 
remarks, that " the translators have seized the very spirit and soul of the original ;" and that, of all 
European translations, King James's version is " the most accurate and faithful." Although this 
precious volume bears the name of King James, we are not indebted to him even for pecuniary aid in 
its production. Its publication was a mere business transaction ; the entire expenses of the work were 
undertaken by Robert Barker, patentee of the office of king's printer, and it was printed and published 
by him as a speculation in trade. This Bible of 1611 is, with some trifling emendations and 
orthographical alterations, the Bible of all who use the English language at the present day. 

It must be observed, however, that the Roman Catholics have a version of their own, which is in 
general use among them in preference to ours. Their version of the New Testament was printed at 
Rheims in 1582, and that of the Old Testament at Douay in 1609-10. The real character and object 
of this version can only be learned from the preface and notes : the text does not contain many real 
departures from the Vulgate, although a studied obscurity involves the entire diction. A great number 
of Greek words, such as azynies, pasche, etc., are left untranslated, for the purpose, no doubt, of 
misleading and perplexing common readers. And the notes breathe such a spirit of treason, and such 
a recklessness of assertion, that now they are commonly omitted in reprints. The text has been 
frequently revised and printed for distribution among Roman Catholics, and from time to time it has 
been rendered more and more conformable to our own authorised text. 

The Socinians have also a version of the New Testament : it was publislied in London in 1808, 
by anonymous editors, professedly on the basis of Archbishop Newcome's translation ; but his authority 
is disregarded in all passages where their peculiar sentiments can be obtruded. 

Several translations of portions of the Scriptures have been executed in English since the year 
1611 ; but our venerable authorised version has not hitherto, in whole or in part, been superseded by 

1 Bishop Marsh on the Criticism of the Bible, Appendix, p. 2. 

Indo-Eueopean Langitages. ENGLISH. 163 

any. Passing over tlie translations of Bellamy and Geddes, which are too extravagant to deserve 
mention, several translations of" particular books of Scripture by Lowth, Ncwcome, Horsley, Lee, 
Henderson, and others, might be enumerated; yet these can scarcely be called versions in the popular 
sense of the term, being adapted rather for the learned than for the people. 

PiUNTED Editions of the English Scriptures. — The editions of the Bible and Testament 
in our language have been so numerous, tliat even the bare enumeration of them would be a matter of 
absolute impossibility. During the eighty-seven years which elapsed from the appearance of the first 
portion of Tyudale's version (a.D. 1524) to the publication of the authorised version in 1611, at least 
278 editions of the Bible and Testament are known to have been printed ; of these the principal are 
the following : — 

1524. The Gospels of Matthew and Mark, translated by Tyndale, printed at Hamburgh. 

1525. The New Testament of Tyndale's version in 4to., published at Cologne and Worms : only 

one fragment of this work is known to be in existence : it was discovered in 1834 by 
Mr. Rodd, a bookseller, who happening to examine a quarto tract by Qicolampadius, 
which he had received fiom a friend, perceived that there was attached to it, by binding, 
a portion in the English language, black letter. This proved to be a rehc of the three 
thousand copies of Tyndale's first edition of the New Testament. It afterwards adorned 
the library of the Hon. Thomas Grenville, and by his munificent gift it is now in the 
British Museum. 

1526. The New Testament of the same version in 18mo., published at Worms. Until recently 

this has been generally believed to have been the first edition of Tyndale's version. 
A copy, wanting the titlepage, is in the Baptist IMuseum at Bristol, from which the 
London reprint, published by Mr. Bagster in 1836, was executed. 

1526. The New Testament of the same version, pubUshed at Antwerp. This was the first 
surreptitious edition, and was followed by two other editions, printed at the same place, 
during the two subsequent years. A corrected edition, compared with the Greek by 
Tyndale, was published in 1534 : it forms one of the versions in the English Hexapla. 

1535. The entire Bible, translated from the Latin and Dutch, or rather German versions, by 
Coverdalc, some time lord bishop of Exeter, published in London, in folio. This 
Bible was reprinted in 4to. in 1838, from a copy in the possession of the late Duke of 
Sussex. The second edition, likewise published by Mr. Bagster, appeared in 1847. 

1537. Matthew's Bible in folio, probably printed at IMarlljorow, in Hesse. Matthew was the 
cognomen adopted by liogers, the translator. This Bible was a revised edition of 
Tyndale's version, with the chapters which he had left vmtranslated supphed from 
Coverdale's version, the whole being carefully corrected by Rogers. 

1539. HoUybuslie's New Testament, 8vo., London. This is a reprint of Coverdale's translation, 
with the Latin version. The printer, Nicolson, inserted the name of HoUybushe, a man 
employed by him, in the titlepage. This New Testament was reprinted in Svo., in 
London, A.D. 1839. 

1539. Cranmer's Great Bible, folio- This edition was commenced at Paris, and finished in 
London. It is a revision of Matthew's Bible, produced by a re-examination of the 
sacred texts ; and with the prologues and notes by Tyndale, and the other notes 
appended to IMatthew's Bible, wholly omitted. It contains a prologue, or preface, by 
Archbishop Cranmer. 

1539. Taverner's Bible, folio, London. This was a correction of Matthew's Bible, with a large 
proportion of his marginal notes retained, and others added by Taverner. 

1550. The Gospel of ilatthew, and part of the first chapter of Mark's Gospel, was translated by 
Sir John Cheke, from the Greek, about the year 1550; but this version, with the 
original notes that accompanied it, remained in MS. till 1843, when it was committed 
to the press under the editorship of the Rev. James Goodwin. Sir John Cheke made 
much use of the older English versions, and especially endeavoured to avoid the 
introduction of any word derived from a Latin root.' 

1557. The Geneva New Testament in 8vo., printed at Geneva, by Conrad Badius. The second 
edition was pubHshed at the same place in 1560. An exact reprint of the edition of 

• Introduction to the Scriptures, by the Rev. T. H. Home, vol. v. p. 90. 


1557, with the itahc supplements and marginal annotations of the original, was 
pubhshed by Mr. Bagster in 1842: it also appears as one of the versions of the English 

1560. The Geneva Bible (containing the Old and New Testaments, with annotations), printed in 
4to. at Geneva. The second edition was published in foUo, in London, the following 
year : numerous other editions were subsequently printed at Geneva and London. 
Some editions of the Geneva Bible (as those of 1599 and of 1611) contain Beza's 
translation of the New Testament, EngHshed by L. Tompson.' At least 129 editions 
of the Geneva Bible and Testament are known to have been printed between the years 
1560 and 1611. 

1568. Archbishop Parker's, or the Bishops' Bible, folio, London : another edition, in quarto, was 
issued the following year for the use of families. This Bible has numerous marginal 
references, notes, and tables. The words which are printed in italics by James's trans- 
lators are here printed in a smaller type, and placed between brackets. The chapters 
are divided into verses, and the 7th verse of 1 John v., which was before printed in a 
different letter, is here inserted in the same type as the rest of the volume. 

1611. The present authorised version, commonly called King James's Bible, folio, London. In 
1649, in consequence of the high estimation in which the Genevan version continued to 
be held, this version was printed with the Genevan notes ; but about this period, says 
Anderson, it prevailed, and took the place it has occupied ever since. 

1769. A revised edition of the authorised version, prepared by Dr. Blayney, under the direction 
of the vice-chancellor and delegates of the Clarendon press at Oxford. This is con- 
sidered the standard edition, on accoimt of its great accuracy ; yet one hundred and 
sixteen typographical errors, which evaded the scrutiny of Dr. Blayney, were rectified 
by Eyre and Strahan in their editions of 1806 and 1813. 

There is no land which has been so highly favoured as Britain in the multiplicity of editions of 
the Scriptures printed since the year 1611. The number of copies of the Scriptiu'cs jDrinted by the 
British and Foreign Bible Society alone, since its establishment in 1804 to March, 1849, is as follows: — 

Bibles 6,048,430 

Testaments 7,010,413 

Psalms 359,296 

Gospels and Acts . . . . 5,198 

If to these be added the number published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
and other kindred Societies, with the numerous editions published by Mr. Bagster, as well as those 
issued in Scotland, the aggregate amount seems almost incredible. " The number of English Bibles 
and New Testaments separately, which have passed through the press within the perfect recollection 
of many now living, has exceeded the number of souls in Britain ! It has been more than double the 
population in 1801 l""^ And yet there is in many places an awful destitution. A large proportion 
has been sent to the colonies ; and if Mr. Dudley's calculation be correct of wear and tear (in schools 
particularly) of 15 per cent, per annum, we shall cease to wonder at the continued demands. 

' Introduction to the Scriptures, by the Rev. T. H. Home, vol. v. p. 91. 2 Anderson's Annals of the English liible, vol. i. Preface, p. viiif 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

[Brussels, 1838.] 

In het beginne was het Woordt, en liet Woordt was by Godt, en het Woordt was 
Godt. ^ Dit was in het begin by Godt. ^ Alle dingen zyn door het zelve geraaekt, en zonder 
dat en is 'er niet gemaekt van al dat 'er gemaekt is. '' In 't zelve was het leven , en 't leven 
was het Hcht der menschen. ''" En het hcht schynt in de duysternisse , en de duysternis 
en heeft 'et niet begrepen. " Daer was eenen menseh van Godt afgezonden , met name 
Joannes. ' Dezen quam als getuyge , om getuygenisse van het hcht te geven , op dat sy 
alle door hem gelooven zouden. * Hy en was het licht niet , maer om getuygenisse te 
geven van het licht. ^ Dit was het waeragtig licht , het welk alle menschen verlicht , 
komende in deze wereldt. '" Hy was in de wereldt , en de wereldt is door hem gemaekt , 
en de wereldt en heeft hem niet gekent , " Hy quam in syn eyge , en de syne en namen 
hem niet aen. '^ Maer aen alle , die hem aengenomen hebben , heeft hy de magt vergunt 
van kinderen Godts te worden , aen hen , die in synen naem gelooven. '^ Welke niet uyt 
den bloede , noch uyt den wille des vleesch , noch uyt den wille des mans , maer uyt Godt 
geboren zyn. '^ En het Woordt is vleesch geworden , en heeft onder ons gewoont : en wy 
hebben syne glorie gezien, een glorie als van den eenig-geboren des Vaders, vol van 
gratie en waerheyt. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Flemish, though merely a dialectic variety of 
the Dutch, is entitled to prior consideration on account of its being the older dialect of the two. It 
is spoken in East and West Flanders, in Antwerp, and in part of Limburg, the collective population 
of which, according to the last census, is about 2,000,000.' It is also spoken in the arrondissoments 
of Brussels and Louvain, in Brabant, and even in parts of the neighbouring departments of France. 
In the other provinces of the kingdom of Belgium, (namely, Liege, Namur, Halnault, part of Luxem- 
burg, and the an-ondissement of Nivelles in Brabant,) Walloon, which is derived from the French of 
the thirteenth century. Is spoken. German Is extensively spoken in portions of Luxemburg and 
Limburg ; but Modern French is the language of the court, of the legislature, and of general litera- 
ture throughout Belgium. It is extensively cultivated by the educated classes, and even In the 
proper Flemish provinces, all government notices are drawn up In French as well as In Flemish. The 
dominant religion In Belgium Is Roman Catholicism : during the frightful persecutions of the Duke 
of Alva, under Philip II. of Spain, the Protestants of Belgium, having no alternative between recanta- 
tion and martyrdom, fled the country ; and It was not until the period of the French revolution that 
Protestantism was even tolerated. 

Characteristics of the Language. — One language, sometimes called the Bclgic, a branch 
of the Platt-Deutsch, or Low German, was originally conimon to the people of Holland and Belgium. 
It was Introduced Into this country by various Germanic tribes, among^whom may be mentioned as 
the most remarkable the Batavi, celebrated as the brave allies of the Romans, and the Saxons and 

' M'Culloch's Dictionary of Geography, vol. i. p. 337. 


Salian Franks, who, on the fall of the Roman empire, dispossessed the Batavi, and established them- 
selves in their territories. The Belgas, from whom the whole country received its ancient denomina- 
tion, are by some regarded as a Celtic, and by others as a Germanic, race; while others contend that 
they were a mixed race of borderers. It is, however, generally admitted that the present language of 
the Netherlands results from the coalescence of the petty dialects of numerous tribes of Germanic 
extraction, among whom the country was subdivided. In the thirteenth century, the language then 
predominant in Holland as well as in Flanders, received the appellation of Flemish on account of the 
flourishing state of the Flemings, and the superior diction and grammatical accuracy of their writers; 
and by this name it continued to be frequently designated until the language we now call the Dutch, 
from being a mere provincial dialect of the Flemish, acquired the dignity of a written and polished 
tongue. " Even at the present day," says a recent writer, " Flemish appears nothing more than the 
Dutch of the preceding century." Flemish dillcrs from Dutch chiefly in orthography and pro- 
nunciation ; and owing, perhaps, to the great ascendancy of the French language in Belgiimi, it has 
adopted many French words. 

Versions of the Sceiptures in this Language. — The earliest specimen of the lan- 
guage of the Netherlands, is by some thought to be a translation of the Psalms, made about a.d. 800, 
and published by Von der Hagcn at Breslaw, in 1816, under the title of " Niederdentsche Psalmen."^ 
Brandt, in his History of the Reformation, speaks of certain Protestants in the Netherlands turning the 
Scriptures into Low Dutch I'hymes, in the early part of the thirteenth century, " according to the 
custom of these ages, and in imitation of the Old Germans, who used to record their most memorable 
transactions in verse." ^ A prose version of the Scriptures is also said to have been executed about 
the year 1300, and Le Long gives the following short list of ancient MSS.: — 

1. Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, four Books of Kings, Tobit, Daniel, Judith, Esdras, Esther, and 

Maccabees, in Belgic; folio. In the Colbert Library. 

2. Four Gospels, written 1472. In the Bodleian Library. 

3. Epistles of Paul, the Acts, and the Apocalypse ; also in the Bodleian Library. 

4. Apocalypse in the Brabant (or Flemish) language. In the Basle Library. 

The first printed edition of the Belgic, or Flemish, Bible appears to have been that published in 
two volumes, folio, at Cologne in 1475 : it was reprinted in folio, in two volumes, at Delft in 1477, and 
again at Gouda, in folio, in 1479. It is unknown when the translation was executed ; Le Long 
says, that the text is the same as that of 1300. It is evidently translated from the Latin Vulgate, and 
the Gouda edition of 1479 contains several fabulous narratives intermixed with the text. Other 
editions were printed at Antwerp in 1518 and 1525. 

In 1526 another translation of the Scriptures into Belgic was made by several learned men, whose 
names, unfortunately, have not been transmitted to us, and was published at Antwerp. It seems to 
have been collated with such parts of Luther's version as had then been published; and in later 
editions was rendered still more conformable to that celebrated version. The printer, Jacob a Lies- 
veldt, published several successive editions of this Belgic translation at Antwerp, but he was at last 
condemned and beheaded, because, in the annotations of one of his Bibles, he had said that " the 
salvation of mankind proceeds from Christ alone."* 

The next edition was that of the Old Testament by William Vosterman, who represented it as 
having been printed from a very carefully corrected translation of the Latin text ; but Le Long says, 
that " it sometimes departs from Luther's version, and in other cases follows it." The Old Testament 
was published at Antwerp, in folio, in 1528, and the New Testament in 1531, and again in 1533. 

This edition was followed by others, almost too numerous to be here specified. Many of these 
editions were afterwai'ds prohibited by the Inquisition, and their continued publication was suspended 
by the edict of Charles V. in 1546, which ordered " that none should presume to print any books 
unless they first obtained from the emperor a license for exercising the trade of a printer, &c., on pain 
of death." It was, however, found impossible to withhold the Scriptures from the people, and certain 
divines of the University of Louvain took upon themselves the task of revising and correcting the 
Belgic version according to the last revision of the Latin Vidgate. Nicholas von Wingh, a regidar 
canon of Louvain, was the princijsal conductor of this work : an edition of the whole Bible was 

1 Bosworth's Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon, Preface, p. xcvi. " Townley's Illustrations, vol. i. p. 452. 

3 Townley's Illustrations, vol. ii. pp. 348, 353. 

Indo-Eueopeait L.YNGrAGF.s.] FLEMISH. 167 

publisted by him and his assistants in folio at Louvain and Cologne in 1548. This version was 
examined and upjji'ovod by learned doctors of the faculty of theology of Louvain, deputed by Charles 
v.; and it was published under the sanction of that emperor. 

After numerous editions of this version had been issued at Antwerp, it was revised and corrected by 
the doctors of Louvain, according to the text of the Vulgate, as revised by order of Pope Clement VIII. 
This revised translation was printed at the celebrated Plantin press, at Antwerp, in 1599; again at 
Cologne in 1604, and at Antwerp, 1626: and it may, perhaps, be regarded as the standard Flemish 

Several other revised editions of this version followed. In 1717 another version of the Belgic 
Scriptures was published with short notes on difficult passages, by Q5gidius Wit, a Ghent divine. 
This version chiefly follows the Vulgate, but in certain parts the original texts have been consulted : 
the idiom in which it is written is that of the provinces of Flanders and Brabant. 

About the same time another translation of the Belgic Bible was commenced by Andrew 
Scurrius of Gorcum, licentiate of the University of Louvain. Two volumes were printed at Utrecht 
in 1715, 1717: but the death of the translator in 1719 put an end to the work, when he had carried 
it only as far as the Second Book of Kings. It is said to be in the purest dialect of the Flemish. 

Several other translations of the whole, or parts, of the Scriptures into Flemish might be 
enumerated, but little is known concerning them beyond the mere name of the translator, and date 
of execution. In 1689-90 a Flemish version was published at Emmerick, which had been made by 
Andrew Vander Schuren, from the French edition of Mons, the first edition of De Sacy's French 
version. This version went through several editions at Emmerick and at Antwerp. Another 
Flemish translation according to the Vulgate was printed at Antwerp in 1717, and again at Utrecht 
in 1718. This is the last Flemish version mentioned by Le Long. 

In 1820, in accordance with the wishes of the people, permission was given by the Archbishop 
of Malines to an individual to print an edition of the Flemish New Testament, translated by Maurentorf, 
without note or comment, for the use of the Roman Catholics ; and it was at the same time stated that 
no such edition had been printed since the year 1717. The edition, sanctioned by the archbishop, 
appeared at Brussels about the year 1821 ; and an edition of the whole Bible was printed at the same 
time from the Louvain edition of 1599. This latter edition found a wide cu-culation, the Bible 
having, from the scarcity of copies, become almost an unknown book in the Flemish provinces. It 
does not appear that the British and Foreign Bible Society granted any assistance in the publication 
of this edition; but owing to its favourable reception, an edition consisting of 2656 copies was printed 
by order, it is generally supposed, of that Society at Brussels in 1825. It was printed fi-oni the 
Antwerp edition of the Flemish Testament published in 1717, and in the same 12mo. form. Owing 
however to the overthrow of the Orange family, and the consequent increased influence of the priests, 
this edition remained very much as a dead stock upon the hands of the Society, until the arrival of 
Mr. W. P. Tiddy in the country about the year 1833. Affected with the state of Belgium, and its 
awful destitution of the Scriptures, he made several applications for small supplies in French and 
Flemish, which were cheerfully granted. At length, in 1835, he was invated to settle at Brussels as 
the agent of the Society, when he very soon disjjosed of the remaining copies of the Flemish Testament. 
A si;cond edition of the Flemish Testament, of 8000 copies, was printed under his superintendence 
at Brussels in 1837, followed by a third edition of the Testament, and an edition of the entire Bible. 
The total number of copies issued by the Society have been 5000 Bibles, and 70,350 Testaments. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

In den beginne was het Woord, en het Woord was bij God, en het Woord was God. 
- Dit was in den beginne bij God. ^ AUe dingen zijn door hetzelve gemaakt, en zonder 
hetzelve is geen ding gemaakt, dat gemaakt is. '' In hetzelve was het leven, en het leven 
was het hcht der menschen. * En het hcht schijnt in de duisternis, en de duistcrnis heeft 
hetzelve niet bcgrepen. ^ Er was een mensch van God gezonden, wiens naam was 
Johannes. ' Deze kwam tot eene getuigenis, om van het licht te getuigen, opdat zij alien 
door hem gelooven zouden. * Hij was het licht niet, maar was gezonden, opdat hij van 
het licht getuigen zou. ^ Dit was het waarachtige hcht, hetwelk verlicht een' iegelijk 
mensch, komende in de wereld. '" Hij was in de wereld, en de wereld is door hem 
gemaakt; en de wereld heeft hem niet gekend. " Hij is gekomen tot het zijne, en de 
zijnen hebben hem niet aangenomen. '^ Maar zoo velen hem aangenomen hebben, dien 
heeft hij magt gegeven kinderen Gods te M'orden, namelijk die in zijnen naam gelooven ; 
^^ Welke niet uit den bloede, noch uit den wil des vleesches, noch uit den vdl des mans, 
maar uit God geboren zijn. '^ En het Woord is vleesch geworden, en heeft onder ons 
gewoond (en wij hebben zijne heerlijkheid aanschouwd, eene heerlijkheid als des 
eeniggeborenen van den Vader), vol van genade en waarheid. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Dutch Is a language spoken by all classes of society 
in Holland. This kingdom comprises the territories which formerly belonged to the Seven United 
Provinces ; and its total area, including Dutch Limburg and Dutch Luxemburg, is 13,598 square 
miles. The population, according to the last census, is 2,915,396. The number of Eoman Catholics 
in Holland has been estimated at from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000: the majority of the Protestants belong 
to the Calvinistic or Dutch Reformed Church, which is similar in many respects to the Presbyterian 
Church of Scotland. There are, likewise, considerable numbers of Lutherans, Remonstrants, and 
Mennonitesin Holland; all sects are freely tolerated ; and the Church and State having been separated 
since 1816, the teachers of every denomination can receive pay from the State. The Dutch language 
is also spoken to a great extent in Southern Africa, which was formerly under the dominion of 
Holland : it is likewise spoken, more or less, in Java, the Moluccas, and the other Dutch colonies, and 
among the Dutch colonists of the United States. 

Charactekistics op the Language. — -Except in orthography and pronunciation, Dutch, in 
almost every respect, resembles the Flemish language. Like Flemish, it is very rich in compound 
words, which it forms freely from its own indigenous roots : it possesses more terms of Latin origin 
than the German,' though fewer than the English ; and being derived, like the English, from the low 
German stem, many of its words present a remarkable analogy to the corresponding English terms. 
In pronunciation it is more guttural than the Flemish, and even than the German ; bvit although 
neither soft or musical, it is sonorous and emphatic: " It has not," says Dr. Bowring, " the beauties of 
the vowelled idioms of the South, but it has beauties they can never possess ; and especially in the 

I Meidhiger's Diet, des Laugues Teuto-Gotliiqaes, p. xx.xiii. 


variety and grace of its diminutives (a quality in which our language is singularly deficient), it may 
be compared with the richest among them." 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — It has been remarked, that the ex- 
perience of the Dutch churches in the production of a standard version has been rather similar to our 
own, for, like us, they had long to wait before tlic great work could be completed. The first Dutch 
version, concerning which any thing is accurately known, was a bad translation of Luther's German 
version, made about the middle of the sixteenth century, by an elder of tlie Reformed Cliurch, at 
Embdcn. Tlic necessity of procuring an improved version was publicly discussed as early as 1571, 
and seems to have occupied the attention of all tlic synods of the Dutch churches i'rom that period till 
1618. Political troubles, however, drew the public funds into another channel; and it was not till 
the famous Synod of Dort, in 1G18-19, that actual preparations were made for the immediate 
oommencement of a new translation. Six translators and eight revisers for the Old, and as many for 
the New Testament, were chosen by the votes of the Dutch members of the synod ; and the States 
General were requested to imdertakc the expense of the work. In the directions delivered to the 
translators, tlie foremost were, — " That they should adhere religiously to the original text, and 
solicitously retain the very phrases of the original tongues, so far as perspicuity and the idiom of the 
Dutch language permitted ; and that in supplying ellipses, when the sense actually required it, they 
should use as few words as possible ; and express those in the text by a different character, and included 
in brackets, that they might be distinguished from the text itself."' The translators of the Old 
Testament entered upon their work at Leyden, in 1626, and held daily meetings, which they 
invariably commenced with prayer. The translation of the New Testament was conducted in the 
same spirit of prayer; it was commenced in 1628, and finished in 1634: the translation of the Old 
Testament was completed in 16.32. Each book was printed as soon as finished, and a copy was sent 
to each of the revisers. The revision of the Old Testament was begun in 1633, and completed in 
1634. Six hours daily were devoted to the work, and the revisers commenced eacii meeting with 
prayer, and ended witji thanksgiving ; those who were not punctual in attendance were fined a small 
sum, which was given to the poor. The revisers of the New Testament commenced their imdertaking 
in 1634, and during the latter part of the year which they devoted to it, the plague was raging at 
Leyden ; yet, although their meetings were held in a room overlooking a churchyard, in which 
interments were continually taking place, not one of their number was attacked by the disease. It is 
also remarkable, that none of the trtmslators long survived the completion of the work. It may have 
been that the arduous nature of the undertaking tended to abridge tlieir lives, for, although they were 
aU men of great literary attainments, many of them declared that they had never before laboured as 
they did at the translation of the Bible. 

The first edition was printed at Leyden, in 1637. The Remonstrants, who were followers of 
Arminius, and vehemently opposed to the translators in their religious opinions, deputed foiu: of their 
most learned men to examine the translation. After strict investigation, they were so stnick with the 
faithfulness and accuracy of the version, that they adopted it as their own, and the Old Testament has 
been in use among the Remonstrants ever since. After the lapse of more than forty years, a version 
of the New Testament was executed expressly for their use by Christian Hartsoeker, an Arminian 
minister, at Rotterdam. It was printed at Amsterdam in 1680 ; but although professedly a new 
translation from the Greek, it chiefly follows the version of the synod. 

The orthography of the established version was altered in one edition, according to the system 
introduced in 1806 by Professor Siegenbeek, and which received the sanction of the government. 
The Rev. Henry Cats, minister of the Dutch Reformed Church at Leyden, was employed to effect 
the necessary alterations ; but he died before he had finished the work, and it was completed by 
Professor Van Hengel ; and tlie revised edition appeared in 4to. in 1834. Siegenbeek's system has 
since fallen into disrepute, and has not been adopted in subsequent editions. 

This beautiful and emphatic version stiU retains its place, as the authorised text of the Dutch 
Church ; but a new translation has since been made, in the modern style and orthography, by the 
learned Professor Van der Palm, of Leyden: it was published in 1825, and though not adopted in 
churches, it is greatly esteemed and extensively used.- Another translation, which, however, included 
only the Gospel of Matthew and the Epistle to the Romans, was made from the Greek, by Adam 
Boreel, of Zealand: it was published at Amsterdam in 1693, with the Greek text. 

' Christian Review, vol. i. 2 Bosworth's Diet, of the Anglo-Sa-xon, p. cix. 


Within the last two or three years the Netherlands Bible Society appointed a commission to 
modernise the orthogi-aphy of the Bible, and the alterations which were introduced both in spelhng 
and in some points of grammar were considerable. All the editions of that Society are now printed 
with these alterations. 

Several editions of the authorised Dutch version have been issued by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. Their first edition, consisting of 5000 copies of the New Testament, appeared in 1809; 
and was designed primarily for the Dutch prisoners of war in this country, and eventually for the 
Dutch settlements and colonies. Considerable numbers of these copies were forwarded to the Cape of 
Good Hope, and were most thankfully received ; for it was ascertained, that not a single Dutch Bible 
could be had for money throughout that extensive colony. On receipt of this intelligence, the Society 
immediately commenced a large edition of the entire Dutch Bible. The total number of copies issued 
by the Society up to the present year (1849) amoimts to 91,395 Bibles, 450,104 Testaments, and 
5000 Psalters.' The Netherlands Bible Society has distributed since its formation altogether 378,667 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — During the last five years no less than 
236,000 copies of the Scriptures have been sold iu Holland by colporteurs, and many instances have 
been reported of the blessing of God accompanying their perusal. A colporteur, labouring in Drenthe 
and Groningen, met with an instance in which one New Testament had been blessed to several persons. 
A Roman Catholic family, in whose house there were continual quarrels before the introduction of 
the Scriptures, now hve in peace and harmony. The parents, through the power of the word, have 
become converted characters. " We have evidence," it is further stated in the last Report, " that the 
work in Holland has been blessed by the Lord. Many who, when first offered the Scriptures, mocked or 
insulted the colporteurs, have more lately purchased them with avidity. Others, who were remarkable 
for their awful oaths, have become humble worshippers of the living God. At Rotterdam, and in the 
environs, there has been a gi-eat revival, through the distribution of the Bible."- Recent issues of the 
Dutch Scriptures by the British and Foreign Bible Society to the Cape have been very large, and 
have been attended with a great blessing to the colony, particularly in schools. 

' Fortj'-flfth Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 51 . - Forty-Mth Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. xliv. 




St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1, &c. 

Er alien uuorolt krcftin, 

joh cngilo gisceftin, 
So rumo ouh so mahton, 

man ni mag gidrahton 
Er so ioli liimil uuurti, 

joh erda ouh so herti. 
Ouh iiuilit in thiu gifuarit 

thaz siu ellu thriu ruarit 
So uuas io uuort uuonanti, 
er alien zitin uuorolti. 
Thaz uuir nu sehen offan, 

thaz uuas thanne ungiscafan. 
Er alleru anagifti 

theru Druhtines giscefti, 
So uuas iz mit gilusti 

in theru Druhtines brusti. 
Iz uuas mit Druhtine sar, 

ni brast imo es io thar. 

Ante omnes mundi vires, 

et Angelos creates 
Turn spatium turn potentias, 

nemo potest concipere, 
Antequam coelum factum 

ac terra atque mare horridum, 
Et quicquid in his productum, 

quod hfec omnia tria movet, 
Erat verbum habitans 

ante omnia secula mundi. 
Quae nunc conspicimus palam 

erant tunc nondum creata. 
Ante principium omnium 

Domini creaturarum, 
Erat id cum jucunditate 

in Domini pectore. 
Erat cum Domino illico 

nee defecit ipsi unquam. 


This ancient language was spoken by a people of the Teutonic, or High German race, who at 
one period of their history were called the Suevi, or Suabians, probably from their having settled near 
the Baltic, then known as the Mare Suevicura, or Suabian Sea. In the beginning of the third 
century they migrated to the borders of the Roman empire, between the Danube, the Rhine, and the 
]\Iain, and they there associated themselves with other Germanic tribes, Ibrmlng a confederacy to 
which the designation of Alemannic was subsequently applied.^ The modern Germans, who are 
partly descended from these confederated tribes, are still called Alemanni (or Allemands) by the 
French and Spanish. 

This language appears to have been in use from the sixth to the eleventh or twelfth century, nor 
can it even yet be said to be extinct, for it is stiU spoken with shght modifications in the north of 
Switzerland, Alsace, the grand duchy of Baden, Wurtemburg, Bavaria, the Tyrol, and Styria. In 
this ancient dialect we can distinctly trace the rudiments of the modern German ; its chief pecuharities 
consist in the prevalence of the first vowel a, which is generally used in cases where the modern 
Germans use e ; and in the general substitution of the diphthong au for the German o. 

Bosworth's Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon, Pre/ace, p. cx.x. 


The earliest and most important monument of this language which has been transmitted to our 
times, is a Harmony of the Gospels, composed by Otfrid, a Benedictine monk of Weissenburg in 
Alsace, about the year 870. "We are told of this Otfrid that " he was profoundly versed in the know- 
ledge of the Holy Scriptures, and extensively acquainted with literature in general ; a philosopher, a 
rhetorician, and a famous poet ; eloquent in speech, and excellent in disposition." His Harmony is 
written in verse, and is the first German poem in which rhyme is introduced, for, in all previous 
poetical compositions, alliteration is adopted instead of rhyme. His motive in composing it was, as 
lie himself tells us, to provide a substitute for the vain and worldly songs wliicli his countrymen were 
in the habit of singing. This Harmony can scarcely be called a translation, for although it relates 
the facts of the Saviour's life as recorded by the four cvangehsts, yet the events are not ranged in 
chronological order, but seem to be related as they occurred to the memory of the writer. There are 
three MSS. of this work extant, preserved at Munich, Heidelberg, and Vienna. It was first printed 
at Basle in 1571, and in Schilter's Thes. vol. i. with Scherz's annotations. It was afterwards published 
at Bonn in 1821 ; and again at Konigsberg in 1831, under the title o{ Krist} 

The gradual transition of Alemannic into pure High German may be traced by means of the 
Alemannic version of the Psalms, executed by Notker, abbot of vSt. GaUen, in Switzerland. He is 
said to have undertaken the work for the benefit of the monks under his care, that they might under- 
stand what they read. This Notker is distinguished from others of the same name by the surname of 
Labeo, given to him on account of his thick lips. He died in 1022. Besides the Psalms he translated 
the book of Job, but this version is lost. His translation of the Psalms is in prose, and is much 
valued on account of its grammatical accuracy, its eloquence, and its faithfukiess. It was published 
by Schilter, in his Thesaurus, at Uhn, 1726. 

The Paraphrase of the Canticles, by WiUeram, may be here mentioned. Willeram was abbot of 
Ebersberg in Bavaria, and died 1085. Between the years 1070 and 1084 he composed a prose para- 
phrase of the Canticles in the Francic, (a dialect akin to the Alemannic,) accompanied by a rhythmical 
Latin version. This work was published at Leyden in 1598, edited by P. Mervda, and at Worms in 
1631, under the editorship of F. Vogelin. It also appeared in Schilter's Thesaurus; and was again 
published by Hollinan, at Breslaw, in 1827. 

» Bosworth's Dictionary' of the Anglo-Saxon, Preface, p. cxxx. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

LuTHEE, Leipsic, 1825. 

3m Qlnfang trar baS 2Bort, unb baS Sffiort voox bet) ®ott, 
unb ®ott rcar bag 5Boit. 

2 !DaffclMi]c luar iiu -2(nfang tiei) ®ott. 

3 -^Ule ®iiii(c finb butd; baffclbigc gemad^t, unb o^ne 
baffclbigc ijl nidjtS gcmac^t, reag geniac^t ifl. 

4 3n i^m tear bag !(ic6cn, unb bag fieben rear bag 
fiid)t bcr SWenfc^en. 

5 Unb bag i'id)! fc^einct in bcr Sinjlerni^, unb bie 
ginjlcrni^ ^abcn eg nidjt bcgrifcn. 

6 ©g roar cin aTcenfd) tion ®ott gefonbt, ber !^icp 

7 !DerfeIbigc fam jum 3«u9"i^/ *">§ ft »<"i bftn JJic^t 
jeugcte, auf bap fie aHe burc^ i^n glaubtcn. 

8 @r rear nlc^t bag ^idjt, fonbern bap er jeugete Son 
bem Sid^t. 

9 2>a8 rear bag rco^r'^aftige f id^t, acld^eg aUc 3Kenf(£^en 
erleuc^tct, bic in biefe 3Bclt fommcn. 

10 eg wax in bcr aScIt, unb bie Sffiett if! bur^ baf= 
fclbige gcmac^t ; unb bic ®clt fanntc eg nidjt. 

1 1 ©r tam in fein (Sigent^um, unb bie Scinen na^ntcn 
i^n nidjt auf. 

12 aBie Oicic i^n abcr aufna^men, bcnen gab cr SKac^t, 
®otteg Jlinbcr ju rccrben, bic an fcincn 0Jamen gtaubcn. 

13 aBclc()e nic^t oon bcm ®ebliit, nodj Oon bcm 3Bitten 
beg Stcifdjcg, nod) son bent slBiUcn eincg 3)fanncg, fonbern 
Don ®ott gcborcn finb. 

14 Unb bag 9Bort rcarb Steifdi, unb reo^ncte untcr 
ung, unb rcir fa^cn feinc >§enli(^fcit, cine >§errlid)fcit 
alg beg cingcbornen Sot)neg »om skater, »oHcr ®nabe 
unb SBa^r^eit. 

Van Ess, Sulbach, 1842. 

3m 2(nfangc rear bag SBort, unb bag SBort rear bei ®ott; 
unb @ott rear bag ffiort. 

2 ©iep rear tm 5(nfang bei ®ott. 

3 5taeg ijl bur(i& baffclbc crfc^afen, unb o^nc baffclbe 
ijl nid)tg, reag ba iff, crfd^affen. 

4 3n '\[)m reor >Jeben, unb bag fieben rear bag 2id)t 
bcr SOicnfdjen. 

5 5)icp Sic^t Icudjtet in ber Sinjiemip; abcr bic 
Sinjlcrnip fapte eg nic^t. 

6 (Sg rear ein iWenfdj tjon ®ott gcfonbt, SRomeng 

7 2)icfcr trat jum 3eugnip auf, urn bon bcm :iJic^te ju 
jcugcn, bamit QitJc burd) it)n glaubtcn. 

8 (gr fclbfi rear nidjt bag Sic^t ; nur fotttc er jcugen 
son bcm )Jic^tc. 

9 eg rear bag reo^rc Sic^t, bog {cben SKenfdjcn er= 
Icud)tct, bcr in bic SBcit fommt. 

10 Sr rear in bcr 9BcIt ; unb bie SCBcIt ifi burc^ i^n 
crfc^affen ; bod) erfannte bie 3BcIt it)n nid)t. 

1 1 ©r fam in bag ©einigc ; oEcin bie ©cinigcn 
nat)mcn i^n nid)t auf; 

12 renc Side it)n abcr oufna^mcn, bcncn gab cr bag 
3Sorrcd)t, jlinber ®otteg gu recrbcn, bcnen ndmlic^, recldje 
an fcincn 9Jamcn gtaubcn ; 

13 rectc^c nic^t aug bcm ®cbtiite, nic^t nac^ bcm 
SBitlcn beg Stcifdjcg, nod) nac^ bem SBillen eineg $Kanneg, 
fonbern con ®ott gcboren finb. 

14 Sag SCBort reurbc gtcifcb, unb reo^nte untcr ung, 
(rtir fa^cn feinc •§crrtid)tcit, cine ^crrtid'fcit, reie beg 
eingcbornen com 23atcr) >?oU ®nabc unb aSa^r^cit. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — ^[The limits of Germany have varied considerably at 
different eras of its history. It now consists, politically, of a confederation of about thirty -five independent 
sovereignties and four free cities. The territories of this confederation include an area of 242,867 
English square miles, and a poprdation of 38,715,600.' The population is composed partly of the 
Germanic, partly of the Sclavonic, and partly o. the Greco-Latin race: the Germanic race, however, 
prepondemtes, for about four-fifths of the inhabitants of Germany are of German extraction. The 
whole of Austria, and the greater part of Styria and of the Tyrol are occupied by Germans; but they 

M'CuUoch's Dictionary of Geography, vol. i. p. 894. 


form a minority of the population in Illyria, Boliemia, Moravia, Silesia, Hungary, and Transylvania. 
German is the predominant language throughout the German states properly so called ; it also prevails 
in the north of Switzerland, and in the German colonies in various parts of Eussia. Calvinism, 
Lutheranism, and Roman Cathohcism arc all professed in Germany; but at least one half of the 
inhabitants are said to be Eoman Catholics, and this form of religion predominates in the Austrian 
states. Calvinism and Lutheranism have for some years been united, in almost all the other states, 
under the denomination of the Evangelical Church. 

GosNEE, Mvmicli, 1836. 
3m 5(nfangc max ba§ SB O Oil, iinb ba§ Sort rear Beij 
@ott, unb bag aBcrt rear ®ett. 

2 2)a6fcl6e remr im -^Infangc tie*) ®ott. 

3 'titles ifi burdj baSfcIbe gcmadjt, utxb o^nc baSfcIk 
ifl n\A)ti gcmadjt, reaS ba gcmactjt ifi. 

4 3n 3t}m rear bag Setcn, unb baS Scicit rear baS 
Sidjt ber SDicitfdicn. 

5 Unb bag HiAjt Icurtjtctc in bcr ffiujtcniig, ofcer bic 
ginjtcrnifj l^at cS nid)t fccgriffcn. 

6 ©a irar cin Wkn\d} oon (Sott gcfanbt, bcr t)ic^ 

7 Siffcr fant jum Scugnifff- "•" 3fiigi'i<! ju g«*cn 
son bcni JJic^te, bamit aHe burc^ i^n gtaufcen niod;ten. 

8 (?r fcltfi rear nid^t baS Sic^t ; fonbern nur Swgnip 
fofltc cr sent Sid)tc gckn. 

9 Sag [aSort] ifl bag rea(;rc Sic^t, bag aU( SKcnfc^cn 
ertcudjtet, bie in bicfc aScIt fonimcn. 

10 & rear in bcr aScIt, unb bic 5BcIt ifi burc^ 3£)n 
gcmarf)t, unb bic SBclt cvfanntc 3t)n nid;t. 

11 (Sr fani in fcin ©igcnt^unx, unb bic ©einigcn 
nat;mcn 3t)n nidjt auf. 

12 aUlcn afccr bic 3t)n aufna^mcn, gat Gr Wladjt, 
,£iubcr ©ottcg ju reerbcn, bcnen ndmlic^, bic an fcincn 
SiUamcn gtautcn, 

13 ©ic utd)t aug SBhit, nid?t nuS bcm ffiiKcn beg 
gtcifdjeg, nid;t aug bcm aBittcn bc6 SDJanncg, fonbern aug 
®ott geborcn finb. 

14 Unb bag SBort ifl SIcifdJ gcreorbcn, unb fy\t unter 
ung gereo£)nt (reir fatjcn feinc •§errlid)fcit, einc >§crrUd)= 
feit, reic fie ber eingeborne beg -SBatcrg l^at,) »oU @nabc 
unb ®al)r^cit. 

KiSTEMAKEE, Mimster, 1848. 
3m ainfang rear bag SBort ; unb bag SBcrt rear 6ci @ott ; 
unb (Sott rear bag SS>crt. 

2 5)icfcg rear im ^hifang iei ®ctt. 

3 aiHcg ifi burd) ©affettigc gcmad;t ; unb c:^ne 2)affel= 
tige ifl nid)tg gcmadjt, re'og gcmadjt ifl. 

4 3n 3l}m re^ar bag Scten, unb bag Sctcn u^ar bag 
Sid)t bcr 3['icnfd)en. 

5 Unb bag Sidjt fc^einet in ber ginfiernip; unb bic 
5-inflcrnifi l;at !DaffeI6igc nid)t erfaffet. 

6 g-g re'ar ein SOicnfd), gcfanbt Oon @ctt ; fcin 9iame 
rear: 3o[;anneg. 

7 ©iefcr fam jum Bfugn'fi, l^amit cr jeugctc »cn bcm 
Sid)t, auf ba^ allc gtaubcn anirben burd) i^m. 

8 (St wax nidjt bag Sid;t; fonbern bamit er gcugcte 
Son bcm Sidjt. 

9 2)ag u'nr bag reat)ri)afttgc Sidit, aBeldjcg crlcuc^tct 
jebcn 3»enfd)en, bcr in biefc ai>elt tommt. 

10 3n bcr a&(t rear ©g ; unb bie SBctt ifl burd) 3^n 
gemad^t reorben ; unb bie aBclt fannte 3^n nidjt. 

11 e'r Urn in ©cin (Sigcntl;umj unb bic ©eincn 
nal)men 3i)n nidit auf. 

12 aBic uici 3bn atcr aufna'^mcn, bcnen gat ©r 
3Kad?t, .tinber ©otteg ju recrben, benjenigen, tie an 
©eincn 9lamen glaut'cn ; 

13 reetdje nid)t aug bcm ©etliit, nod) aug bcm aBillcn 
beg ffleifdjcg, nod) aug bem aBillcn eineg aJJanncg, fonbern 
aug ®ott gefcoren finb. 

14 Unb bag aSort ifi gleifd) gereovbcn ; unb ©g 
reo^netc untcr ung: unb reir fa^cn ©cine ■Sievrliditeit cine 
^cnlid)tcit alg Beg ©ingcborncn oom ffiater, soil ®nabc 
unb aBaljrt)eit. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The German language branches off into two grand 
divisions, the High German, or Hoch Deutsch, distinguished by its rough, guttural sounds, and the 
Low German, or Nieder Deutsch, characterised by a softer enunciation. The former prevails in 
Southern, and the latter in Northern, Germany, and both are subdivided into several minor dialects. 
One language, however, pervades all Germany as the medium of intercourse between the educated 
classes, and as the language of religion, legislation, and literature: this language, caUed by way of 
preeminence the German, was originally merely a dialect of Hoch Deutsch, and was spoken in the 
circle of Mlsnia in Saxony. It was the native dialect of Luther, and to tlie influence of that great 
man is to be ascribed its present predominance. The primitive elements of Modern German are to 
be found in the Gothic, the Francic, and more especially the Alemannic dialects. Somewhere about 
the twelfth century the language termed the Old High German gradually displaced the more ancient 
dialects, and in this language the lays of the Minnesingers, the troubadours of Germany, were com- 
posed. The writings of Luther gave stability to his own provincial dialect of this language, and in 

Indo-Eueopean Languages.] GERMAN. 175 

point of copiousness, vigour, and flexibility, it now ranks among the most cultivated tongues of 
Europe. The character in which it is in general written is an ancient form of the Latin, or Koman 
alphabet; it is called the Gothic, and is very similar to old English. 

Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — Montfaucon in his Diarium Italicum .says, 
that there arc several ancient Bibles in German preserved in the Vati<;an J^ibrary. But the earliest 
German version of which anything is known with certainty, appears to have been executed about A.u. 
1405, at the expense of Wenceslaus, emperor of Germany: it is in the Vienna Library, and consists of 
three folio volumes: it only contains the Old Testament as far as the end of Kzekiel. Struvius, how- 
ever, in the introduction to his Illstoria TJteraria (sect. 9), speaks of a German Bible of earlier date 
in the library of Gotha in Upper Saxony; and a triglot version of the Gospels, in German, Bohemian, 
and Latin, is said to have been in the possession of " the good Queen Anne," wife of Richard IL of 
England. Several early German versions of the Psalms are mentioned by Le Long, and also a trans- 
lation of the Old Testament as far as Amos, executed a.d. 1458. The other principal MSS. enumerated 
by him arc, a version of the Bible in two volumes folio, written on vellum in the year 1464, and 
preserved in the Vienna Library; a ISible in the Zurich Library, translated by Nicholas Bruclimal, 
and bearing date 1472 ; and a version of the Bible from the Vulgate, translated by Melchior Brunus, 
of Cologne, in 1590. Other translations of the Bible, but of a very inferior kind, appeared at 
Nuremburg in 1477, 1483, 1490, and at Augsburg 1518.' The first German edition ever issued 
from the press was that of 1466, translated by an unknown writer from the Vulgate: a copy of this 
scarce worlc is in the collection of Earl Sjjencer. 

But the most important version that has ever appeared in Germany is unquestionably that of 
Luther, the great reformer. Although the New Testament was published as early as the year 1522, 
yet this version still continues to be the standard, not only of the German Scriptures, but of the 
German language. Luther's first biblical publication consisted of the seven penitential Psalms from 
the Latin of John Eeuchlin, which appeared in 1517. His version of the entire Scriptures, which 
was executed immediately from the original text, was issued in successive portions. The Pentateuch 
was published in 1523; the book of Joshua and the other historical books, the book of Job, the 
Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Canticles followed in 1524: the prophecies of Jonah and 
ILibiikkuk were published in 1526, and it was not till 1530 that the remaining portions had all issued 
from the press. Melanchthon, and some of the most eminent scholars of Germany, aided in the revision 
of this version. " A select party of learned men at Wittemberg assembled every day with Luther to 
revise every sentence; and they have been known to return foiu-teen successive days to the reconsider- 
ation of a single hue, and even of a word." ^ Each individual in this little assembly had a separate 
task assigned him, according to his peculiar qualifications. Luther collated the ancient Latin versions, 
and the Hebrew text ; Melanchthon examined the Greek original, Crueiger the Chaldee, and other 
professors referred to the rabbinical writings. Besides Melanchthon and Crueiger, the principal 
coadjutors in this most important undertaking were Justus Jonas, John Bugenhagius or Pomeranus. 
and Matthew Aurogallus. George Eorarius was the corrector of the press. The revised edition of 
the entire Bible was published in 1530, and again in 1534, 1541, and 1545. Luther is said to have 
devoted the greatest care to the revision of the edition of 1541 ; he had it printed in two folio volumes, 
ornamented with woodcuts; and a copy of this edition, which was constantly used by him, and which 
was in flict his own copy, after having passed through several hands, is now deposited in the British 

Lnmcdiately on the publication of Luther's version, other translations were inidertaken on its 
basis by friends of the Reformation. A version in the Low German, or Saxon dialect, executed at 
the suggestion of Luther, was published almost simultaneously with his own: Bugenhagen superin- 
tended the work, and the first edition was printed in 1533-4 at Lubeck. A version in the 
Pomeranian dialect was made fi-om Luther's Bible, by command of Bogislaus XHL, duke of Pome- 
rania, and printed in 1545. In 1525-1529, a translation was published at Ziu-ich, in the German 
Swiss dialect, for which Luther's version, so far as it was then printed, was also used. A revision of 
this German Swiss version was pubhshed at Zurich in 1667, by Hettinger, Midler, Zeller, and others; 
and so many were the alterations and corrections introduced, that it was regarded as a new translation; 
and it is still generally called the New Zurich Bible, to distinguish it from the first edition. The 
original texts, Luther's German, and Diodati's Italian versions, the Septuagint, the Latin, and the 

' Cox"s Life of Melanchthon, p. 221. - Cox's Life of Melanchthon, p. 222. 


Belgian Bible were consvxlted during the progress of this revision. Another version in the German 
Swiss dialect was published in 1602-1604, by John Piscator, from the Latin version of Junius and 

The publication of Luther's version was, likewise, the proximate cause of the production of other 
German translations, even by the enemies of the Reformation. Emser, one of the counsellors of 
George, duke of Saxony, was the first who undertook a new translation with the view of disparaging 
that of Luther ; yet so far from succeeding in his design, his version when completed proved, says 
Milner, to be little more than a transcript of Luther's labours, some alterations in favour of the 
peculiar tenets of the Church of Rome alone excepted. Yet several editions of Emser's New Testa- 
ment were speedily printed ; and, in 1530, the monks of Rostock j)ublished a version of it in the 
dialect of Lower Saxony. In these later editions, various alterations were made, causing them to 
differ exceedingly from those of an earlier date. 

A German version of the whole Bible was next undertaken at the request of Albert II., by John 
Dietenburg, a Dominican monk, with the same design of counteracting the labours of Luther. It was 
printed in folio at Mentz, in 1534. In this version Dietenburg had no recourse to the Hebrew and 
Greek originals, with which he confessed himself unacquainted, and, like Emser, he only succeeded in 
producing a bad transcript of Luther ; so that the truth triumj)hed in consequence of the very efforts 
made to subvert it, and the version of Luther was read and studied in the pages of his enemies. 
Dietenburg's version has gone through many editions. It was published at Cologne in 1550, 1556, 
1564, 1572, 1575, 1584, 1587, 1592, 1594, 1600, 1604, 1607, 1609, 1610, 1619, 1621, 1626, 1702, 
and other editions were published at Mentz and at Nuremberg. 

Another of Luther's opponents, John Eckius, of Ingolstadt, in Bavaria, published a German 
translation of the Old Testament in 1537, to which ho subjoined a corrected edition of Emser's version 
of the New Testament. It is without the name of the place or printer, and is dedicated to the Arch- 
bishop of Saltsburg. Several editions were afterwards published, and in 1602 the version was corrected 
according to the Sixtine edition of the Vulgate. A version of the Old and New Testaments was 
made immediately from this edition of the Vulgate in 1630 by Caspar Ulenberg, under the patronage 
of Ferdinand, archbishop and elector of Cologne : this version has gone through numerous editions. 
Another version of the Vulgate was published by Kistemaker in 1825, at Munster. In 1806, in con- 
sequence of the impulse given to the circulation of the Scriptures by the formation of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, a Roman Catholic Bible Society was formed at Ratisbon, and, under the 
direction of Regeus Wittman and other Catholic clergymen, an edition of the New Testament from 
the Vulgate was published in 1808. In 1813, this version had reached the eighth edition, and the 
copies had found a ready sale among the Catholics of Bavaria, Suabia, Franconia, and Switzerland. 
About the year 1812, another translation of the New Testament was executed by two Catholic clergy- 
men, Charles and Leander Van Ess, from the Greek text. The British and Foreign Bible Society 
assisted liberally in the publication and circvdation of the numerous editions through which this version 
has passed. Another Roman Catholic clergyman, named Gosner, printed a German version at Munich 
in 1815. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — The mighty results of the pubhca- 
tlon of Luther's version are to be traced throughout the whole history of the Reformation in Germany. 
The effect of recent endeavours to circixlate the Scriptures in that country has been the conversion of 
many individuals from the vain, theoretical systems of German metaphysicians, to the simplicity of 
the Gospel of Christ. The results of the labours of the Bible Society were described as follows in 
1838, by Dr. Pinkerton, the agent of the Society: — ■" That we have laboured successfully in Germany 
during the last twenty-four years, against infidelity in every form, will not be questioned by impartial 
judges ; and though the success we have had has not been everywhere in proportion to our expecta- 
tions, yet, be it remembered, it is the return of evangelical light to many districts of this coimtry, 
which is daily exposing, more and more, the fearful extent of the spiritual darkness in which human 
systems have involved the present generation. We lament over the chaos encompassing us, but we 
are not in despair ; we know and believe that the wisdom and power of Divine truth shall finally 
triumph." ' 

' Thirty. fourth Report of British and Foreign Bihle Society, p. xxvi. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

[Copenhagen, 1813.] 

3 uplJl^afc oar orb, og |jat orb oar t;ia0ubc, og orbcb oar 0ub. ^ *pat fama oar i u^M^ ^<a ®ubc. ^ %\[tx 
I)rutcr cm fi)rcr I'at gcrbcr, og dn in-fS cr cdi jgcrt, ^oab gert cr. * 3 ^lonum oar lifcb, og lifeb oar Ii6o mannanna. 
* Og licflb [fcin i m^rfruiunn, eg mt)rfurcnn tiafa ipat cigi I;tfnb(ab. ^ 33ar oar citm mabur a\ ®ubc fcnbur, fa ^et 
So^annU. ^ >§ann fom til oitnistnirbar, at (>iim tare ottuishtrb af (icflmi, at after flv)tlbu fi)rer tann triia. " (5igi 
Oar \jMVH Ii6[eb, ^ellbitr at i)ann (icere oituiofcurb af \\i\t\\u. " ^)at oar !fjat fanna lii5S, !^Ocrt u^i)3(t)fcr alia ntcnn, fern 
foma i ]^ennann l^eim. i" ^)at oar i ticimenum, og t)cimurcnn Oar f«)rcr !f)at gcrbur, og ^eimurenit Jierftc ^ot eigi. 
11 -gann fom tit flniiar cigitar, eg ^anS cignir mebiofu tjaim cigi. '^ g,,,, ^jju ntargcr, fcm "^ann mebiofu, !pd gaf t)ann 
fcim maft ®ubS ti0rmim at ocrba, Ifdm fciit d ^anS nafn tnia. " ^cim fcm cigi af Mobcnit, m af t)onbging oiflb, nc 
mannftnS Oilia, t)cnbur Vfim fcm af ®ubc cm t'omcr. '* Dg orbcb oar ^otlb, og ti^gbc mcb ofS, og Ocr fdum t)an§ bsrb, 
bljrb foo fcm ciitgcting fonar af f^bumum, fuHann udbar og fanntcita. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — Iceland lies on the confines of tlie polar circle, 
and comprises an area whicli has been roughly estimated at 30,000 square miles. Its population in 
1834 was 56,000. The island was first peopled about the year 874, by refugees from Norway, who 
fled thither to escape the tyranny of Harald Harfager, or the Fair-haired, king of Norway. In the 
course of the next half century, all the inhabitable parts of Iceland became occupied by Scandinavian 
settlers; and, about 928, the inhabitants established a republic, which form of government subsisted till 
1275, when Iceland became subject to Norway. On the anne.xation of that kingdom to Denmark, 
Iceland was transferred with it ; and the island is now governed by a stiftamtman, or governor, 
appointed by the king of Denmark. The established church in Iceland is the Lutheran, under one 
bishop and 300 clergy. A dialect of Norse was formerly spoken in the isles of Orkney and Shetland, 
but all vestiges of it have now disappeared. 

Characteristics of the Language. — The ancient language of the Scandinavians was 
planted in Iceland by the Norwegian refugees, in the ninth century. The insular and remote position 
of Iceland, and its consequent isolation from foreign intercourse, have caused the language to be pre- 
served in the utmost purity ; and so few are the changes which the lapse of ages have ellectod in its 
structure, that the humblest Icelandic peasant can read and understand the most ancient written docu- 
ments extant in the island. By means of the Icelandic, the connexion of the Scandina\'ian with the 
Teutonic languages is distinctly to be traced. The Old Danish, or Scandina^*ian, now the living 
language of Iceland, was intimately connected with the Gothic, Alemannic, Francic, and other cognate 
dialects, so that the members of these nations were intelligible to each other without the aid of inter- 
preters ;' and in the " Young Edda," a compilation of the eleventh century, it is said of the Anglo- 
Saxons and the Icelanders, tcer erum einnar tunf/u, " we are of one tongue." The aspiration of the 
consonants / and w is an infallible characteristic of the Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, and Icelandic languages : 
these peculiar sounds cannot be enunciated by Germans or Danes ; and, except in the province of 
Dalccarlia, in Sweden, they are now no longer to be heard in the Scandinavian peninsula. 

• Meidinger's Diet, des Langues Teuto-Gothiques, p. xxvili. 


Versions of the Scriptures in this Language. — No version of the Scriptures was 
made in Icelandic before tlie Eeformation, altliougli an ancient compendivim of scriptural history, 
entitled the Stiorn, has sometimes been mistaken for a biblical translation. Oddm- Gotshalkson, son of 
a bishop of Holum, in Iceland, was the instrument chosen by God to impart to his countrymen the 
first version of the Bible in their own language. Oddur was educated in Norway ; and, happily for 
himself and for Iceland, he remained abroad till the doctrines of the Eeformation began to excite a 
general sensation throughout the North of Europe. His own attention was forcibly arrested by the 
truths which were then unfolded ; and we arc told that, for three successive nights, he prostrated him- 
self half-naked before the Father of lights, beseeching him to open the eyes of his understanding, and 
to show him whether the principles of Kome or those of Luther were from heaven. The result of his 
prayers and meditations was a deef)-rooted conviction that the cause of the reformer was the cause of 
God ; and with the view of obtaining further information he repaired to Germany, and attended the 
lectures of Luther and Melanchthon. On his return to Iceland he entered upon a translation of the 
Scriptures ; and, to avoid persecution, he conunenccd his important labours in a small cell in a cow- 
house. He completed a version of the New Testament in 1539 ; but finding it impossible, from the 
state of public opinion, to pi-int it in Iceland, he sailed for Denmark, and published it at Copenhagen, 
under the patronage of Christian III. The translation was made from the Vulgate, except in a few 
passages where Oddur mistrusted that version, and where he consequently followed Luther. Besides 
the New Testament, Oddur is believed to have translated part of the Old Testament ; but the only 
portion of this latter translation which he committed to the press was the 53rd chapter of Isaiah, 
printed with some short expository notes, at Copenhagen, in 1558. All his translations were published 
at liis own private expense. 

In 1562, Olaf Hialteson, the first Lutheran bishop of Holum, piiblislied the Gospels and Epistles 
in the order appointed to be read in churches : this was chiefly a reprint from Oddur's version. 

In 1580, the Proverbs of Solomon and the Book of Sirach were published at Holum, translated, it 
is supposed, by Gissur Eincerson, the first Lutheran bishop of Skalholt. This version of the Proverbs 
was made from Luther's translation, except in a few passages where it follows the Vulgate. 

At length, in 1584, the entire Bible was printed in Icelandic at Holum. The work was con- 
ducted by Gudbrand Thorlakson, bishop of Hohiui. It is not known what share this prelate had in 
the translation ; the Old Testament was evidently executed by several hands, but the whole was revised 
and corrected by Gudbrand ; and the New Testament, and such portions of the Old as had been 
translated by Oddur Gotshalkson, were adopted. The edition consisted of 1000 copies, small folio ; 
the expense of which was defrayed partly by a munificent donation from Frederic II. of Denmark, 
and partly by the collection of a rix-doUar from every church in the island. Tliis version has been 
called " a faithful mirror of Luther's German version," and, on account of the purity of its diction, it 
is still held in high estimation. Another edition of the New Testament was published at Holum, by 
Bishop Gudbrand, in 1609, " revised and corrected according to the best translations that could be 

A revised edition of this version was published at Holum, in 1644, by Thorlak Skiileson, the 
grandson of Gudbrand, and his successor in the episcopate. The expense was partly defrayed by 
Christian IV. of Denmark, and he directed the bishop to remodel the version according to tlie Danish 
translation of Resenius. But as the peculiar renderings of Resenius are only adopted in a few isolated 
passages of this revision. Dr. Henderson has conjectured that the old version was rendered conformable 
chiefly to the Danish Bible, published at Copenhagen in 1633, which follows Luther's version. The 
text of this Icelandic edition may be considered as exhibiting the version now in standard use. 

Another Icelandic Bible was published in 1728, under the inspection of Stein Jonson, bishop of 
Holum. He obtained from Frederic IV., of Denmark, a renewal of the grants made to his predeces- 
sors, of raising a rix-dollar from every church in aid of its publication : but instead of printing the 
text of the former edition, he was enjoined to make a new translation from the Danish Bible, printed 
at the Orphan-house, Copenhagen. In complying with this injunction, the bishop followed the Danish 
version with so much servility, that his work, when complete, was found to be full of Danicisms, and 
scarcely intelligible to the Icelanders. It never obtained much cu'culation, and is still considered the 
worst edition of the Icelandic Bible. 

In 1747, the fourth edition of the Icelandic Bible was published at Copenhagen, and the edition 
of 1644 was adopted as the text. This was followed, in 1750, by an edition of 2000 New Testaments 
in 8vo. 

This supply of Bibles was not, however, sufficient to meet the wants of the population of Iceland ; 

Indo-European Langtjaoes.] ICELANDIC. 179 

and, in 1806, information was transmitted to the British and Foreign Bible Society, to the effect, that 
altlioiigli tlio island scarcely contained one person in a hundred, above the age of twelve or fourteen, 
who could not read, yet that the Scriptures were no longer to be obtained for money; and that, as the 
only press of which the Icelanders were possessed had not been used for many years, they had to 
resort to the tardy expedient of transcribing books ;' and, moreover, that not above forty or fifty 
copies of tlic Bible were to be found throughout Iceland. An edition ol' the Bible, consisting of 5000 
copies, printed from the approved text of 1644, was accordingly undertaken, chiefly at the expense of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society : it was carried through the press under the direction of 
Justiciary Thorkelin, privy-keeper of the royal archives of Copenhagen, and himself a native of Ice- 
land. Tlie impression was completed at Copenhagen in 1807, and 1500 copies were immediately 
sent to Iceland. The remaining copies narrowly escaped destruction at the bomljardment of Copen- 
hagen, where they were preserved in the midst of a conflagration which laid almost every tiling on the 
spot in a.shcs.''' 

In 1812, in the midst of the war between Great Britain and Denmark, permission was given to 
the Rev. Dr. Henderson to reside at Copenhagen, with every requisite privilege, for the purpose of 
publishing another edition of the Icelandic Bible : this concession was obtained from the king of 
Denmark, through the medium of a Danish member of the Committee of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. In the course of the year 181.3, an edition of 5000 Bibles, and 5000 additional New 
Testaments, was printed at Copenhagen, under the direct superintendence of Dr. Henderson, from the 
text of 1644, or rather from the reprint of 1747. The Edinburgh Bible Society, the Fuhnen Society, 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, and some friends in Holstein, combined to defray the expenses 
of the edition. Before Dr. Henderson quitted Copenhagen in 1814, he had the satisfaction of seeing 
the formation of a society for the purpose of furnishing Iceland with adequate supplies of the Scrip- 
tures. The first efforts of the Society were directed to a thorough revision of the existing Icelandic 
text, but some time appears to have elapsed before they issued a fresh edition. In the Picport for 1841, 
it is stated that a version of the Bible was then being printed in the island, and that the type was of 
large size, adapted to the use of the Icelanders, who, owing to the high latitude of their island, are for 
the most part obliged to read by lamplight.' 

' Owen's Hist, of British and Foreign Bible Society, vol. ii. p. 221. 2 Owen's Hist, of British and Foreign Bible Society, vol. ii. p. 221. 

3 Thirty- seventh Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. Ii. 


St. JOHN, Chap. i. v. 1 to 14. 

[Chkistiania, 1848.] 

S aSegtjnbcIfen Bar Ovbct, eg Ovbct »ar fjoS ®ut>, og Orbct imr ®ub. 2 (^^ j^ar i SBcgi^nbctfcn ^08 ®ub. ^ 'Me 
Xing ere »cb bet Mesne tit ; og ubcn bet er if fe enb een enefte (J^ing) bleoen tit (af bet), font er tlescn tit. * 3 bet Bar 
SiO, og SiOet »ar SKenneffetg S**)g. ^ Qg v»ijfet ffinner i SKorfet, og SKwfet fattebe bet ifte. « Ser Meo ct aUenneffe 
ubfcnbt af @ub ; ^an t)ebte So^anneS. ^ Denne font til et 2]ibne6bi)rb, at ^an f!ulbc »ibne cm fisjfet, );)aa bet at *2We 
ffulbe troe tieb :^ant. ^ J^an oar iffe Stjfet, men (font for) at ^an ffulbe Bibne oni Sl)fet. ^ j)et »ar bet fanbe Si)§, fom 
o))ti)fer t;oert «!)ienneffe, ber fonimer tit a3erben. " >&an Bar i i'erben, og iBcrben er ttcBen tit Beb ^am, og aSerben 
tjcubte ^ani iffe. " -San fom tit fit ©get, og (f)ang) ©gne annamniete Ijani iffe. ^^ SJien faa SDJange font I>iin annant= 
mebe, bent ijaoer l)an giBet STOagt at HiBe @ub8 SB^rn, bent, fom troe )fM ijawi Slaon ; ^^ >§Bi(fe iffe ere f0bte af Stob, 
ei l^eKcr af Jitj0bS kiltie, ci fetter af 3)ianbg 55iltie, men af ®ub. " Dg Orbet 6lc» Jljpb, og boebe ibianbt o?, — og oi 
faac ^anS >#ertigf)eb, en >5erlig^eb, font ben @cn6aarne8 af Soberen, — fulb af SRaabc og <3anbi;eb. 


Geographical Extent and Statistics. — The superficial area of the Danish territories, 
exclusive of Iceland and the Faroe Isles, has been estimated at 21,856 square miles. The entire 
population at the last census, February 1840, was 2,406,800, divided as follows : — 

Denmark Proper 1,355,000 

Duchy of Slesvig 348,526 

Duchy of Holstein 455,093 

Lauenborg ...... 43,342 

Danish is the language of Denmark Proper; in Slesvig the Danish, German, and Frisic are all found; 
and in Holstein, German prevails. Danish is, likewise, the vernacular tongue of the Norwegians, who, 
in 1835, numbered 1,194,827 individuals. 

Lutheranism is the established religion of the Danish states, but all others are tolerated. It has 
been computed that there are 8000 Jews in Denmark, 2330 Roman CathoHcs, 1600 Calvinists, 678 
Hernhutters or IMoravians, and 30 members of the Anglican Church.' 

Characteristics of the Language.— We have already shown that the Norse, or Old 
Danish tongue, embalmed among the snow and ice of Iceland, has been preserved almost in its pristine 
purity from the ninth to the present century; but this ancient language has in its parent country 
undergone so many alterations, that an Icelander and a Dane, speaking in their respective dialects, are 
utterly unintelligible to each other. So great, indeed, is the divergence of the modern idioms of 
Denmark and Sweden from the parent stem, that the language of the Edda has not been understood 
for at least four hundred years, by Swedes or Danes, without previous study. These modern dialects 
are, however, still distinguished from the other branches of the Teutonic family by the possession of a 
passive voice, and of two articles, one of which is prefixed, and the other affixed, to nouns. In point 
of pronunciation the Danish is considered the softest language in Europe, the consonants being pro- 
nounced so softly as to be almost imperceptible. 

* Seventeenth Report of the British Association, p. 9(i. 

Indo-European Lanottages.] DANISH. 181 

Versions op the ScRirTURES in this Language. — The earliest translation of any portion 
of the Scriptures into Danish is contained in a MS. preserved in the lioyal Library of Copenhagen, 
supposed to have been written in the thirteenth, or beginning of the Iburtecnth, century. It is a 
servile imitation of tlie Vulgate, and defective in several parts; it proceeds no further than tlie Second 
Book of Kings. In 1515, Pedersen, who is said to have been the first Lutheran clergyman in 
Zealand, published at Paris a Danish version of the Gospels and Epistles apjjointed to be read in 
churches: this work was reprinted at Leipsic in 1518. 

The first Danish version of the whole New Testament was made by Hans Mikkelsen, sometimes 
called John Michaelis. It was published at Leipsic in 1524, and reprinted at Antwerp in 1529. 
This version was executed by the command, and under the immediate patronage of Christian II.; "a 
monarch," says Dr. Henderson, " wliose character earlier writers have depicted in the blackest colours, 
but whom posterity, though not blind to his faults, seems on the whole inclined to favour." Like 
our Henry VIII., he seems to have been actuated less by zeal for the progress of truth than by the 
desire of freeing his kingdom from the domination and tyranny of Rome, During a rebellion in 
Denmark, lie fled for safety to Holland, and it was during his state of expatriation that he promoted 
the translation and publication of the New Testament. Hans Mikkelsen, the translator, was orinin- 
ally mayor of Malmoe in Scania, and afterwards secretary to Christian H. ; he voluntarily forsook 
his country, his connections and interests, and accompanied his sovereign into exile. When com- 
pelled at length, by the resentment of the Catholics of the Netherlands, to quit his royal patron, he 
retired to Harderwick in Guelderland, where he died about eight years after his New Testament had 
left the press. 

This version is professedly "properly translated according to the Latin;" but Dr. Henderson has 
shown that this designation in all probability applied only to the first part of the work which con- 
tained the Four Gospels, and in which the Latin version of Erasmus was followed. In the Acts, and 
remainder of tlie New Testament, Mikkelsen has followed the German version of Luther so closely, 
that his translation is little else than a verbal transmutation of Luther's.' Some writers have attempted 
to account for this circumstance by suggesting that Mikkelsen had probably commenced his translation 
before Luther's version had appeared; but that when he came to the Epistles, the first edition of 
Luther's version having then been published, he preferred the version of the faithful and intrepid 
reformer to that of the timid and indecisive Erasmus. The language in which Mikkelsen wrote is 
partly Danisli and partly Swedish, resembling the dialect still spoken in his native place Scania, in 
the south of Sweden. '^ He has arranged the books of his New Testament in the same order as in that 
of Luther, and the Epistle to the Hebrews, and those of James and Jude, are placed after the rest, on 
account of the doubt then entertained by the reformers as to their authenticity.^ 

In 1528, two versions of the Danish Psalms were published : the one at Rostock (by Francis 
Wormord, originally a Carmelite friar, but who afterwards espoused the principles of the Reformation, 
and became bisliop of Lund), and the other at Antwerp, by Pedersen, who has been already mentioned 
as the translator of the Gospels and Epistles of the church service. In his version of the Psalms, 
Pedersen ajjpears to have translated both from the Hebrew text and from Jerome's translation : his 
diction is considered too paraphrastic, and too much accommodated to Christian sentiments; yet the 
style is remarkably pure for the age in which it was written, and an admirable prefiiee on the beauty of 
the Psalms enhances the value of the work. It was reprinted in 1531, and again in 1584 and 1586 at 

In 1529, Pedersen translated and published the New Testament at Antwerp. This version was 
executed on the basis of IMikkelsen's, but it is written in a superior style, foreign words and idioms 
are excluded, and a better system of orthography is adopted. The Epistle to the Hebrews here finds 
its proper place, but the Epistle of James is found last in order, as in Luther's version. Pedersen, 
however, had obtained clearer views as to the real value and importance of the Epistle of James than 
his predecessors, for he expresses his disapprobation of the irreverent manner in which Luther and 
Mikkelsen had spoken of it. This version obtained so wide a circulation that Pedersen republished it 
at Antwerp with the Psalms in 1531. 

In 1535, some progress was made towards the production of a Danish version of the Old Testa- 
ment, by tlie publication of the Pentateuch at ilagdeburg, translated by Hans Tausen, afterwards 
bishop of Ripen. This version was made from the Hebrew text, with constant reference to the 

' Hemlerson'i Dissertation on liaus Milikelsen's Translation, p. ip. 2 Henderson's Dissertation on Hans Mikkelsen's Translation, p. 22. 

^ Townicy's Illustrations, vol, ii. p. 308. 


Vulgate and to Lutlier's version : it was so well received that a second edition was printed at the same 
place the following year. The book of Judges, translated by Peter Tldeman, a clergyman of Zealand, 
was published at Copenhagen in 1539: it sometimes follows the Vulgate, and sometimes Luther's 

It was not till 1550 that the whole Bible was published in Danish. Denmark was indebted for 
this treasure to her monarch Christian III. The translation was undertaken at the suggestion of 
Bugenhagius, the celebrated reformer, who had been invited to the court of Copenhagen to assist in 
the correction of ecclesiastical abuses. The execution of the work was committed to the theological 
faculty at Copenhagen, then consisting of Peter Palladius, Olave Chrysostom, John Synning, and 
John Macchaboeus, or Macalpine. Tideman, the translator of the book of Judges, was also engaged 
in it; and Pedersen, the translator of the Psalms and of the New Testament above mentioned, was 
employed in writing out a fair copy from the several translations which were made by those appointed 
to the work. The version was made from that of Luther, and follows it closely, except in a few 
instances, in which the translators have mistaken the meaning of the German. The first edition con- 
sisted of 3000 copies of the entire Bible, and, to meet the expense, a tax of two rix dollars was levied 
on every church in Denmark. A separate edition of the New Testament of this version in 4to. was 
published at Wittenburg, with some slight orthographical corrections. Le Long speaks of another 
translation of the New Testament having been made by Jonas Turreson at Copenhagen in 1584, but 
Dr. Henderson expressly states that no such translation is known in Denmark. 

A revision of the entire version was undertaken in 1586 by the command of Frederick II. That 
monarch wrote to the rector, professors, and others of the University of Copenhagen, ordering them, 
" with the assistance of three of the Copenhagen preachers, to read through the version of the Bible, 
which had been made in the reign of his royal father ; to collate it with the Hebrew text ; and where 
any defect was found, or any passage in which the true sense had not been expressed, to amend and 
correct it." The heads of the university appointed the most learned divines of the day to execute this 
important undertaking. The New Testament was revised by Nicholas Hemmingius, D.D., whose name 
is famous in the ecclesiastical history of Denmark for his attachment to the doctrines of Calvin. The 
revision of the entire Scriptures was not brought to a close till 1589, when an edition was issued in 
folio at Copenhagen, with Lvither's notes. 

Two editions of the Psalms, from the version of Palladius, were published at Copenhagen in 1591 
and 1598; and, in 1599, an edition of the Psalms, in German and Danish, was published in 8vo. at 
Lubeck. Early in the following century some more extensive measures were taken for the spread of 
the divine word. An edition of the New Testament was issued at Copenhagen in 1604, printed from 
the former text, as a temporary supply; and a royal letter was, at the same time, addressed to the 
rector of the imiversity on the subject of obtaining a more correct impression. The king, Christian 
IV., eventually appointed Dr. Resen, bishop of Zealand, to superintend a fresh revision of the Scrip- 
tures. The old version was again collated with the original texts, and several European translations 
were consulted; but Dr. Eeseu, considering the version of Luther too free and paraphrastic, fell into 
the opposite error, and followed the originals too literally, without sufficiently considering the genius 
and properties of his own language. The New Testament was published in two volumes, 18mo., in 
1605 : an edition of the Pentateuch, also in 18mo., was published the same year; and, in 1607, the entire 
Bible was completed at press in 8vo. These editions were printed at Copenhagen, at the expense of 
the king. 

Several editions of the Psalms succeeded the publication of Eesen's Bible; among which was one 
at Copenhagen, in 8vo., 1614, and another in 1632, at the expense of the benevolent Lady Marsvin. 

An edition of the entire Bible, printed from the revised text of 1589, was published in 1633 at 
(Jopenhagcn; and Le Long speaks of it as "the mater of other smaller editions in 8vo., Avhich the 
printers from that time exposed for sale." The expense of its publication was borne by means of a 
sum levied from every church in Zealand and Norway. 

In 1639, the royal permission was obtained for reprinting Eesen's Bible, the former impression 
being completely exhausted. This edition is designated " Swanlng's Bible," because it was corrected 
principally by Hans S waning, archbisliop of Zealand. The New Testament appeared in 1644, and 
the entire Bible in 1647, at Copenhagen. Another edition of this Bible was also published during the 
same year at Copenhagen, in six volumes, 8vo.; followed by several editions of the Psalms, and, in 
1670, by another edition of the Bible in small 8vo. for common use. 

The College of Missions was established at Copenhagen in 1714, and Denmark was indebted to 
this institution for several successive editions of the Scriptures. The New Testament, from the edition 

iNDO-EunopEAN Languages.] DANISH. 183 

revised by S waning, was issued from the mission press in 1716; followed in 1717 and in 1720 by 
editions of the entire Bible, also from Swaning's text. In the preface to a Bible printed by the collcfe 
in 1722 it is stated that, in the space of six years, 22, .580 copies of the i\cw Testament and 13,784 
Bibles had been published at the mission press. In the fire which occurred at Copenhagen in 1728, 
the mission press was destroyed, and the then obtained the exclusive privilege of 
printing the Danish Bible; and several editions of the New Testament an<l of the entire Bible were 
published by that institution between the years 1732 and 1745. In the meantime efforts were made 
to obtain a more correct and faithful edition of the Scriptures than any that had yet appeared, and a 
spei'inien of a revised edition was published in 1742, by the Committee of Revision apjxjinted by royal 
authority. In 1748, the Committee published a revised New Testament, but it is not believed that 
they corrected any portion of the Old Testament. 

About this period a specimen of a new and singular translation of the Scriptures was printed by 
Schwartz, counsellor of justice to his majesty, but he does not appear at any subsequent period to 
have published further portions of his translation. A translation of Habakkuk was given In 1752 by 
Monrad, a clergyman In Aagerup ; and in 1780 a new version of the Testament was printed at 
Oopenhag<-n, translated by Dr. Bastholm from the Greek, but disfigured by too servile an adherence to 
the Idiom of the original. Numerous other editions of the established text were printed at Copen- 
hagen before the formation of the Danish Bible Society. 

The first edition of the Danish Scriptures, undertaken by the British and Foreign Bible Society, was 
designed for the benefit of the Danish prisoners of war, of whom there were. In 1808, no less than 2782 
in this country ; and also for distribution in the Danish colonies in the East and West Indies. This edition, 
which consisted of 5000 copies of the New Testament, was printed In 12mo. In 1810, from the Copen- 
hagen edition of 1799; and the press was superintended by the Eev. W. F. Eosing, minister of^the 
Danish church In London. A second edition of 5000 copies of the New Testament, in the same form, 
was published by the Society in 1814. In the course of the following year, another revision of the 
Bible was commenced at Copenhagen by royal authority. Bishop Miinter and five learned professors 
were formed Into a commission of revlsal by his Danish majesty, and an etlltlon of 10,000 New Testa- 
ments, corrected and revised by them, left the press in 1819. A second and stereotype edition, also 
of 10,000 copies, was printed under the authority of the king at the Orphan-house, about 1820. The 
same royal commissioners continued their labours in a similar revision of the Old Testament; and in 
the year 1824 appeared, imder the same royal sanction, from the Orphan-house press, a 4to. edition of 
the whole Bible. The revised New Testament on its first appearance was received with general 
approbation, and was reported by Dr. PInkerton and others to be " a faithful and excellent version." 
With Its accustomed liberality, therefore, the British and Foreign Bible Society granted several sums 
In aid of the publication ; but this assistance was afterwards withheld, on Its being discovered that 
several exceptionable renderings and marginal notes had been admitted by the revisers. 

Editions of the Danish Scriptures for Norway. — Upon the incorporation of Norway 
with Sweden, a Norwegian Bible Society was formed at Chrlstlania in 1816, under the patronage of 
the King of Sweden; and, aided by a grant of £500 from the British and Foreign Bible Society,' an 
edition of 6000 New Testaments was printed in 1819, not from the revised and exceptionable edition, 
but from the former authorised version of the Danish Scriptures, which had been executed on the 
basis of Luther's. In 1820 further assistance from London was granted to the Norwegian Society; 
and another edition of 10,000 copies of the New Testament, from the same text as the preceding, left 
the press at Chrlstlania in 1823. 

Representations having been laid before the British and Foreign Bible Society concerning the 
scarcity of Bibles in Norway, an edition of 5000 copies was printed in London In 1823, from the 
Chrlstlania edition, under the editorship of the Rev. Mr. Treschow, a native of Norway. Another 
edition of j\Ir. Trcschow's revised Chrlstlania New Testament, consisting also of 5000 copies, was 
printed m 1827, Mr. Troillus correcting the press, and the Rev. C. Rahm reacHng the proof sheets. 
An edition of the entire Bible was published by the Society in London in 1829: the echtlon con- 
sisted of 5000 Bibles, and about 10,000 additional New Testaments, and was superintended by 
Mr. Rahm. The text selected was the authorised version of 1644, or rather the reprint of 1744, 
generally considered the most correct edition that had appeared. 

The British and Foreign Bible Society established an agency of Its own at Chrlstlania about the 

' Thirteenth Report of British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 153. 


year 1827, for the purpose of printing and circulating the Danish Bible alone, without the addition of 
the Apocryphal Books, which the continental Societies were in the habit of binding up with the 
inspired volume. Several stereotype ccUtions have been issued under the superintendence of this 
agency on behalf of the British and Foreign Bible Society. The total number of copies published at 
the expense of that Society Is 15,848 Bibles, and 85,810 New Testaments. 

Results of the Dissemination of this Version. — To the light dISlised in Denmark, 
Norway, and Sweden by the early publication of Danish versions of the Xew Testament, may be 
attributed the rapid progress which was made by the Reformation, on Its first promulgation in those 
countries. Concerning the result of modem elForts In the dissemination of the Danish Scriptures, much 
encouragement may be obtained from the reports of the several Societies engaged In that important 
work. In their annual statement (for 1847) the agency of Christlania write, that " almost everywhere 
m Norway the desire for the word of God is to a certainty Increasing, though, perhaps, only by slow 
degrees." And in the same report there is the following account respecting Denmark : — "If I can- 
not," says the writer, " point out many striking instances here of the triumphs of the divine word over 
the world, sin, and Infidelity, as the result of its abundant circulation among us, still the moral and 
spiritual benefits which accompany it are great and undeniable ; and the more the saving truths of the 
sacred volume are made known, the more they are appreciated, and Its possession sought after." 

Between March 4, 1848, and March 4, 1849, 736 Bibles and 2428 Testaments were issued 
from the depot of the agency in Christlania, and concerning the residts of these issues, the last report 
contains the following remarks : — " During the past eventful year, when the fearful judgments of the 
Lord have been poured out on many of the countries and states of Europe, and when In our own 
remote northern fatherland we have been reminded by sickness, famine, and unexampled distress, that 
all below is vanity, and nothing but vanity, the Agency of the British and Foreign Bible Society have 
nevertheless been pri\'ileged to continue their even course, and to dispense the bounty of their generous 
benefactors among their suiformg countrymen, whom outward evils have in many cases driven to seek 
for spiritual comfort and hope in that never failing treasury, the word of God. Indeed the communi- 
cations of several clergymen bear ample testimony that their distributions of the sacred volume were 
everywhere received with unfeigned gratitude ; a